ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ شَآقُّوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یُّشَآقِّ اللّٰہَ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ﴿۵﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ شَآقُّواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥۖ وَمَن يُشَآقِّ ٱللَّهَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ
a. 4:116; 8:14; 47:33. (close)
The verse shows that opposition to a Prophet is tantamount to opposing God Himself. (close)
مَا قَطَعۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ لِّیۡنَۃٍ اَوۡ تَرَکۡتُمُوۡہَا قَآئِمَۃً عَلٰۤی اُصُوۡلِہَا فَبِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ لِیُخۡزِیَ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿۶﴾
مَا قَطَعۡتُم مِّن لِّينَةٍ أَوۡ تَرَكۡتُمُوهَا قَآئِمَةً عَلَىٰٓ أُصُولِهَا فَبِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيُخۡزِيَ ٱلۡفَٰسِقِينَ
3020. The reference is to the cutting, by orders of the Holy Prophet, of the palm trees of the Banu Nadir who, as stated in v. 3, had shut themselves up in their fortresses in defiance of the Holy Prophet’s orders to surrender. After the siege had lasted for some days, the Holy Prophet, in order to compel them to surrender, ordered that some of their palm trees of the linah kind, of which the dates are of very inferior quality and quite unfit for human consumption, (Ar- Raudul-Unuf), should be cut down. It was after only six trees had been cut down, that they surrendered (Zurqani). The orders of the Holy Prophet were extremely light and lenient and quite in conformity with the laws of civilized warfare. (close)
4192. Important Words:
لینة (palm tree) is derived from لان which means, it was or became tender, smooth, gentle. لینة means, a palm tree. It is a kind of palm tree of which the dates are of very inferior quality and are unfit for human consumption (Aqrab & Ar-Raudul-Anaf).
The reference in the verse is to the cutting, by orders of the Holy Prophet, of the palm trees of the Banu Nadir who, as stated in v. 3, had shut themselves up in their fortresses in defiance of the Holy Prophet’s orders to surrender. After the siege had lasted for a few days, the Holy Prophet, in order to compel them to surrender, ordered that some of their palm trees of the lina (لینة) kind of which the dates are of very inferior quality and are quite unfit for human consumption should be cut down. It was after only six trees had been cut down, that the Banu Nadir surrendered (Zurqani). The orders of theHoly Prophet were extremely lenient and were legitimate and quite in conformity with the laws of civilized warfare. (close)
وَ مَاۤ اَفَآءَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ مِنۡہُمۡ فَمَاۤ اَوۡجَفۡتُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ مِنۡ خَیۡلٍ وَّ لَا رِکَابٍ وَّ لٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَہٗ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۷﴾
وَمَآ أَفَآءَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ مِنۡهُمۡ فَمَآ أَوۡجَفۡتُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ مِنۡ خَيۡلٖ وَلَا رِكَابٖ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُۥ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُۚ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
4193. Important Words:
أفاء (given as spoils) is transitive verb from فاء which means, he returned, particularly he returned to a good state or condition. أفاته means, I made it to return. فییء means, afternoon shade; spoil or booty, so called because it returns from one party without difficulty; such of the possessions of disbelievers as accrue to Muslims without war or such as are obtained from them after laying down of arms. Loosely, the three words نفل and غنیمة and فییء are used synonymously. But whereas according to some غنیمة signifies, what is obtained from disbelievers by force during war, فییء signifies, what is obtained from them after laying down of arms or what God has given to Muslims of the goods of disbelievers such as poll-tax and that for which peace has been made with them or which they acquire without difficulty. According to some authorities غنیمة is more general in signification than نفل, and فییء is more so than غنیمة. According to the lawyers everything that may be lawfully taken of the property and goods of disbelievers is فییء. Thus غنیمة is that which is acquired with or without difficulty or labour, before or after the victory and نفل is that which is had before the division of غنیمة or which is acquired without fighting, and it differs from فییء in this respect that whereas فییء is applied to the spoil from the disbelievers after they have made preparation for war against Muslims, this condition does not apply to نفل (Lane & Aqrab).
رکاب (camels) is derived from رکب. They say رکب الدابة او علی الدابة i.e. he rode upon the beast. رکاب means camels used for riding. It has no proper singular; the word used for singular is راحلة. رکاب السحاب means, the winds (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse may have special reference to the spoils the Muslims got from the Jews of Khaibar. See next verse also. (close)
مَاۤ اَفَآءَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ مِنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡقُرٰی فَلِلّٰہِ وَ لِلرَّسُوۡلِ وَ لِذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡیَتٰمٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ ابۡنِ السَّبِیۡلِ ۙ کَیۡ لَا یَکُوۡنَ دُوۡلَۃًۢ بَیۡنَ الۡاَغۡنِیَآءِ مِنۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اٰتٰٮکُمُ الرَّسُوۡلُ فَخُذُوۡہُ ٭ وَ مَا نَہٰٮکُمۡ عَنۡہُ فَانۡتَہُوۡا ۚ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ۘ﴿۸﴾
مَّآ أَفَآءَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱبۡنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ كَيۡ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةَۢ بَيۡنَ ٱلۡأَغۡنِيَآءِ مِنكُمۡۚ وَمَآ ءَاتَىٰكُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَىٰكُمۡ عَنۡهُ فَٱنتَهُواْۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ
3021. As Fai’ consists of such booty as is attained without difficulty or labour and accrues to Muslims without war, the soldiers have no share in it, and the whole of it goes to the public treasury. The verse may have special reference to the spoils the Muslims got from the Jews of Khaibar. It lays down the principle that the circulation of wealth should not remain confined to the privileged and propertied class. As an individual’s health requires that his physical needs be reasonably met, the health of the society requires that material goods be widely distributed and wealth be in easy circulation. This is the basic principle of Muslim economics. Finding humanity ground down under the tyranny of vested interests, Islam propounded measures that broke the barriers of economic caste and enormously reduced the injustice of special privilege. It does not, however, oppose the profit motive or economic competition, but only insists that acquisitiveness and competition be balanced by fair play and compassion. Since human nature automatically takes care for the former, it falls to social laws to safeguard the latter. The Zakat is Islam’s basic device for institutionalising regard for the need of others, but it is supplemented by a number of other measures. (close)
3022. The words, whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it, show that the Sunnah forms an integral part of the Islamic Law. (close)
a. 8:2, 42. (close)
b. 47:34; 49:8. (close)
4194. Important Words:
دولة (to circulate) is derived from دال. They say دالت الایام i.e. the days came round in their turns. دالت له الدولة means, good fortune came to him i.e. the turn of fortune was his. داول اللّٰه الایام بین الناس means, God made days to compound among men in turns. دولة (daulatun) as also دولة (dulatun) means, a turn of good fortune; a turn to share in wealth and to prevail in war; a turn of taking a thing. Or دولة (dulatun) is in wealth and دولة (daulatun) is in war; according to some the former signifies a thing that is taken by turns and the latter the act of taking by turns and a transition from one state to another. Or the former relates to the next world and the latter to the present world and it is said that the former signifies the transition of wealth from one people to another and the latter, prevalence, predominance or victory (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse deals with the subject as to how فییء should be spent. As فییء consists of such booty as is attained without difficulty or labour and accrues to Muslims without war, the soldiers have no share in it and the whole of it forms part of the public treasury to be spent as mentioned in the verse.
Where soldiers are paid by the State, all spoils of war go to the public treasury i.e. Baitu1-Mal. Islam being a great advocate and protagonist of the cause of the poor and supporter and protector of their interests, the verse incidentally lays down the principle that the circulation of wealth should not remain continued to the privileged and propertied class. As an individual’s health requires that his physical needs be reasonably met, a society’s health requires that material goods be widely distributed and wealth be in easy circulation. This is the basic principle of Muslim economics and nowhere did the Holy Prophet’s democratic thunder speak with greater force or clarity than in this field. Finding humanity ground down under the tyranny of vested interests, he propounded measures that broke the barriers of economic caste and enormously reduced the injustices of special privilege. The main principle of Muslim economics is that the wealth of the people be widely shared. Islam does not oppose the profit motive or economic competition. It does not discourage a man from working harder than his neighbour, nor does it object to his earning a large income. It simply insists that acquisitiveness and competition be balanced by fair play and compassion. Since human nature automatically takes care of the former, it falls to social laws to safeguard the latter. The Zakah is Islam’s basic device for institutionalizing regard for others, but it is supplemented by a number of other measures (The Religions of Man by Huston Smith).
The words, "whatever the Messenger gives you, take it," shows conclusively that the Sunnah forms an integral part of the Islamic Law. (close)
لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ الۡمُہٰجِرِیۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُخۡرِجُوۡا مِنۡ دِیَارِہِمۡ وَ اَمۡوَالِہِمۡ یَبۡتَغُوۡنَ فَضۡلًا مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رِضۡوَانًا وَّ یَنۡصُرُوۡنَ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الصّٰدِقُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۹﴾
لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ ٱلۡمُهَٰجِرِينَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُخۡرِجُواْ مِن دِيَٰرِهِمۡ وَأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ يَبۡتَغُونَ فَضۡلٗا مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرِضۡوَٰنٗا وَيَنصُرُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥٓۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلصَّـٰدِقُونَ
a. 5:3; 48:30. (close)
الفقراء seems to be case in apposition to the categories of recipients of the فییء mentioned in the preceding verse. From Hadith it appears that the poor Refugees were the greatest beneficiaries from فییء obtained from Banu Nadir. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ تَبَوَّؤُ الدَّارَ وَ الۡاِیۡمَانَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ یُحِبُّوۡنَ مَنۡ ہَاجَرَ اِلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ فِیۡ صُدُوۡرِہِمۡ حَاجَۃً مِّمَّاۤ اُوۡتُوۡا وَ یُؤۡثِرُوۡنَ عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَ لَوۡ کَانَ بِہِمۡ خَصَاصَۃٌ ؕ۟ وَ مَنۡ یُّوۡقَ شُحَّ نَفۡسِہٖ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۱۰﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُو ٱلدَّارَ وَٱلۡإِيمَٰنَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ يُحِبُّونَ مَنۡ هَاجَرَ إِلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمۡ حَاجَةٗ مِّمَّآ أُوتُواْ وَيُؤۡثِرُونَ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ وَلَوۡ كَانَ بِهِمۡ خَصَاصَةٞۚ وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفۡسِهِۦ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ
3023. The words constitute a great testimonial to the spirit of self-sacrifice, hospitality and goodwill of the Ansar (Helpers). The Refugees (Muhajirin) from Mecca came to them, deprived and denuded of all their possessions, and they received them with open arms and made them equal partners in their belongings. The bond of love and brotherhood which the Holy Prophet established between the Refugees from Mecca and the Helpers of Medina and to which this verse bears an eloquent testimony, stands unrivalled in the whole history of human relationships. (close)
a. 64:17. (close)
4196. Important Words:
حاجة (desire) is derived from حاج which means, he was or became poor; he desired, sought or sought after. حاج و احتاج الیهmeans, he needed it. حاجة means, want, need, necessity; a thing wanted; an object of want; desire (Lane & Aqrab).
خصاصة (poverty) is inf. noun from خص which means, he was or became poor, in a state of poverty. خصاصة means, poverty, need; straightness or difficulty; an evil state or condition; thirst; hunger (Lane & Aqrab).
Whereas the preceding verse constituted an eloquent commentary on the sincerity and devotion of the Refugees (مھاجرین)to their faith, in that they left their hearths and homes for the sake of God and his Messenger, the verse under comment embodies a great testimonial to the spirit of self-sacrifice, hospitality and goodwill of the Helpers (انصار). The Refugees from Mecca came to the Helpers, deprived and denuded of all their possessions, and the latter received them with open arms and made them equal partners in their belongings. The bond of love and brotherhood which the Holy Prophet established between the Refugees and the Helpers, and to which this verse bears an eloquent testimony, stands unrivalled in the whole history of human relationships. The verse may have special reference to the Helpers having foregone their share in the spoils that accrued to Muslims from the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ جَآءُوۡ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ رَبَّنَا اغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَ لِاِخۡوَانِنَا الَّذِیۡنَ سَبَقُوۡنَا بِالۡاِیۡمَانِ وَ لَا تَجۡعَلۡ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا رَبَّنَاۤ اِنَّکَ رَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿٪۱۱﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ جَآءُو مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَلِإِخۡوَٰنِنَا ٱلَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِٱلۡإِيمَٰنِ وَلَا تَجۡعَلۡ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلّٗا لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٞ رَّحِيمٌ
3024. The words may apply to the Refugees who came later to Medina, or to all the coming generations of Muslims. (close)
The words "those who came after them," may apply to the Refugees who came later to Medina, or to all the coming generations of Muslims, or particularly to the followers of the Promised Messiah to whom a pointed reference is made in 62:3.
The later generations of Muslims have been commanded here to pray for their brethren in Faith of earlier generations and to pray also that their own hearts be completely cleansed of all bitterness and spite towards true and sincere Muslims. What a beautiful recipe by which Muslims can become cemented into a well-knit community! (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ نَافَقُوۡا یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ لِاِخۡوَانِہِمُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مِنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡکِتٰبِ لَئِنۡ اُخۡرِجۡتُمۡ لَنَخۡرُجَنَّ مَعَکُمۡ وَ لَا نُطِیۡعُ فِیۡکُمۡ اَحَدًا اَبَدًا ۙ وَّ اِنۡ قُوۡتِلۡتُمۡ لَنَنۡصُرَنَّکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَشۡہَدُ اِنَّہُمۡ لَکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲﴾
۞أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ نَافَقُواْ يَقُولُونَ لِإِخۡوَٰنِهِمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ لَئِنۡ أُخۡرِجۡتُمۡ لَنَخۡرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمۡ وَلَا نُطِيعُ فِيكُمۡ أَحَدًا أَبَدٗا وَإِن قُوتِلۡتُمۡ لَنَنصُرَنَّكُمۡ وَٱللَّهُ يَشۡهَدُ إِنَّهُمۡ لَكَٰذِبُونَ
3025. The Hypocrites had urged the Jews of Medina to defy the Holy Prophet and break their plighted word with him, holding out to them false promises of help and succour in time of need. But when relying upon their promises the Jews defied the Holy Prophet and marched against him, they left them in the lurch. (close)
A hypocrite is a liar and a coward. He is completely unreliable and devoid of all honour. The hypocrites of Medina had urged the Jews of Medina to defy the Holy Prophet and break their plighted word with him, holding out to them false promises of help and succour in time of need. But when relying upon their promises the Jews defied the Prophet and he, in order to punish them, marched against them, the Hypocrites left them in the lurch. (close)
لَئِنۡ اُخۡرِجُوۡا لَا یَخۡرُجُوۡنَ مَعَہُمۡ ۚ وَ لَئِنۡ قُوۡتِلُوۡا لَا یَنۡصُرُوۡنَہُمۡ ۚ وَ لَئِنۡ نَّصَرُوۡہُمۡ لَیُوَلُّنَّ الۡاَدۡبَارَ ۟ ثُمَّ لَا یُنۡصَرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾
لَئِنۡ أُخۡرِجُواْ لَا يَخۡرُجُونَ مَعَهُمۡ وَلَئِن قُوتِلُواْ لَا يَنصُرُونَهُمۡ وَلَئِن نَّصَرُوهُمۡ لَيُوَلُّنَّ ٱلۡأَدۡبَٰرَ ثُمَّ لَا يُنصَرُونَ
a. 3:112. (close)
a. 3:112. (close)
This verse, like vv. 15-16 below, is a sad commentary on the infidelity of the hypocrites. When the hour arrived for the Jews to be deservedly punished for their evil designs and deeds, the hypocrites of Medina did not raise a finger in their support. "And," says the verse, "if they had summoned up courage enough to come to the help of the Jews, they certainly would have suffered a most crushing and ignominious defeat." (close)
لَاَنۡتُمۡ اَشَدُّ رَہۡبَۃً فِیۡ صُدُوۡرِہِمۡ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ قَوۡمٌ لَّا یَفۡقَہُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾
لَأَنتُمۡ أَشَدُّ رَهۡبَةٗ فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٞ لَّا يَفۡقَهُونَ
b. 4:78 (close)
b. 4:78. (close)