Introduction of Al-Ma'idah
(Revealed after Hijrah)
This Surah derives its title from the prayer which, at the request of his "helpers", Jesus offered about the material progress and prosperity for the Christian Faith, and which is referred to in the verses 113-116 of this chapter.
According to different commentators, the whole of this chapter belongs to the Medinite period. ‘A’ishah is reported by Hakim and Imam Ahmad to have related that this is the last Surah which was revealed to the Holy Prophet. This may not be strictly true but, considering together all the different traditions, one is led to the conclusion that the chapter was certainly revealed in the last years of the Prophet’s ministry and some of its verses are among the latest to be revealed. Though Imam Ahmad says on the authority of Asma’, daughter of Yazid, that the whole of this Surah was revealed together, it seems that as the major portion of it was revealed at one time, the whole of it came to be regarded as having been revealed at the same time.
This Surah, like its predecessors, Surahs Al-e-‘Imran and An-Nisa’, deals mainly with Christianity and particularly denounces the Christian doctrine that the Law is a curse. It opens with the injunction that all covenants must be kept and fulfilled and that it is necessary to lay down laws as to what is lawful and what unlawful. The chapter proceeds to claim that the Quran has laid down final commandments bearing upon man’s complete development and that it is in this respect that the Quran constitutes the final revealed Law of God. This claim of the Quran is embodied in the 4th verse of this Surah wherein God says, This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islam as religion. This verse epitomizes the above-mentioned claim and constitutes a general proclamation to the effect that Islam as a religion is perfect in all respects and is the complete manifestation of God’s favour and, as a code of laws, is beyond reproach and above criticism. This claim of Islam also implies the inference that it is wrong to regard the Law as a curse because the Law is meant to help man in his moral and spiritual development and only that Law can be condemned as a curse which, instead of fulfilling this purpose, leads to bad morals and the degradation of man. The verse also hints that when the eating of meats offered to idols and of blood and of strangled animals was forbidden to Christians and this commandment constituted an ordinance of the Law (Acts 15:20, 29), they could not take exception to the Law and condemn it as a curse.
The fifth verse lays down an Islamic commandment with regard to eatables and enjoins that only pure things are to be used, meaning that such things should be used as are not only lawful but are also pure, i.e. their eating should not in any way injure man’s physical or moral health. Subject to this commandment, all those things have been forbidden to Muslims which, though constituting lawful food, offend against the feeling of cleanliness and the use of which is calculated to injure health. For instance, the eating of cucumber is lawful but when its use is likely to cause cholera, it becomes forbidden, being غیرطیب. Thus in Islam the use of a thing is subject to two vital conditions; (1) it should be حلال i.e. allowed by the Law; (2) it should be طیب or pure, i.e. its use should in no way contravene or offend against medical or hygienic laws and regulations. Islam alone of all religions, while laying down ordinances regarding lawful and unlawful things, has pointed out the nice distinction between what is only lawful and what is both lawful and pure. These ordinances extend to the verse 9 of the chapter; and the next four verses (10-13), while referring to the previous favours of God, embody the Divine promise that good results are sure to follow if these ordinances are faithfully obeyed. Thereafter, Muslims are warned that the followers of previous religions broke God’s covenants and disregarded some parts of His word. This led to their condemnation and disgrace. They did not deviate from the right path and become corrupt and suffer humiliation because the Law was a curse, but because they consigned the Law to oblivion. So now there was no door left open to them but to follow the Holy Prophet and through him re-inherit God’s favours (14-17).
The Surah then proceeds to warn Christians that at first by deifying Jesus they kindled the wrath of God upon them and now they have begun to be jealous of the Holy Prophet because God has chosen him for His favours. This jealous attitude of theirs towards the Holy Prophet resembles that of Cain towards Abel––the two sons of Adam (18-37). The verse 38 contains a prophecy that Christians will hatch plots against Islam and that some weak of faith from among Muslims would also become implicated in these plots. But the Faithful are enjoined to trust in God and fear none but Him. As the hatchers of these secret plots would work clandestinely like thieves, ordinances dealing with theft have been laid down in the next few verses (39-45).
Then the attention of the Muslims is drawn to the fact that, when on account of opposition by Christians, the hypocrites would again be inclined to create mischief, Jews would make common cause with them. It is stated that while Jews and Christians lose no opportunity to oppose Islam, they themselves have become so depraved that they have ceased to act upon their own religious scriptures and are increasingly becoming ignorant of their own religions. They have become so corrupt that when they find that there is a likelihood of their securing a favourable decision regarding a dispute in accordance with the Islamic Law, they do not hesitate to refer it to the Holy Prophet for settlement and seek his judgement. They are told that so long as they do not accept Islam, they must follow their own scriptures and abide by their own Law; but that if, bowing to the political supremacy of Islam, they sometimes seek the judgement of the Islamic Government, it must be according to the Quranic Law (46-57).
The Surah proceeds to draw the attention of the Muslims to the great change that has come over Islamic politics and they are told that as the power of the infidels has been finally broken and, instead of infidels, Christians are now to be their principal enemies, and Jews, in spite of their enmity towards Christianity, are to side with Christians, Muslims should be on their guard against them. Jews will try to turn some of the Muslims into hypocrites and, though they may succeed in their endeavors and some Muslims may fall victim to their machinations, yet Islam will suffer no real loss on that account and eventually Muslims will conquer and prevail (58-64). Some light is shed on the stratagems and machinations that will be employed by the enemies of Islam to turn Muslims away from their faith and to lower it in their estimation (65-72). The importance of the preaching of Islam is impressed on the Holy Prophet and on Muslims. They are told that the one real method effectively to defeat the activities of Jews and Christians is to preach the Message of Islam to them and to bring home to them the truth from their own Scriptures that they can reject Islam only by denying and belying those scriptures. It should also be made clear to them that their salvation, too, lies in Islam. Their idolatrous beliefs should also be proved to be baseless from their own scriptures, particularly the doctrine of the Sonship of Jesus, who should be shown to be only a Prophet of God (73-78).
Similarly, mention is made of Jews who, by opposing and persecuting the two great Prophets of God, David and Jesus, have incurred the displeasure of the Almighty and excited His wrath against them which has led to the disappearance from among them of all feeling of jealousy for their religion. Muslims are told to draw the attention of these people to their past faults and failings, but are warned that by experience they will learn that Christians are more amenable to accepting the truth than Jews (79-87). (The experience of the past thirteen centuries bears ample testimony to the fact that far more Christians than Jews have accepted Islam during this period. Perhaps the time for the reformation of the Jews may also be drawing near).
Thereafter commandments have been laid down which particularly concern Christian peoples and countries; viz.commandments about what is lawful and what is unlawful; commandments about oaths; commandments about the use of wine and games of hazard; commandments about hunting; commandments regarding the criticism of religion, and ordinances about rites and ceremonies and about evidence (88-109).
Last of all a somewhat detailed mention is made of the particular circumstances of Jesus and it is shown that they only resemble those of other Prophets of God. It is mentioned that there was nothing of Godhead about him and that all material progress of Christians is due to a prayer of his. But they have made an improper use of that progress and, as a result, instead of believing in the Oneness of God, have succumbed to polytheistic beliefs and practices. God will, on the Day of Judgement, establish their guilt and put them to shame from the mouth of Jesus himself, who will confess that he never preached any polytheistic doctrine or asked them to regard him as God or His equal. He will also confess that these people deviated from the right path and became corrupt only after his death (110-120). The Surah ends with the declaration that to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and He has power over all things, which implies the beautiful hint that the belief that the kingdom of God is only on heaven and is not on earth is false and that to Him alone belongs the dominion, both of heaven and earth and that as a proof of it He will now grant Islam, His true religion, predominance and victory over the Christian peoples. And so it actually came to pass.
یہ سورت مدنی دور کے آخر میں نازل ہوئی تھی۔ بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی ایک سو اکیس آیات ہیں۔ اس سورت میں حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کے بہت سے معجزات کی حقیقت بیان کی گئی ہے۔ تفاسیر میں جو یہ بیان کیا گیا ہے کہ ان پر آسمان سے ظاہری طور پر خوانِ نعمت اُترا تھا اس کی حقیقت سے بھی یہ کہہ کر پردہ اٹھایا گیا ہے کہ دراصل یہ پیشگوئی تھی کہ عیسائی قوموں کو جو بے انتہا رزق عطا فرمایا جائے گا وہ حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ السلام کی دعاؤں اور قربانیوں کے نتیجہ میں عطا ہوگا لیکن اگر انہوں نے اس رزق کی ناشکری کی، جس کے آثار بدقسمتی سے ظاہر ہوچکے ہیں، تو پھر ان کو سزا بھی ایسی ہولناک دی جائے گی کہ کبھی دنیا میں کسی کو ایسی سزا نہیں دی گئی۔ عہد توڑنے کے نتیجہ میں جو خرابیاں یہود و نصاریٰ میں پیدا ہوتی رہیں ان کے پیش نظر اس سورت کے آغاز میں ہی امت محمدیہ کو متنبہّ فرمادیا گیا ہے۔ اس سے پہلے سورۃ البقرۃ میں مختلف کھانوں کی حلّت و حرمت کا ذکر گزر چکا ہے مگر یہاں ایک نئی بات فرمائی گئی ہے جو اسلام کو ہر دوسرے مذہب سے ممتاز کرتی ہے اور وہ یہ ہے کہ رزق محض حلال ہی نہیں بلکہ طیّب ہونا چاہئے۔ پس بظاہر ایک رزق اگر حلال بھی ہو تو بہتر یہی ہے کہ جب تک وہ انتہائی پاکیزہ اور صحت افزا نہ ہو، اس سے پرہیز کیا جائے۔ اس سے پہلے انصاف پر ہر حال میں قائم رہنے کی تعلیم گزرچکی ہے۔ اب اس سورت میں شہادت کا مضمون شروع ہوتا ہے اور شہادت میں کلیۃً انصاف پر قائم رہنے کی تلقین اس شاندار طریق پر بیان ہوئی ہے کہ اگر کسی قوم سے دشمنی بھی ہو تب بھی اس کے حقوق کا خیال رکھو اور اس کے ساتھ اپنے قضیے چکاتے ہوئے انصاف کا دامن ہاتھ سے ہرگز نہ چھوڑو۔ اس سورت میں میثاق کا ایک دفعہ پھر ذکر ملتا ہے کہ کس طرح یہودنے جب میثاق کو توڑا تھا تو آپس میں بغض و عناد کا شکار ہوگئے اور بہتّر فرقوں میں بٹ گئے۔ اس پر حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کی بعثت ہوئی جنہوں نے ایک تہترویں ناجی فرقہ کی بنیاد ڈالی۔ لیکن پیشگوئی کے رنگ میں اس بات کا بھی ذکر ہے کہ آپؑ کی قوم نصیحت سے فائدہ نہیں اٹھائے گی اور گروہ در گروہ بٹتی چلی جائیگی اور خود ان کے درمیان بھی حسد، بغض اور خودغرضی کے نتیجہ میں بڑی بڑی عالمی جنگوں کی بنیاد پڑے گی جن میں خود عیسائی قومیں عیسائی قوموں کے خلاف نبرد آزما ہوں گی۔ اس سورت میں جہاں قوموں کے باہمی جدال اور قتل و غارت کا ذکر ہے وہاں ایک ایسے گروہ کا بھی ذکر ہے جو ظلم اور سفّاکی میں حد سے بڑھ جائے گا (آیت نمبر ۳۴) جیسا کہ آجکل چھوٹے چھوٹے بچوں پر بہیمانہ مظالم کا ذکر مغربی دنیا میں بھی ملتا ہے اور مشرقی دنیا تو اس سے بھری پڑی ہے۔ اور ایسے بھیانک جرائم بھی ہیں جن کی سزا انتہائی سنگین ہونی چاہئے تاکہ فَشَرِّدْ بِہِمْ مَّنْ خَلْفَہُمْ کا مضمون پورا ہو اور ان کے نہایت خوفناک انجام کو دیکھ کر باقی مجرمین جرم سے باز رہیں۔ یہ سورت ہر قسم کے مظالم کے خلاف آواز بلند کرتی ہے۔ اسی تعلق میں یہ بیان فرمایا گیا ہے کہ جبر سے کسی کا دین بدلانے کی ہرگز اجازت نہیں دی جاسکتی۔ اگر انتہائی جبر کے نتیجہ میں بعض لوگ مرتد بھی ہو جائیں تو اللہ تعالیٰ ان کے بدلہ عظیم الشان قومیں عطا فرمائے گا جو تعداد میں ان مرتدین سے بہت زیادہ ہوں گے اور مومنوں سے بہت محبت کرنے والے اور کفار پر بہت سخت ہوں گے۔ اس سورت میں قرآنی تعلیم کے عدل و انصاف کا ایک ایسا ذکر ملتا ہے جو دنیا کی کسی اور کتاب میں موجودنہیں اور یہ فرمایا گیا ہے کہ آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم پر ایمان لانے کے علاوہ بھی دیگر مذاہب کے پیروکار جو اپنی مذہبی تعلیمات پر عمل کرنے میں سچے ہوں، نیک عمل کرنے والے ہوں اور آخرت یعنی اپنے اعمال کی جوابدہی کے عقیدے پر مضبوطی سے قائم ہوں، اللہ تعالیٰ ان کو اُن کے نیک اعمال کی بہترین جزا عطا فرمائے گا۔ ان کو چاہئے کہ وہ اپنے انجام کے بارہ میں کوئی خوف اور حزن نہ کریں۔ باہمی بغض و عناد کا جو ذکر اس سورت میں چل رہا ہے اس میں مزید وجوہات بھی بیان کی گئی ہیں جو شدید بغض و عناد پیدا کرنے کا موجب بنتی ہیں۔ ان میں ایک شراب اور دوسری جوا ہے۔ اگرچہ ان میں بعض معمولی فوائد بھی ہیں مگر ان کے نقصانات ان فوائد کے مقابلہ میں بہت زیادہ ہیں۔ اس سورت کے آخر پر حضرت مسیح علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کی وفات کا صراحتاً ذکر ہے اور آپ کو ایک کامل موحدِ رسول کے طور پر پیش فرمایا گیا ہے جس نے کبھی بھی اپنی قوم کو تثلیث یا شرک کی تعلیم نہیں دی اور نہ ہی یہ فرمایا کہ مجھے اور میری والدہ کو خدا کے سوا دو معبود بنالو۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. See 1:1. (close)
See 1:1. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَوۡفُوۡا بِالۡعُقُوۡدِ ۬ؕ اُحِلَّتۡ لَکُمۡ بَہِیۡمَۃُ الۡاَنۡعَامِ اِلَّا مَا یُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡکُمۡ غَیۡرَ مُحِلِّی الصَّیۡدِ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ حُرُمٌ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَحۡکُمُ مَا یُرِیۡدُ ﴿۲﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَوۡفُواْ بِٱلۡعُقُودِۚ أُحِلَّتۡ لَكُم بَهِيمَةُ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ إِلَّا مَا يُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡ غَيۡرَ مُحِلِّي ٱلصَّيۡدِ وَأَنتُمۡ حُرُمٌۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَحۡكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ
716. The expression Bahimatul-An‘am does not mean the quadrupeds from among cattle for the obvious reason that quadrupeds form a class wider than cattle. It means the quadrupeds which belong to the class of cattle or which resemble cattle. This peculiar construction has been used to signify that whereas all quadrupeds do not make lawful food, those of them that form the counterparts of cattle are allowed. Thus the expression is intended to comprise not only cattle but also such beasts of the forest as correspond to cattle, i.e. wild goat, wild cow, wild buffalo, etc. (close)
b. 2:174; 5:4; 6:146. (close)
717. The words, other than those which are being announced to you, refer to the animals mentioned in the verse below. The words, however, do not refer to the flesh of an animal which dies of itself and blood and the flesh of swine, because "swine" is not included among cattle and the exception here made is from among the cattle only and not from among all animals and also because this portion had already been revealed in 2:174. (close)
641. Important Words:
عقود (compacts) is the plural of عقد (‘aqdun), being derived from the verb عقد (‘aqada). They say عقدالحبل i.e. he tied the rope; or he tied it firmly and fast; or he tied it into a knot or knots. عقد means, a compact; a covenant: an agreement; a responsibility; an obligation; a treaty; an ordinance of God (Lane & Aqrab).
بھیمة (quadrupeds) of which the plural is بھائم is derived from بھم. They say بھم الرجل i.e. the man continued looking at a thing without his being relieved by doing so, i.e. he looked vacantly; he was silent and perplexed or was confounded when asked respecting a thing. ابھم الامر means, the affair became vague or dubious or confused. ابھم الباب means, he closed the door. استبھم علیه الامر means, the affair was as though it were closed against him so that he knew not how to engage in it or execute it. بھیمة means, a beast or a brute; any quadruped whether of the land or of the sea; any animal that does not discriminate or does not possess the power of expression; all animals except beasts of prey and birds (Lane & Aqrab).
انعام (cattle) is the plural of نعم (an animal of the class of cattle). They say نعم عیشه i.e. his life was or became easy, good or pleasant. نعم of which the plural is انعام means, pasturing cattle consisting of camels or sheep or goats; or all these; or camels alone (Lane & Aqrab).
The phrase بھیمة الانعام (quadrupeds of the class of cattle) which is made up of two words: بھیمة (quadrupeds) and انعام(cattle) is of rather peculiar construction. The phrase does not mean quadrupeds from among cattle, for the obvious reason that quadrupeds form a class wider than cattle. In fact, the اضافة in the phrase بھیمة الانعام is of the kind which may be called اضافة بیانیة or اضافة تشبیھیة. According to the former, the words بھیمة الانعام would mean, the بھیمة (quadrupeds) which belong to the class of انعام (cattle); and according to the latter, they would mean بھیمة (quadrupeds) which resemble انعام(cattle). This construction has been used by the Quran to signify that whereas all بھیمة (quadrupeds) do not make lawful food, those of them that form the counterparts of انعام (cattle) are allowed. Thus the expression is intended to comprise not only cattle but also such beasts of the forest as correspond to cattle, i.e. wild goat, wild cow, antelope, wild buffalo, etc.
In this verse the word عقود (compacts) signifies compacts made by man with God or the obligations due to Him. The word, literally meaning "knots", has acquired this meaning because in ancient times knots were tied on strings or ropes as symbols of solemn compacts. The fulfilling of compacts or obligations due to God, referred to in the present verse which primarily deals with the subject of food, contains a veiled hint that a time was coming when Muslims would have to face trials and suffer hardships in order to avoid forbidden food. It is then that they would have to be particularly regardful of God’s commandments in this respect. That time has already come and Muslims who go to Europe or America experience great difficulty in getting clean and lawful food, and they have to take special care in procuring it, if they want to avoid forbidden food.
The word صید (game), here used in connection with Ihram, means the animal hunted and not the act of hunting itself, for the commandment with regard to hunting has been given separately in 5:97. In the present verse it is only the eating of game killed by a pilgrim that is mentioned, because not only is the hunting of a land animal by a pilgrim forbidden, but even the eating of it is for him unlawful. If, however, a land animal has been killed by a pilgrim who has not yet entered into the state of Ihram, the eating of it is not forbidden to those who are in a state of Ihram, provided they render no help to the man who kills the game.
The words, other than those which are being announced to you, refer to the flesh of the animals mentioned in 5:4 below, viz. that which has been strangled, and that which has been beaten to death, and that which has been killed by a fall, and that which has been gored to death, etc. The words, however, do not refer to the first part of 5:4, viz. the flesh of an animal which dies of itself, and blood, and the flesh of swine, because "swine" is not included among cattle and the exception here made is from among the cattle and not from among all animals, and also because this portion had already been revealed in 2:174. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تُحِلُّوۡا شَعَآئِرَ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا الشَّہۡرَ الۡحَرَامَ وَ لَا الۡہَدۡیَ وَ لَا الۡقَلَآئِدَ وَ لَاۤ آٰمِّیۡنَ الۡبَیۡتَ الۡحَرَامَ یَبۡتَغُوۡنَ فَضۡلًا مِّنۡ رَّبِّہِمۡ وَ رِضۡوَانًا ؕ وَ اِذَا حَلَلۡتُمۡ فَاصۡطَادُوۡا ؕ وَ لَا یَجۡرِمَنَّکُمۡ شَنَاٰنُ قَوۡمٍ اَنۡ صَدُّوۡکُمۡ عَنِ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَرَامِ اَنۡ تَعۡتَدُوۡا ۘ وَ تَعَاوَنُوۡا عَلَی الۡبِرِّ وَ التَّقۡوٰی ۪ وَ لَا تَعَاوَنُوۡا عَلَی الۡاِثۡمِ وَ الۡعُدۡوَانِ ۪ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ﴿۳﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تُحِلُّواْ شَعَـٰٓئِرَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا ٱلشَّهۡرَ ٱلۡحَرَامَ وَلَا ٱلۡهَدۡيَ وَلَا ٱلۡقَلَـٰٓئِدَ وَلَآ ءَآمِّينَ ٱلۡبَيۡتَ ٱلۡحَرَامَ يَبۡتَغُونَ فَضۡلٗا مِّن رَّبِّهِمۡ وَرِضۡوَٰنٗاۚ وَإِذَا حَلَلۡتُمۡ فَٱصۡطَادُواْۚ وَلَا يَجۡرِمَنَّكُمۡ شَنَـَٔانُ قَوۡمٍ أَن صَدُّوكُمۡ عَنِ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ أَن تَعۡتَدُواْۘ وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى ٱلۡبِرِّ وَٱلتَّقۡوَىٰۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى ٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡعُدۡوَٰنِۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ
718. "Signs of Allah" signifies anything that leads to the knowledge and realization of God (2:159). (close)
719. Abstaining from profaning the Sacred Month may also mean, paying due respect to the works performed therein. (close)
720. Hady and Qala’id both signify animals that are taken to Mecca for sacrifice during the Pilgrimage, Qala’id meaning particularly such animals as have collars round their necks (Muhit); and Hady meaning all animals without distinction that are brought to Mecca for sacrifice. (close)
a. 5:91. (close)
720A. Hunting is lawful for a pilgrim after he has finally put off the pilgrim’s garb on completion of the Pilgrimage and he has gone out of the Sacred Territory. (close)
b. 3:20, 86. (close)
720B. What a beautiful principle of individual and international conduct. If this principle were carried into effect, all rancour, hatred and mutual animosity would disappear. (close)
a. 59:9. (close)
b. 5:9; 11:90. (close)
642. Important Words:
الھدی (the animal brought as an offering) is the noun-infinitive from ھدی meaning, he directed; or he showed the way. ھدیة means, a present, i.e. a thing sent or offered to another as a token of love, courtesy or honour. ھدی means (1) mode or manner of acting; conduct or character; (2) what one brings as an offering to the Ka‘bah, consisting of camels or kine or sheep or goats to be sacrificed; or the goods or commodities so brought; (3) camels absolutely (Aqrab & Lane).
القلائد (collars) is the plural of قلادة which is the noun-infinitive from قلد meaning, he twisted or wound or wreathed a thing upon another. قلدھاقلادة (qallada-ha) means, he put a necklace upon her neck. قلدالبدنة means, he hung upon the neck of the camel or cow, etc. brought as an offering to Mecca, a collar, to show that it was meant for sacrifice as an offering. قلادة means, a necklace; a collar or the like; that which is hung, as a sign or mark, upon the neck of a camel or cow, etc. brought to Mecca for sacrifice (Lane & Aqrab). The word قلائد (collars) may also mean "collared animals" (Muhit). The words ھدی and قلائد as used in this verse both signify animals that are taken to Mecca for sacrifice during the Pilgrimage, قلائد particularly meaning such animals as have collars round their necks, and ھدی all animals without distinction that are brought to Mecca for sacrifice.
آمین (who repair) is the plural of آم which is the active participle from ام. They say امه i.e. he repaired or directed his course to it; he aimed at or sought after it; he endeavoured to reach or attain it (Lane). See also 3:8; 3:21; 3:114.
The words شعائرالله (Signs of Allah, for which see 2:159) signify anything that leads to the knowledge and realization of God. The offerings made to God, or the animals of sacrifice brought to the Ka‘bah, are "Signs of God", in the sense that they teach us to be ever ready to sacrifice all, that belongs to us, for the sake of God.
The words الشھرالحرام (Sacred Month) may signify each one of the four Sacred Months, viz. Shawwal, Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Rajab. Some theologians, however, hold the view that here the "Sacred Month" means only Dhul-Hijjah, i.e. the month of حج (Greater Pilgrimage), to which a special reference has been made on account of the great gathering of pilgrims that takes place at Mecca in that month. Others are of the opinion that the word here refers to Rajab, the usual month of عمرة (Lesser Pilgrimage), to which no respect was paid by certain Arab tribes. Abstaining from profaning the Sacred Month may also mean paying due respect to the works performed therein.
All manner of fighting must cease during the four Sacred Months. As pilgrims have to travel to and from Mecca during these months, not only are pilgrims and animals of sacrifice not to be molested on the way, but all hostilities must cease and there should be perfect peace so that pilgrims may perform both their inward and outward journeys in complete security. The hunting of land animals has also been forbidden for similar reason.
The words, nor those repairing to the Sacred House, refer particularly to the pilgrims who go to Mecca for the Greater or the Lesser Pilgrimage. But they may also refer to such travellers as may proceed to Mecca for any valid purpose, including such non-Muslims as may visit the Sacred House with the permission of its custodians to gain religious knowledge.
The expression, help not one another in sin and transgression, constitutes an effective reply to the malicious charge that Islam is a militant religion, encouraging aggressive warfare against the infidels. How can a Book which gives such clear injunctions to its followers as are contained in the above words, be expected to command them to take up arms against innocent and unoffending people and to kill them wherever they are found on the sole ground that they do not profess Islam?
The verse clearly forbids Muslims to fight their enemies in the four Sacred Months even when a state of war exists. The Holy Prophet himself was the first to carry out this injunction. He would not fight the idolatrous Meccans when, at Hudaibiyyah, they refused to allow him and his 1,400 followers to perform عمرة (Lesser Pilgrimage) for which he had undertaken such a long and arduous journey. He went back to Medina after signing a treaty, the terms of which at that time appeared to be very humiliating, in spite of the fact that his followers were prepared to fight. The Holy Prophet, however, paid no heed to the outraged feelings of his followers and did what righteousness and piety demanded. But when non-Muslims are the first to attack Muslims during a Sacred Month, the latter are allowed to defend themselves (2:195, 218). (close)
حُرِّمَتۡ عَلَیۡکُمُ الۡمَیۡتَۃُ وَ الدَّمُ وَ لَحۡمُ الۡخِنۡزِیۡرِ وَ مَاۤ اُہِلَّ لِغَیۡرِ اللّٰہِ بِہٖ وَ الۡمُنۡخَنِقَۃُ وَ الۡمَوۡقُوۡذَۃُ وَ الۡمُتَرَدِّیَۃُ وَ النَّطِیۡحَۃُ وَ مَاۤ اَکَلَ السَّبُعُ اِلَّا مَا ذَکَّیۡتُمۡ ۟ وَ مَا ذُبِحَ عَلَی النُّصُبِ وَ اَنۡ تَسۡتَقۡسِمُوۡا بِالۡاَزۡلَامِ ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ فِسۡقٌ ؕ اَلۡیَوۡمَ یَئِسَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مِنۡ دِیۡنِکُمۡ فَلَا تَخۡشَوۡہُمۡ وَ اخۡشَوۡنِ ؕ اَلۡیَوۡمَ اَکۡمَلۡتُ لَکُمۡ دِیۡنَکُمۡ وَ اَتۡمَمۡتُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ نِعۡمَتِیۡ وَ رَضِیۡتُ لَکُمُ الۡاِسۡلَامَ دِیۡنًا ؕ فَمَنِ اضۡطُرَّ فِیۡ مَخۡمَصَۃٍ غَیۡرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِّاِثۡمٍ ۙ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۴﴾
حُرِّمَتۡ عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلۡمَيۡتَةُ وَٱلدَّمُ وَلَحۡمُ ٱلۡخِنزِيرِ وَمَآ أُهِلَّ لِغَيۡرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِۦ وَٱلۡمُنۡخَنِقَةُ وَٱلۡمَوۡقُوذَةُ وَٱلۡمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَٱلنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَآ أَكَلَ ٱلسَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيۡتُمۡ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى ٱلنُّصُبِ وَأَن تَسۡتَقۡسِمُواْ بِٱلۡأَزۡلَٰمِۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ فِسۡقٌۗ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ يَئِسَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن دِينِكُمۡ فَلَا تَخۡشَوۡهُمۡ وَٱخۡشَوۡنِۚ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أَكۡمَلۡتُ لَكُمۡ دِينَكُمۡ وَأَتۡمَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ نِعۡمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ ٱلۡإِسۡلَٰمَ دِينٗاۚ فَمَنِ ٱضۡطُرَّ فِي مَخۡمَصَةٍ غَيۡرَ مُتَجَانِفٖ لِّإِثۡمٖ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
c. 2:174; 6:146. (close)
721. Ikmal (perfecting) and Itmam (completing) are noun-infinitives, the first relating to quality and the second to quantity. The first word shows that doctrines and commandments affecting the physical, moral and spiritual development of man have been embodied in the Qur’an in their most perfect form; while the second signifies that nothing which was needed by man has been left out. Again, the former word pertains to commandments relating to the physical side of man or his external self, while the latter relates to his spiritual side or his inner self. The perfection and completion of God’s religion and favour have been mentioned side by side with the law relating to eatables in order to point out that the use of lawful and good food forms one of the very important bases of good morals which in turn provide a pedestal for spiritual progress. Incidentally, the verse was the last to be revealed, the Holy Prophet having died only 82 days after its revelation. (close)
d. 2:174; 6:146; 16:116. (close)
a. 2:174; 6:146. (close)
b. 5:91. (close)
c. 3:20, 86. (close)
643. Important Words:
المیتة (an animal which dies of itself). Though generally speaking everything that is dead is میتة in its specific sense, the word signifies an animal that has died of itself without being properly slaughtered (Lane). See also 2:174.
المنخنقة (that which has been strangled) is derived from خنق. They say خنقه i.e. he squeezed his or its throat that he or it might die; he squeezed his or its throat so that he or it died; he strangled or throttled or choked him or it. اختنق or انخنقmeans, he or it became throttled or strangled or choked. شاة منخنقة means, a goat or sheep strangled or throttled (Lane).
الموقوذة (that which has been beaten to death) is derived from وقذه. They say وقذه i.e. he beat or struck him or it violently till he or it became relaxed and was at the point of death; he broke his or its skull, wounding the brain; he beat him or it till he or it died. شاة موقوذة means, a goat or sheep beaten to death either with a stick or staff or stones, etc. (Lane).
المتردیة (that which has been killed by a fall) is derived from ردی. They say ردی الرجل i.e. the man perished. رداه بحجر means, he threw stones at him and hit him. تردی means, he or it fell or tumbled down into a well or a pit. It also means, he or it fell down from a mountain, or a height and died. المتردیة means, that (a goat, etc.) which falls from a mountain or a height, or falls down a well, or a pit and dies (Lane).
النطیحة (that which has been gored to death) is derived from نطح. They say نطحه i.e. he (a ram, etc.) smote him or it with his horn. النطیحة means, a sheep or goat smitten with the horn and so killed (Lane).
ماذکیتم (that which you have properly slaughtered). ذکی (dhakka) is derived from ذکی (dhaka). They say ذکت النار i.e. the fire blazed or burned brightly. ذکت الارض means, the land was or became clean and pure. ذکی النار (dhakka) means, he made the fire blaze or burn brightly. ذکی العقل means, it (medicine, etc.) sharpened the intellect. ذکی الشاة means, he slaughtered the goat in the manner prescribed by the Law of Islam (Lane).
النصب (idols) is derived from نصب which means, he set up or he fixed. النصب according to some is singular, the plural of which is انصاب; and according to others, it is plural, of which the singular is نصاب. The word means, signs or marks set up to show the way; stones set up and worshipped to the exclusion of, or in preference to, God; anything that is so worshipped; stones which the pagan Arabs set to sacrifice or slay animals before them, the name of some deity being pronounced in the killing of such animals; idol or idols; but whereas idols were generally carved and had some form or shape, النصب were simple uncarved stones (Lane & Aqrab).
ازلام (divining arrows) is the plural of زلم and is derived from the verb زلم (zalama), meaning, he cut off the protruding part of a thing, such as the nose; he made his gift small in quantity as though he had cut off something from it. زلم السھم means, he cut or pared the arrow to make it proportionate and good-looking. زلم means, an arrow without a head and without feathers. ازلام (the plural of زلم) were those divining arrows by means of which pre-Islamic Arabs sought to know what was allotted to them. On some of these arrows the word "command" and on others "prohibition" were written, while others were left blank, and all these were kept together in a suitable vessel. When anyone wanted to do a certain thing or go on a journey, he would take out one of the arrows without looking at them and then act according to the instruction of "command" or "prohibition" as the case might be. If the blank arrow came out, the experiment was repeated, till an arrow bearing the word "command" or "prohibition" was taken out (Lane).
الیوم (this day) here really signifies "now". See 1:4.
مخمصة (hunger) is derived from مخمص. They say خمص البطن i.e. the belly was or became empty, i.e. hungry. خمصت القدم means, the foot rose from the ground or was hollow in the middle of the sole, so that it did not touch it. خمصه الجوع means, hunger rendered him lank in the belly. مخمصة therefore, means, emptiness of the belly; hunger (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse shows that the Quran does not consider the prosperity and predominance of Islam to be dependent on territorial conquest and the extension of material power, but on its being a perfect and complete religion. it draws the attention of Muslims to the fact that now that all the teachings needed for the moral and spiritual regeneration of man have been embodied in the Quran, it is up to them to win the premier place in the comity of nations by acting upon them and holding fast to them.
The words ikmal (perfecting) and itmam (completing) which are noun-infinitives from اکملت and اتممت (have I perfected and completed) occurring in the clause, This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour upon you, are full of meaning and convey two different and distinct senses. The former, (i.e. perfection) relates to quality, and the latter, (i.e. completion) to quantity. The use of the word اکملت (I have perfected) with regard to the teaching of the Quran thus shows that doctrines and commandments affecting the physical, moral and spiritual development of man have been embodied in the Quran in their most perfect form; while the word اتممت (I have completed) shows that nothing which was needed by man has been left out. Again, the former, i.e. perfection, pertains to command-ments relating to the physical side of man or his external self, while the latter, i.e. completion, relates to his spiritual side or his inner self, viz. the completion of the spiritual blessings which follow the observance of the outward Law.
Thus, the verse hints that as the Divine Law has been perfected and completed in the Quran it shall not be superseded by any other Law. The Laws that preceded the Quran were meant for particular peoples and limited periods, being suited to their special requirements only. Similarly, the Prophets that preceded the Holy. Prophet of Islam were only sent to particular nations. This was quite in the fitness of things. The means of communication between different countries were then in a very undeveloped state and people living in one country knew little or nothing of the countries that lay far off from them. Moreover, nations of the earth were then in different stages of development, some being very backward and others only partially developed and the mind of man had not attained its full growth and development. Hence, the circum-stances then obtaining required that separate Messengers be sent to separate nations who should give them such teachings as suited their particular needs and requirements. This state of things, however, was not to last forever, the Oneness of God presupposed oneness of mankind and it was quite natural that, when the God-given faculties of man became fully developed and the means of communication also improved so that intercourse between different nations became easier and more common, God should raise a Prophet for the whole of mankind and give him a perfect Law which should fulfil all the needs and meet all the problems of humanity
But the mere existence of a perfect Law cannot prevent the moral degeneration of humanity. So in spite of the presence of the Quran, it was necessary that heavenly Reformers should continue to appear in the world in times of degeneration, and, being inspired of God, should give new life to corrupt and degenerate humanity. In fact, the promise about the appearance of such Reformers is implied even in the words, This day have I completed My favour upon you, for if religion has been completed, it does not stand to reason that when mankind should consign God to oblivion and forget the object of their creation, God should make no provision for their regeneration. In that case, His favour upon them cannot be said to have been "completed". Thus, the very comple-tion of God’s favour upon Muslims requires that He should raise among them such Reformers as should breathe a new life into them, whenever their spiritual and moral degeneration demands it. Says the Holy Prophet, "God will raise among the Muslims at the head of each century a Reformer who would regenerate their religion for them" (Dawud, ch. on Malahim).
It may also be noted here that the perfection and completion of God’s religion and favour has been mentioned side by side with the law relating to eatables in order to point out that the use of lawful food forms one of the most important bases of good morals which in time provide a pedestal for spiritual progress. (close)
یَسۡـَٔلُوۡنَکَ مَاذَاۤ اُحِلَّ لَہُمۡ ؕ قُلۡ اُحِلَّ لَکُمُ الطَّیِّبٰتُ ۙ وَ مَا عَلَّمۡتُمۡ مِّنَ الۡجَوَارِحِ مُکَلِّبِیۡنَ تُعَلِّمُوۡنَہُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَکُمُ اللّٰہُ ۫ فَکُلُوۡا مِمَّاۤ اَمۡسَکۡنَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ اذۡکُرُوا اسۡمَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡہِ ۪ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ سَرِیۡعُ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿۵﴾
يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ مَاذَآ أُحِلَّ لَهُمۡۖ قُلۡ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتُ وَمَا عَلَّمۡتُم مِّنَ ٱلۡجَوَارِحِ مُكَلِّبِينَ تُعَلِّمُونَهُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَكُمُ ٱللَّهُۖ فَكُلُواْ مِمَّآ أَمۡسَكۡنَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَٱذۡكُرُواْ ٱسۡمَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡهِۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَرِيعُ ٱلۡحِسَابِ
722. The forbidden things having been mentioned in the preceding verse, the rest are here declared lawful, provided they are Tayyib (good and pure) and are not harmful to one’s health or morals, it being left to each individual to decide what is good for him and what is not, in view of his particular circumstances and the condition of his health. The Holy Prophet has definitely excluded beasts of prey and birds having claws from the category of lawful food. (close)
722A. That which is caught by a trained beast or bird of prey is equated with that which is properly slaughtered, inasmuch as it has been killed through an agency trained by man. It is necessary, however, to pronounce the name of God over it to make its eating lawful. (close)
a. 6:119. (close)
644. Important Words:
جوارح (animals of prey) is the plural of جارحة which is derived from جرح. They say جرحه i.e. he wounded him; or he cut him; or he clove or rent his body. It also means, he gained, acquired or earned. جوارح means, beasts and birds of prey that catch game. The word also means, the limbs of a human being with which things are gained or earned (Lane).
مکلبین (training them for hunting) is the plural of مکلب which is the active participle from کلب Kallaba which is the transitive form of کلب (Kaliba) meaning, he thirsted; he ate voraciously; he was seized with the disease of dogs; he barked. کلب(Kallaba) means, he trained (a dog) to hunt; he trained any beast or bird of prey to take game. مکلب means, one who trains dogs to hunt; or one who trains any beast or bird of prey to take game. مکلب also means, one who possesses dogs trained to hunt and hunts with them. کلب means, a dog or any animal of prey (Lane).
The forbidden things having been described in the preceding verse, the rest are here declared lawful, provided they are طیبات i.e. good and pure, it being left to each individual to decide what is good for him and what is not, in view of his particular circumstances and the condition of his health. The Holy Prophet has definitely excluded beasts of prey and birds having claws from the category of lawful food. See also 2:174.
The training of animals or birds of prey for catching game has been made lawful. As for the eating of the flesh of the game so hunted, the injunction varies according to circumstances. The more accepted view is as follows: (1) If the hunter finds the game alive, the eating of its flesh is lawful in all circumstances, provided the hunter slaughters the game in the prescribed manner. (2) If the hunter finds the game dead, the eating of its flesh is lawful only in case (a) the animal of prey is trained, and (b) it does not itself eat of the game, and (c) the hunter sends the animal of prey after reciting thereon the name of Allah. (3) If the game dies of sheer fear, before the animal of prey has actually caught and wounded it, the eating of its flesh is unlawful. (close)
اَلۡیَوۡمَ اُحِلَّ لَکُمُ الطَّیِّبٰتُ ؕ وَ طَعَامُ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ حِلٌّ لَّکُمۡ ۪ وَ طَعَامُکُمۡ حِلٌّ لَّہُمۡ ۫ وَ الۡمُحۡصَنٰتُ مِنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ وَ الۡمُحۡصَنٰتُ مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ اِذَاۤ اٰتَیۡتُمُوۡہُنَّ اُجُوۡرَہُنَّ مُحۡصِنِیۡنَ غَیۡرَ مُسٰفِحِیۡنَ وَ لَا مُتَّخِذِیۡۤ اَخۡدَانٍ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّکۡفُرۡ بِالۡاِیۡمَانِ فَقَدۡ حَبِطَ عَمَلُہٗ ۫ وَ ہُوَ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ مِنَ الۡخٰسِرِیۡنَ ٪﴿۶﴾
ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتُۖ وَطَعَامُ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ حِلّٞ لَّكُمۡ وَطَعَامُكُمۡ حِلّٞ لَّهُمۡۖ وَٱلۡمُحۡصَنَٰتُ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَٰتِ وَٱلۡمُحۡصَنَٰتُ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ إِذَآ ءَاتَيۡتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحۡصِنِينَ غَيۡرَ مُسَٰفِحِينَ وَلَا مُتَّخِذِيٓ أَخۡدَانٖۗ وَمَن يَكۡفُرۡ بِٱلۡإِيمَٰنِ فَقَدۡ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُۥ وَهُوَ فِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ مِنَ ٱلۡخَٰسِرِينَ
723. This means that the meat of animals slaughtered in accordance with the Law of Torah is lawful for the Muslims inasmuch as all food permissible under the Law of Torah is lawful under the Law of Islam. As a precautionary measure, however, the name of Allah may be invoked over such food. According to Ibn- e-‘Abbas "food" here means, "lawful food" (Dhabihah) or the meat of an animal properly slaughtered (Bukhari; ch. Dhabihatu Ahlil-Kitab). (close)
724. Whereas Islam permits marriage of Muslim men with non-Muslim women from among the People of the Book, it certainly prefers that Muslim men should ordinarily marry only Muslim women. (close)
645. Important Words:
For the meaning of the word محصنین (contracting valid marriage) and مسافحین (committing fornication) and اخدان (secret paramours). See 4:25, 26.
The verse declares that if a person from among the People of the Book invites a Muslim to dinner, it is lawful for the latter to accept the invitation and partake of the food of the former, provided, of course, the food does not include anything forbidden by Islam. Similarly, a Muslim is allowed to invite the People of the Book to dinner.
Some commentators have taken the word طعام (food) in the clause, the food of the People of the Book is lawful for you, in the sense of "flesh of animals used as food." In this sense, the verse would signify that Muslims are allowed to partake of the flesh of an animal slaughtered by one from among the People of the Book, provided, of course, the name of God has been pronounced on the slaughtered animal.
The words, And lawful for you are chaste believing women and chaste women from among those who were given the Book before you, are intended to hint that whereas Islam permits marriage of Muslim men with non-Muslim women from among the People of the Book, it certainly prefers that Muslim men should ordinarily marry only Muslim women.
The words یکفر بالایمان rendered as "rejects the faith" may either mean "turns apostate" which is its primary significance; or it may mean "is ungrateful respecting faith". For the meaning of the particle با see 1:1. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا قُمۡتُمۡ اِلَی الصَّلٰوۃِ فَاغۡسِلُوۡا وُجُوۡہَکُمۡ وَ اَیۡدِیَکُمۡ اِلَی الۡمَرَافِقِ وَ امۡسَحُوۡا بِرُءُوۡسِکُمۡ وَ اَرۡجُلَکُمۡ اِلَی الۡکَعۡبَیۡنِ ؕ وَ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ جُنُبًا فَاطَّہَّرُوۡا ؕ وَ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مَّرۡضٰۤی اَوۡ عَلٰی سَفَرٍ اَوۡ جَآءَ اَحَدٌ مِّنۡکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡغَآئِطِ اَوۡ لٰمَسۡتُمُ النِّسَآءَ فَلَمۡ تَجِدُوۡا مَآءً فَتَیَمَّمُوۡا صَعِیۡدًا طَیِّبًا فَامۡسَحُوۡا بِوُجُوۡہِکُمۡ وَ اَیۡدِیۡکُمۡ مِّنۡہُ ؕ مَا یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ لِیَجۡعَلَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ حَرَجٍ وَّ لٰکِنۡ یُّرِیۡدُ لِیُطَہِّرَکُمۡ وَ لِیُتِمَّ نِعۡمَتَہٗ عَلَیۡکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۷﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِذَا قُمۡتُمۡ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ فَٱغۡسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمۡ وَأَيۡدِيَكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡمَرَافِقِ وَٱمۡسَحُواْ بِرُءُوسِكُمۡ وَأَرۡجُلَكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡكَعۡبَيۡنِۚ وَإِن كُنتُمۡ جُنُبٗا فَٱطَّهَّرُواْۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرۡضَىٰٓ أَوۡ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوۡ جَآءَ أَحَدٞ مِّنكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡغَآئِطِ أَوۡ لَٰمَسۡتُمُ ٱلنِّسَآءَ فَلَمۡ تَجِدُواْ مَآءٗ فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيدٗا طَيِّبٗا فَٱمۡسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمۡ وَأَيۡدِيكُم مِّنۡهُۚ مَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ لِيَجۡعَلَ عَلَيۡكُم مِّنۡ حَرَجٖ وَلَٰكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمۡ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعۡمَتَهُۥ عَلَيۡكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ
725. The feet are here mentioned after the head, not because they are intended to be only wiped like the head, but because they come last in the process of ablution. This is apparent from the fact that the word Arjula (feet) has been put in the accusative case in the standard text, like the words Wujuha (faces) and Aidiya (hands), thus showing that, like the latter, the word "feet" is also governed in the accusative case by the verb "wash" and not by the particle ba’ (over) which governs the word Ru’us (heads) only. (close)
725A. See 610 - 612. (close)
a. 2:186; 2:287. (close)
a. 2:186. (close)
646. Important Words:
جنب (unclean) for which see 4:44.
After the questions of food and marriage comes the question of cleanliness on which Islam lays so much emphasis, specially on cleanliness necessary for the proper performance of worship. The feet are here mentioned after the head, not because they are intended, as alleged by the Shias, to be only wiped like the head, but because they come last in the process of ablution. This is apparent from the fact that the word ارجل (feet) has been put in the accusative case in the standard text, like the words وجوه (faces) and ایدی (hands), thus showing that, like the latter, the word "feet" is also governed in the accusative case by the verb اغسلوا (wash) and not by the particle با (over) which governs the word رؤس (heads) only. Hence the addition of the verb "wash" before it in the translation. It is true that a solitary reading gives the word ارجل(arjula) as ارجل (arjulin in the genitive case). But even this does not necessarily mean that the word is not governed by the verb اغسلوا (wash); for, according to the rules of Arabic grammar, nouns in the accusative case may sometimes be put in the genitive case owing to their proximity to a noun in the genitive case. According to this rule, ارجل (feet) would be taken to have been put in this reading in the genitive case owing to its proximity to the word رؤس (heads), but really it is governed not by the preposition با but by the verb اغسلوا. In fact, the word ارجل (feet) has been put after رؤس (heads) to point out the order which is to be observed in the performance of ablution. The authentic sayings of the Holy Prophet also make it clear that in performing an ablution the feet should be washed and not merely wiped. These sayings are also supported by the practice of the Holy Prophet.
There are, however, cases when the feet are not to be washed but simply "wiped" like the heads, e.g., when one is wearing socks or stockings. So it may be that the common reading arjula (in the accusative case) applies to the general rule of "washing" the feet when performing وضوء (ablution), while the exceptional reading arjuli (in the genitive case) applies to the exceptional cases when the feet are to be "wiped" like the head.
The words, you have touched women, embody a chaste and graceful expression and mean "you have had sexual intercourse with them".
The sense of the verse may be summed up as follows: (1) Before offering his Prayers, a Muslim should perform the prescribed ablution, i.e.washing of the face and the hands, wiping of the head, and washing of the feet. (2) If a man is جنب (unclean), i.e. he has had sexual intercourse with his wife or, for that matter, has had a nocturnal discharge, he should have a complete bath in order to purify himself for Prayers. (3) If, however, a man is sick and the process of ablution or bathing is likely to do him harm, or if he is on a journey and cannot find water, then even after answering the call of nature or becoming "unclean" by having sexual intercourse with his wife, he is allowed to forego the process of ablution or bathing and to perform instead the تیمم with pure dust. See also 4:44. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرُوۡا نِعۡمَۃَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ مِیۡثَاقَہُ الَّذِیۡ وَاثَقَکُمۡ بِہٖۤ ۙ اِذۡ قُلۡتُمۡ سَمِعۡنَا وَ اَطَعۡنَا ۫ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُوۡرِ ﴿۸﴾
وَٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَةَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَمِيثَٰقَهُ ٱلَّذِي وَاثَقَكُم بِهِۦٓ إِذۡ قُلۡتُمۡ سَمِعۡنَا وَأَطَعۡنَاۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمُۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ
726. It is the Muslims, and not the People of the Book, that are addressed here. As, however, no special covenant is known to have ever been made with Muslims, the "covenant" mentioned here must be taken to refer to the process of Bai‘ah (oath of allegiance) taken from every new convert to Islam, or the word may refer to the Law revealed in the Qur’an and accepted by Muslims. (close)
b. 2:286. (close)
a. 2:286. (close)
It is Muslims, and not the People of the Book, that are addressed here. As, however, no special covenant is known to have ever been made with Muslims, the "covenant" mentioned here must be taken to refer to the process of بیعة (oath of allegiance) taken from every new convert to Islam; or the word may refer to the law revealed in the Quran and accepted by Muslims. The words, We hear and we obey, obviously refer to the acceptance of Islam by the Faithful.
The words, Allah knows well what is in the minds, have been added to point out that mere lip-profession is not acceptable to God. He who would accept Islam should accept it from the depths of his heart and willingly act up to its teachings. The words thus incidentally provide a strong refutation of the charge so wrongfully brought against Islam that it sanctions conversion at the point of the sword. The sword can only govern the tongue but not the heart. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا کُوۡنُوۡا قَوّٰمِیۡنَ لِلّٰہِ شُہَدَآءَ بِالۡقِسۡطِ ۫ وَ لَا یَجۡرِمَنَّکُمۡ شَنَاٰنُ قَوۡمٍ عَلٰۤی اَلَّا تَعۡدِلُوۡا ؕ اِعۡدِلُوۡا ۟ ہُوَ اَقۡرَبُ لِلتَّقۡوٰی ۫ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّـٰمِينَ لِلَّهِ شُهَدَآءَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۖ وَلَا يَجۡرِمَنَّكُمۡ شَنَـَٔانُ قَوۡمٍ عَلَىٰٓ أَلَّا تَعۡدِلُواْۚ ٱعۡدِلُواْ هُوَ أَقۡرَبُ لِلتَّقۡوَىٰۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
c. 4:136. (close)
d. 5:3; 11:90. (close)
a. 4:136. (close)
b. 5:3; 11:90. (close)
As the word قوام (for which see 4:35), mean one who performs his work thoroughly and ceaselessly, the expression, be steadfast in the cause of Allah, would mean that Muslims should take a firm hold of the commandments of God and carry them out completely and thoroughly and should never become lax or negligent.
The words, bearing witness in equity, mean that the Faithful should bear practical witness to the truth of Islam by becoming good Muslims and leading good lives in order to become examples for others. They also signify that the Muslims should convey the Message of Islam to others and thus become witnesses for them. As, however, propagation of Islam implies contact with other peoples, the verse fittingly ends with the commandment, let not a people’s enmity incite you to act otherwise than with justice. Be always just, that is nearer to righteousness. Surely no other religion gives such fair and just teachings about its enemies as does Islam. A true Muslim should act justly not only to other Muslims but also to all non-Muslims–even to those who are enemies of Islam.
The words, And fear Allah, surely Allah is aware of what you do, contain a stern warning that the just and equitable treatment of the enemy enjoined above should not be by way of show but should proceed from the heart and be based on the fear of God, from Whom nothing is hidden. (close)
وَعَدَ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ ۙ لَہُمۡ مَّغۡفِرَۃٌ وَّ اَجۡرٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰﴾
وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ لَهُم مَّغۡفِرَةٞ وَأَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٞ
e. 24:56; 48:30. (close)
c. 22:57; 24:56; 48:30. (close)