Introduction of Al-Mujadalah
(Revealed after Hijrah)
The Surah takes its title from the word تجادلک occurring in its opening verse. It is the second of the last seven Medinite chapters of the Quran and appears to have been revealed sometime before Surah Al-Ahzab (chapter 33), in which only a cursory reference was made to the evil custom of Zihar, i.e. calling one’s wife one’s "mother." This subject has been dealt with in some detail in the present Surah. Khaulah, wife of Aus bin Samit, complained to the Holy Prophet that her husband had called her "mother," which rendered her a "suspended" woman neither divorced nor enjoying the status of a wife. The Holy Prophet pleaded his inability to do anything to help her in the absence of a revealed ordinance. This somewhat detailed reference to Zihar in this Surah shows that it was revealed before Surah Al-Ahzab. But as Surah Al-Ahzab was revealed between 5th and 7th year of the Hijrah, the present Surah therefore must have been revealed earlier, very likely between the 3rd and the 4th year.
Moreover, in the immediately preceding Surah—Al-Hadid—the "People of the Book" were sternly told that Divine grace was not their monopoly and since they had repeatedly defied and had opposed and persecuted God’s Messengers, God’s favour would be transferred for all time to come to the House of Ishmael, and so Muslims are warned in the Surah under comment that their material prosperity would excite the enmity of their external and internal foes. They should, therefore, be on their guard against their machinations. And, it is an invariable practice of the Quran that whenever it deals with the enemies of Islam, it also makes a pointed reference to some social evil which may be regarded as the enemy of Islamic social system. This method was adopted in Surah Nur and Ahzab and it has been adopted in the present Surah as well.
The Surah opens with a sharp disapproval of the evil custom of Zihar and by citing the case of Khaulah lays down the ordinance that if anyone calls his wife "mother" he has to atone for this heinous moral lapse by either freeing a slave, if he has one, or by fasting for two successive months, or by feeding sixty needy persons. The punishment is commensurate with the offence as the evil practice is tantamount to "opposing God and His Messenger". After dealing a death blow to the custom of Zihar, the Surah proceeds to deal with the plots and conspiracies of the internal enemies of Islam and condemns the formation of secret societies and holding secret conferences to injure the cause of truth. Then with befitting relevance the Surah lays down some rules of conduct about social gatherings. Towards its close, the Surah gives a warning to the enemies of truth that by their opposition they are incurring God’s wrath and that they shall not be able to arrest or impede the progress of Islam because it is a Divine decree that it shall prevail. The warning to disbelievers that their opposition to truth will not go unpunished is followed by an equally strong warning to believers, that under no circumstances should they make friends with the enemies of Islam, however nearly related the latter might be to them, as by opposing the Faith they have waged a veritable war against God, and friendship with God’s enemies is inconsistent with true Faith.
یہ سورت مدینہ میں نازل ہوئی اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی تئیس آیات ہیں۔
سورۃ المجادَلہ میں مرکزی مضمون یہ بیان فرمایا گیا ہے کہ عربوں کا یہ رواج بے معنی ہے کہ ناراضگی میں بیویوں کو ماں کہہ کر اپنے اوپر حرام کرلیا کرتے تھے۔ ماں تو وہی ہوتی ہے جس نے جنم دیا ہو۔ پھر فرمایا کہ ان لغو باتوں کا کفارہ ادا کرو اور ان لغو یات سے پرہیز کرتے ہوئے اپنی بیویوں کی طرف رجوع کرو۔ سورۃ الحدید میں حدید کا ذکر ہے اور کاٹنے اور چیرنے پھاڑنے کے لئے حدید ہی کو استعمال کیا جاتا ہے مگر یہ اس کا جسمانی استعمال ہے لیکن سورۃ المجادلہ میں جو بار بار یُحَآدُّوْنَ اور حَآدَّ بیان فرمایا گیا ہے اس سے مراد روحانی طور پر ایک دوسرے کو پھاڑنا ہے اور مسلسل یہ ذکر ہے کہ جو لوگ محمد رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو روحانی زخم پہنچاتے ہیں اور صحابہ رضوان اللہ علیہم کے درمیان تفریق پیدا کرنے کی کوشش کرتے ہیں اور اس غرض سے چھپ کر مشورے کرتے ہیں، وہ تمام اپنے آپ کو ہلاک کرنے والی باتیں کرتے ہیں۔ فرمایا: جو بھی اللہ اور رسول کو اپنے طعنوں سے چِرکے لگاتے ہیں وہ نامراد ہوں گے اور اللہ تعالیٰ نے اپنے اوپر فرض کرلیا ہے کہ وہ اور اُس کے رسول ضرور غالب آئیں گے۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See 1:1. (close)
See 1:1. (close)
قَدۡ سَمِعَ اللّٰہُ قَوۡلَ الَّتِیۡ تُجَادِلُکَ فِیۡ زَوۡجِہَا وَ تَشۡتَکِیۡۤ اِلَی اللّٰہِ ٭ۖ وَ اللّٰہُ یَسۡمَعُ تَحَاوُرَکُمَا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ سَمِیۡعٌۢ بَصِیۡرٌ ﴿۲﴾
قَدۡ سَمِعَ ٱللَّهُ قَوۡلَ ٱلَّتِي تُجَٰدِلُكَ فِي زَوۡجِهَا وَتَشۡتَكِيٓ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱللَّهُ يَسۡمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَآۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعُۢ بَصِيرٌ
3001. Khaulah, wife of Aus bin Samit and daughter of Tha‘labah had become separated from her husband because the latter had called her "mother," the exact words used by him being, 'thou art to me as the back of my mother;' and thus according to an old Arab custom all conjugal relations had ceased between her and her husband. The unfortunate woman could neither demand divorce in order to contract a second marriage, nor could she enjoy conjugal rights and thus remained a suspended woman, uncared for. She came to the Holy Prophet and complained to him of the awkward situation in which she was placed, and sought his advice and help in the matter. The Holy Prophet pleaded his inability to do anything for her, as it was his wont that he would not give a decision in matters of this nature unless he was guided by revelation. The revelation came, and the custom of Zihar was declared unlawful. (close)
The reference in the verse seems to be to Khaulah, wife of Aus bin Samit and daughter of Tha‘labah. She had become separated from her husband because the latter had called her "mother," the exact words used by him being, "thou art to me as the back of my mother." According to an old Arab custom all conjugal relations ceased between a man and his wife when he used these words about her. The unfortunate woman could neither demand divorce in order to contract a second marriage, nor could she enjoy conjugal rights. She remained uncared for. Khaulah came to the Holy Prophet and complained to him of the awkward situation in which she was placed, and sought his advice and help in the matter. The Holy Prophetpleaded his inability to do anything for her, as it was his wont not to give a decision in matters of this nature, unless he was guided by revelation. The revelation came, and the custom of Zihar was declared unlawful.
Incidentally, the verse shows that God hears the prayers and plaints of even the weakest of His servants. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ یُظٰہِرُوۡنَ مِنۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ نِّسَآئِہِمۡ مَّا ہُنَّ اُمَّہٰتِہِمۡ ؕ اِنۡ اُمَّہٰتُہُمۡ اِلَّا الّٰٓیِٴۡ وَلَدۡنَہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنَّہُمۡ لَیَقُوۡلُوۡنَ مُنۡکَرًا مِّنَ الۡقَوۡلِ وَ زُوۡرًا ؕ وَ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُوۡرٌ ﴿۳﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ يُظَٰهِرُونَ مِنكُم مِّن نِّسَآئِهِم مَّا هُنَّ أُمَّهَٰتِهِمۡۖ إِنۡ أُمَّهَٰتُهُمۡ إِلَّا ٱلَّـٰٓـِٔي وَلَدۡنَهُمۡۚ وَإِنَّهُمۡ لَيَقُولُونَ مُنكَرٗا مِّنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ وَزُورٗاۚ وَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٞ
b. 33:5 (close)
Zihar or calling ones wife "mother" has been declared here a heinous sin. For a somewhat detailed note see 33:5.
The words لعفو غفور mean that God in His great mercy has made allowance for man’s weakness and that He is always ready to forgive his lapses, provided he comes to God with a penitent heart and makes amends.
The verse has redeemed a right which through a cruel custom was denied to women and thus has raised them to the status to which they were entitled. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُظٰہِرُوۡنَ مِنۡ نِّسَآئِہِمۡ ثُمَّ یَعُوۡدُوۡنَ لِمَا قَالُوۡا فَتَحۡرِیۡرُ رَقَبَۃٍ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِ اَنۡ یَّتَمَآسَّا ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ تُوۡعَظُوۡنَ بِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِیۡرٌ ﴿۴﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ يُظَٰهِرُونَ مِن نِّسَآئِهِمۡ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا قَالُواْ فَتَحۡرِيرُ رَقَبَةٖ مِّن قَبۡلِ أَن يَتَمَآسَّاۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ تُوعَظُونَ بِهِۦۚ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٞ
3002. The words, "they would go back on what they have said," may signify that after calling their wives "mothers" they seek to re-establish conjugal relations with them, or they may mean that after having once called their wives "mothers" they repeat what they have said. According to this meaning, it is deliberate repetition of the obnoxious words and not their casual or inadvertent utterance that renders the utterer liable to the punishment prescribed in this and the following verse. (close)
The words "they go back on what they have said," may signify that after calling their wives "mothers" they seek to re-establish conjugal relations with them. Or the words may mean that after having once called their wives "mothers" they repeat what they have said. According to this meaning, it is deliberate repetition of the obnoxious words and not their casual or inadvertent utterance that renders the utterer liable to the punishment prescribed in this and the following verse. (close)
فَمَنۡ لَّمۡ یَجِدۡ فَصِیَامُ شَہۡرَیۡنِ مُتَتَابِعَیۡنِ مِنۡ قَبۡلِ اَنۡ یَّتَمَآسَّا ۚ فَمَنۡ لَّمۡ یَسۡتَطِعۡ فَاِطۡعَامُ سِتِّیۡنَ مِسۡکِیۡنًا ؕ ذٰلِکَ لِتُؤۡمِنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ تِلۡکَ حُدُوۡدُ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۵﴾
فَمَن لَّمۡ يَجِدۡ فَصِيَامُ شَهۡرَيۡنِ مُتَتَابِعَيۡنِ مِن قَبۡلِ أَن يَتَمَآسَّاۖ فَمَن لَّمۡ يَسۡتَطِعۡ فَإِطۡعَامُ سِتِّينَ مِسۡكِينٗاۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِتُؤۡمِنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦۚ وَتِلۡكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِۗ وَلِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
3003. The drastic punishment mentioned in these verses indicates the extreme seriousness of the crime of calling one’s wife "mother." The relationship with "mother" is too sacred to be trifled with. (close)
The drastic punishment mentioned in these verses indicates the extreme seriousness of the crime of calling one’s wife "mother." The relationship with "mother" is too sacred to be trifled with. The expression لتؤمنوا باللّٰه و رسوله means, you may learn to obey the commandments of Allah and his Messenger. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یُحَآدُّوۡنَ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ کُبِتُوۡا کَمَا کُبِتَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ وَ قَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اٰیٰتٍۭ بَیِّنٰتٍ ؕ وَ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابٌ مُّہِیۡنٌ ۚ﴿۶﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُحَآدُّونَ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ كُبِتُواْ كَمَا كُبِتَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡۚ وَقَدۡ أَنزَلۡنَآ ءَايَٰتِۭ بَيِّنَٰتٖۚ وَلِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٞ مُّهِينٞ
a. 9:63. (close)
3004. Calling one’s wife "mother" is tantamount to opposing God—so hideous is the offence. Befittingly the subject of opposition to truth by the Jews and the Hypocrites is introduced in this verse. (close)
b. 22:17; 24:35; 57:10. (close)
4176. Important Words:
کبتوا (will be abused). کبته means, he threw him down prostrate. کبت اللّٰه الکافر means, God prostrated the disbeliever, and deprived him of what he desired, or disappointed him, or caused him to fail in attaining his desire; he routed him or put him to flight; he turned him away or averted him; he abused; debased him, rendered him vile, despicable or ignominious. (Aqrab)
Calling one’s wife "mother" is tantamount to opposing God—so hideous is the offence. Befittingly the subject of opposition to truth by the Jews and hypocrites is introduced in this verse.
The words "and We have sent clear signs," show that Divine punishment overtakes the sinners after their sins have been fully established and their guilt brought home to them. (close)
یَوۡمَ یَبۡعَثُہُمُ اللّٰہُ جَمِیۡعًا فَیُنَبِّئُہُمۡ بِمَا عَمِلُوۡا ؕ اَحۡصٰہُ اللّٰہُ وَ نَسُوۡہُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ شَہِیۡدٌ ٪﴿۷﴾
يَوۡمَ يَبۡعَثُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ جَمِيعٗا فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُوٓاْۚ أَحۡصَىٰهُ ٱللَّهُ وَنَسُوهُۚ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ شَهِيدٌ
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ مَا یَکُوۡنُ مِنۡ نَّجۡوٰی ثَلٰثَۃٍ اِلَّا ہُوَ رَابِعُہُمۡ وَ لَا خَمۡسَۃٍ اِلَّا ہُوَ سَادِسُہُمۡ وَ لَاۤ اَدۡنٰی مِنۡ ذٰلِکَ وَ لَاۤ اَکۡثَرَ اِلَّا ہُوَ مَعَہُمۡ اَیۡنَ مَا کَانُوۡا ۚ ثُمَّ یُنَبِّئُہُمۡ بِمَا عَمِلُوۡا یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۸﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۖ مَا يَكُونُ مِن نَّجۡوَىٰ ثَلَٰثَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ رَابِعُهُمۡ وَلَا خَمۡسَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ سَادِسُهُمۡ وَلَآ أَدۡنَىٰ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَآ أَكۡثَرَ إِلَّا هُوَ مَعَهُمۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كَانُواْۖ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُواْ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ
The subject which was only indirectly introduced in v. 6 has been elaborated in this and the next few verses. The present verse refers to the secret plots and conspiracies against Islam of the Jews and hypocrites of Medina. It condemns this evil practice and warns them that their plots are not hidden from God. He has sent the Holy Prophet and He is his Guardian and Protector, and their conspiracies would do him no harm. They are further warned that they would be punished for their wicked designs. The expulsion of the three Jewish tribes from Medina was the result of their repeated acts of defection and infidelity and of their secret plots against Islam and against the life of the Holy Prophet. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ نُہُوۡا عَنِ النَّجۡوٰی ثُمَّ یَعُوۡدُوۡنَ لِمَا نُہُوۡا عَنۡہُ وَ یَتَنٰجَوۡنَ بِالۡاِثۡمِ وَ الۡعُدۡوَانِ وَ مَعۡصِیَتِ الرَّسُوۡلِ ۫ وَ اِذَا جَآءُوۡکَ حَیَّوۡکَ بِمَا لَمۡ یُحَیِّکَ بِہِ اللّٰہُ ۙ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ لَوۡ لَا یُعَذِّبُنَا اللّٰہُ بِمَا نَقُوۡلُ ؕ حَسۡبُہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُ ۚ یَصۡلَوۡنَہَا ۚ فَبِئۡسَ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۹﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ نُهُواْ عَنِ ٱلنَّجۡوَىٰ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا نُهُواْ عَنۡهُ وَيَتَنَٰجَوۡنَ بِٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡعُدۡوَٰنِ وَمَعۡصِيَتِ ٱلرَّسُولِۖ وَإِذَا جَآءُوكَ حَيَّوۡكَ بِمَا لَمۡ يُحَيِّكَ بِهِ ٱللَّهُ وَيَقُولُونَ فِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ لَوۡلَا يُعَذِّبُنَا ٱللَّهُ بِمَا نَقُولُۚ حَسۡبُهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُ يَصۡلَوۡنَهَاۖ فَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
3005. The verse refers to the secret plots and conspiracies against Islam of the Jews and the Hypocrites of Medina and condemns this evil practice. The expulsion of the three Jewish tribes from Medina was the result of their repeated acts of defection and infidelity and their secret plots against Islam and the life of the Holy Prophet. (close)
3006. The meaning is that they go beyond proper limits in hypocritically praising thee; or they invoke death and destruction upon thee. The words seem to refer to the evil practice of some of the Jews of Medina that when they came to the Holy Prophet they, with a little twist of the tongue, would invoke curses upon him by saying As-Samu ‘Alaika (death to thee), instead of saluting him with the usual As-Salamu ‘Alaika, i.e. 'peace be upon thee' (Bukhari). (close)
The words, "they greet thee with which Allah has not greeted thee," may either mean that they go beyond proper limits in hypocritically praising thee, or that they invoke death and destruction upon thee. The words seem to refer to the evil practice of some of the Jews of Medina that when they came to see the Holy Prophet they, with a little twist of the tongue, would invoke curses upon him by saying السام علیک i.e. death to thee; instead of saluting him with the usual السلام علیک i.e. peace be upon thee (Bukhari). See also 2:105. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا تَنَاجَیۡتُمۡ فَلَا تَتَنَاجَوۡا بِالۡاِثۡمِ وَ الۡعُدۡوَانِ وَ مَعۡصِیَتِ الرَّسُوۡلِ وَ تَنَاجَوۡا بِالۡبِرِّ وَ التَّقۡوٰی ؕ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ الَّذِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِ تُحۡشَرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِذَا تَنَٰجَيۡتُمۡ فَلَا تَتَنَٰجَوۡاْ بِٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡعُدۡوَٰنِ وَمَعۡصِيَتِ ٱلرَّسُولِ وَتَنَٰجَوۡاْ بِٱلۡبِرِّ وَٱلتَّقۡوَىٰۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِيٓ إِلَيۡهِ تُحۡشَرُونَ
3007. In this and the preceding two verses secret societies have been condemned, but the condemnation is not unqualified. The believers have been allowed to hold secret conferences to promote good and righteous causes. (close)
In this and the preceding two verses secret societies such as Freemason Lodges, etc. have been condemned, but the condemnation is not unreserved or unqualified. There may be secret conferences held for good purposes. It is the object or motive of a particu1ar conference that determines its nature. In the present verse the believers have been allowed to hold secret conferences only to promote good and righteous causes. (close)