فَاِنۡ عُثِرَ عَلٰۤی اَنَّہُمَا اسۡتَحَقَّاۤ اِثۡمًا فَاٰخَرٰنِ یَقُوۡمٰنِ مَقَامَہُمَا مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اسۡتَحَقَّ عَلَیۡہِمُ الۡاَوۡلَیٰنِ فَیُقۡسِمٰنِ بِاللّٰہِ لَشَہَادَتُنَاۤ اَحَقُّ مِنۡ شَہَادَتِہِمَا وَ مَا اعۡتَدَیۡنَاۤ ۫ۖ اِنَّاۤ اِذًا لَّمِنَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۸﴾
فَإِنۡ عُثِرَ عَلَىٰٓ أَنَّهُمَا ٱسۡتَحَقَّآ إِثۡمٗا فَـَٔاخَرَانِ يَقُومَانِ مَقَامَهُمَا مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَحَقَّ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلۡأَوۡلَيَٰنِ فَيُقۡسِمَانِ بِٱللَّهِ لَشَهَٰدَتُنَآ أَحَقُّ مِن شَهَٰدَتِهِمَا وَمَا ٱعۡتَدَيۡنَآ إِنَّآ إِذٗا لَّمِنَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
802. The word Aulayan refers to the first two witnesses and signifies that these two were in a better position to give true evidence, being the persons who were with the deceased at the time of his death and in whose presence the will was made and to whom the property was entrusted to be handed over to the heirs of the deceased. The "other" two witnesses should be from among the deceased person’s heirs. (close)
735. Important Words:
اَولیان (the two who were in a better position) is derived from ولی being the dual of اولی which means, one more worthy or more competent or more entitled or more deserving or better fitted or having a better claim to do a thing, etc. (Lane). See also 4:136.
استحقااثما (the two are guilty of sin) and استحق علیھم (against whom they sinfully deposed). The word استحق is derived from حقwhich means, it was or became suitable to the requirements of wisdom, justice, right and truth; it was or became right, proper, correct or true; it became established as a truth. استحقه means, he demanded it as his right or due; he had a right or title or claim to it; he deserved or merited it. They say استحق اثما i.e. he did what necessitated sin; or he was guilty of a sin and deserved it being said of him that he was a sinner. The expression علیھم added the word استحق means "against them", the particle علی sometimes meaning "against". استحقھا علی المشتری means, he has a right to it in preference to the purchaser, i.e. he has a better claim to it as against the buyer. The words استحق علیھم therefore, would mean, they (the two witnesses who were in a better position to give true evidence) gave false evidence against their just rights, seeking to deprive them (heirs of the deceased) of their rights by giving false evidence against them.
See collective note on 5:109. (close)
ذٰلِکَ اَدۡنٰۤی اَنۡ یَّاۡتُوۡا بِالشَّہَادَۃِ عَلٰی وَجۡہِہَاۤ اَوۡ یَخَافُوۡۤا اَنۡ تُرَدَّ اَیۡمَانٌۢ بَعۡدَ اَیۡمَانِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اسۡمَعُوۡا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۹﴾٪
ذَٰلِكَ أَدۡنَىٰٓ أَن يَأۡتُواْ بِٱلشَّهَٰدَةِ عَلَىٰ وَجۡهِهَآ أَوۡ يَخَافُوٓاْ أَن تُرَدَّ أَيۡمَٰنُۢ بَعۡدَ أَيۡمَٰنِهِمۡۗ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱسۡمَعُواْۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلۡفَٰسِقِينَ
The Arabic words ترد ایمان بعد ایمانھم rendered as "other oaths will be taken after their oaths" literally means: (1) "oaths will be repeated, i.e. taken again, after their oaths"; or (2) "their oaths will be rejected after their (other witnesses’) oaths", the significance in both cases being practically the same, i.e. the oaths of the first two witnesses will be rejected and two other witnesses called in to give true evidence on oath.
The purport of this and the preceding two verses is that when a person is about to make his will at the time of his death, he should have as witnesses to his statement two just men, who should testify to the validity of his will after his death. But if death comes upon a person suddenly when he is away from home and no Muslim witnesses are at hand, then two trustworthy non-Muslims may be asked to serve as witnesses. If, however, the veracity of the witnesses is called into question by the heirs of the deceased, the former should be asked to prove their truthfulness by a statement on oath made after the time of Prayer. But if the persons in whose favour the will was made have good reason to believe that the witnesses have been guilty of perjury, then they can state on oath that their statement is truer than that of the two witnesses, and in that case the qadi or judge, if satisfied, will give his decree in their favour.
An incident is reported to have occurred in the days of the Holy Prophet which throws some light on the verses under comment. A Muslim who died away from home entrusted his goods to two men before his death and asked them to deliver the same to his heirs at Medina. On receiving the goods, the heirs found that a silver bowl was missing. The two men were thereupon called upon to explain the loss of the bowl, but they denied all knowledge of it on oath. Later, the heirs of the deceased person happened to see the bowl with some persons at Mecca who told them that it had been sold to them by the two men to whom the deceased had entrusted his property. Thereupon the two men were again summoned, and in their presence the heirs of the deceased stated on oath that the bowl was theirs, whereupon it was handed over to them (Manthur).
The Prayer mentioned in 5:107 above may be any Prayer but preferably it should be the ‘Asr or late afternoon Prayer, because it was after this Prayer that the Holy Prophet summoned the two witnesses to whom reference has been made above and who were believed to have stolen the silver bowl. The time after Prayer has been chosen with a view to inspiring witnesses with ideas of piety and God-fearingness and inclining their minds to truthfulness. If the witnesses be non-Muslims, then they may be called upon to swear after the time of their own worship, so that the solemnity of the hour may incline them to make a true statement, because the worship of God is calculated to exercise a purifying influence on the human mind, and men fresh from Prayer are expected to fear God and make a true statement.
The word اَولیان (the two, who were in a better position) occurring in 5:108 above is the dual of اولی which means more competent or more worthy. It refers to the first two witnesses and signifies that these two were in a better position to give true evidence, being the persons who were with the deceased at the time of his death and in whose presence the will was made and to whom the property was entrusted to be handed over to the heirs of the deceased. The expression also serves as a sort of veiled reproach to them that, in spite of being in a better position and more competent to give true evidence, they stumbled and drifted away from truth.
The second two witnesses should be from among the deceased person’s heirs, whom the first two witnesses deprived of their right by bearing false witness regarding the will of the deceased. (close)
یَوۡمَ یَجۡمَعُ اللّٰہُ الرُّسُلَ فَیَقُوۡلُ مَا ذَاۤ اُجِبۡتُمۡ ؕ قَالُوۡا لَا عِلۡمَ لَنَا ؕ اِنَّکَ اَنۡتَ عَلَّامُ الۡغُیُوۡبِ ﴿۱۱۰﴾
۞يَوۡمَ يَجۡمَعُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلرُّسُلَ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَآ أُجِبۡتُمۡۖ قَالُواْ لَا عِلۡمَ لَنَآۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ عَلَّـٰمُ ٱلۡغُيُوبِ
a. 7:7; 28:66. (close)
803. The answer of the Prophets implies that the object of God’s questioning would not be to elicit information from them or to supplement His own knowledge, but that they should give testimony against the disbelievers, as is also clear from 4:42. (close)
a. 7:7; 28:66. (close)
The words, We have no knowledge; it is only Thou Who art the Knower of hidden things, constitute both a sort of veiled recommendation and a glorification of God. The Prophets will, in effect, say, "The people did indeed reject us; but Thou art the Knower of secrets. We do not know what was in their minds and whether they rejected us from their hearts or only expressed disbelief out of the fear of others. It is, therefore, for Thee to decide what their real attitude was and what treatment should be meted out to them." This recommendation seems to run counter to 4:42, which shows that the Prophets will bear witness against their people. The study of the relevant verses, however, shows that the occasions are different. The above-mentioned reply of the Prophets will be made when in the beginning God will question them in a general way; whereas the tendering of evidence will come at a later stage when God will call upon them definitely to come forward and give the required evidence about those who rejected them. There is, thus, no real conflict between the two verses.
The answer given by the Prophets is also in harmony with the dignity of God and constitutes an act of His glorification on the part of the Prophets. God perfectly knows what reply the people made to the Prophets, but, in spite of this, He will ask the Prophets to say what answer they were given by the people, as if He Himself was not aware of that answer. The Prophets, therefore, will very appropriately remove this apparent implication of ignorance on the part of God, by attributing all knowledge to Him.
The answer of the Prophets also implies that the object of God’s question was not to elicit information from them or to supplement His own knowledge, for He knew what answer they were given. In fact, there was some other purpose behind His question which was that they should give their testimony against the disbelievers, as is clear from 4:42, and thus carry out the Divine command referred to in the latter verse. (close)
اِذۡ قَالَ اللّٰہُ یٰعِیۡسَی ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ اذۡکُرۡ نِعۡمَتِیۡ عَلَیۡکَ وَ عَلٰی وَالِدَتِکَ ۘ اِذۡ اَیَّدۡتُّکَ بِرُوۡحِ الۡقُدُسِ ۟ تُکَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فِی الۡمَہۡدِ وَ کَہۡلًا ۚ وَ اِذۡ عَلَّمۡتُکَ الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡحِکۡمَۃَ وَ التَّوۡرٰٮۃَ وَ الۡاِنۡجِیۡلَ ۚ وَ اِذۡ تَخۡلُقُ مِنَ الطِّیۡنِ کَہَیۡـَٔۃِ الطَّیۡرِ بِاِذۡنِیۡ فَتَنۡفُخُ فِیۡہَا فَتَکُوۡنُ طَیۡرًۢا بِاِذۡنِیۡ وَ تُبۡرِیٴُ الۡاَکۡمَہَ وَ الۡاَبۡرَصَ بِاِذۡنِیۡ ۚ وَ اِذۡ تُخۡرِجُ الۡمَوۡتٰی بِاِذۡنِیۡ ۚ وَ اِذۡ کَفَفۡتُ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ عَنۡکَ اِذۡ جِئۡتَہُمۡ بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِ فَقَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مِنۡہُمۡ اِنۡ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّا سِحۡرٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۱۱﴾
إِذۡ قَالَ ٱللَّهُ يَٰعِيسَى ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ ٱذۡكُرۡ نِعۡمَتِي عَلَيۡكَ وَعَلَىٰ وَٰلِدَتِكَ إِذۡ أَيَّدتُّكَ بِرُوحِ ٱلۡقُدُسِ تُكَلِّمُ ٱلنَّاسَ فِي ٱلۡمَهۡدِ وَكَهۡلٗاۖ وَإِذۡ عَلَّمۡتُكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةَ وَٱلۡإِنجِيلَۖ وَإِذۡ تَخۡلُقُ مِنَ ٱلطِّينِ كَهَيۡـَٔةِ ٱلطَّيۡرِ بِإِذۡنِي فَتَنفُخُ فِيهَا فَتَكُونُ طَيۡرَۢا بِإِذۡنِيۖ وَتُبۡرِئُ ٱلۡأَكۡمَهَ وَٱلۡأَبۡرَصَ بِإِذۡنِيۖ وَإِذۡ تُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ بِإِذۡنِيۖ وَإِذۡ كَفَفۡتُ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ عَنكَ إِذۡ جِئۡتَهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ فَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ إِنۡ هَٰذَآ إِلَّا سِحۡرٞ مُّبِينٞ
b. 2:88; 2:254. (close)
804. The act of speaking in the cradle signifies speaking words of wisdom and piety in childhood. This sort of speaking by Jesus reflected great credit on his mother, who, herself being a wise and pious lady, brought him up as a wise and pious child. And the speaking of good words in middle age shows that not only was Mary a pious woman, but Jesus too was a righteous man so that even when he was of middle age and was no longer under the direct influence of his mother, he spoke words of piety and wisdom. See also 418. (close)
d. 3:49. (close)
e. 3:50. (close)
805. See 420D and 420E. (close)
a. 5:12. (close)
806. The reference is to the attempts of Jews to kill Jesus on the cross from which God delivered him. (close)
a. 2:88; 2:254. (close)
b. 3:47. (close)
c. 3:49. (close)
d. 3:50. (close)
e. 5:12. (close)
In the clause, thou didst speak to the people in the cradle and when of middle age, the act of speaking in the cradle signifies speaking words of wisdom and piety in childhood. This sort of speaking on the part of Jesus reflected great credit on his mother, who, herself being wise and pious, brought him up as a wise and pious child. And the speaking of good words in middle age shows that not only was Mary a pious woman, but Jesus, too, was a righteous man so that even when he was of middle age and was no longer under the direct influence of his mother, he spoke words of piety and wisdom to men. See also 3:47 & 3:49, 50, where similar works of Jesus, i.e. the creation of birds and the quickening of the dead, etc. have been discussed.
Protection similar to that alluded to in the latter part of this verse in the words, I restrained the Children of Israel from putting thee to death, was promised to the Holy Prophet as well (5:68). This promise met with a remarkable fulfilment. Though, even at Mecca, his life was in constant danger, at Medina that danger very much increased. The Holy Prophet led many expeditions in person and several attempts were made on his life. At Uhud, he was severely wounded and at Hunain he was left alone among a large host of bloodthirsty archers. Yet amidst all these dangers he remained safe, and after having triumphed over his enemies, passed away peacefully in his house at Medina. The reference in the present verse is to the attempts of the Jews to kill Jesus on the cross, from which—accursed death—God delivered him. The words, I restrained the Children of Israel, should not, however, be understood to mean that Jesus suffered even no persecution at the hands of his enemies. A similar expression has been used with regard to early Muslims in the Quran (5:12), but it is a well-known fact that they had to pass through grievous trials and tribulations. The expression thus only means that the enemy will fail to kill Jesus, whom God will protect from being destroyed. (close)
وَ اِذۡ اَوۡحَیۡتُ اِلَی الۡحَوَارِیّٖنَ اَنۡ اٰمِنُوۡا بِیۡ وَ بِرَسُوۡلِیۡ ۚ قَالُوۡۤا اٰمَنَّا وَ اشۡہَدۡ بِاَنَّنَا مُسۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۲﴾
وَإِذۡ أَوۡحَيۡتُ إِلَى ٱلۡحَوَارِيِّـۧنَ أَنۡ ءَامِنُواْ بِي وَبِرَسُولِي قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا وَٱشۡهَدۡ بِأَنَّنَا مُسۡلِمُونَ
b. 3:53, 54; 61:15. (close)
a. 3:53-54; 61:15. (close)
739. Important Words:
The verb اوحی (inspired) does not always mean verbal revelation. It sometimes simply means to inspire a person with an idea, or to suggest it to him; and it is in this sense that the word is used here. The word has also been used with reference to the bee (16:89).
الحوارین (disciples). See 3:53. (close)
اِذۡ قَالَ الۡحَوَارِیُّوۡنَ یٰعِیۡسَی ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ ہَلۡ یَسۡتَطِیۡعُ رَبُّکَ اَنۡ یُّنَزِّلَ عَلَیۡنَا مَآئِدَۃً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ ؕ قَالَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۳﴾
إِذۡ قَالَ ٱلۡحَوَارِيُّونَ يَٰعِيسَى ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ هَلۡ يَسۡتَطِيعُ رَبُّكَ أَن يُنَزِّلَ عَلَيۡنَا مَآئِدَةٗ مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِۖ قَالَ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
807. It was not a single meal that the disciples of Jesus asked for, but a permanent provision of sustenance which might be had without any trouble or hardship. (close)
808. The words "from heaven" denote a thing that is obtained without much trouble and is sure and lasting. (close)
The words, send down to us a table spread with food from heaven, show that it was not a single meal that the disciples of Jesus asked for, but a permanent provision of sustenance which might be had without any trouble or hardship. The words "from heaven" denote a thing that is obtained without trouble and is sure and lasting. (close)
قَالُوۡا نُرِیۡدُ اَنۡ نَّاۡکُلَ مِنۡہَا وَ تَطۡمَئِنَّ قُلُوۡبُنَا وَ نَعۡلَمَ اَنۡ قَدۡ صَدَقۡتَنَا وَ نَکُوۡنَ عَلَیۡہَا مِنَ الشّٰہِدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۴﴾
قَالُواْ نُرِيدُ أَن نَّأۡكُلَ مِنۡهَا وَتَطۡمَئِنَّ قُلُوبُنَا وَنَعۡلَمَ أَن قَدۡ صَدَقۡتَنَا وَنَكُونَ عَلَيۡهَا مِنَ ٱلشَّـٰهِدِينَ
The disciples of Jesus have, in this verse, mentioned four objects which the fulfilment of the prayer of Jesus about the food asked for was meant to serve: (1) that they might eat thereof and their hunger might be satisfied; (2) that their minds might be at rest. This also shows that they desired a permanent provision of sustenance because a single meal could not put their minds at rest or relieve them of anxiety about their livelihood in the future so that they might be able to preach the message of God free from all care and devote themselves fully to the service of religion; (3) that the prophecy of Jesus contained in 3:50 might be fulfilled; and (4) that they might become witnesses to the fulfilment of his prayer and of the truth of their religion, and people might know that God helps and favours those who are devoted to the service of His religion. The history of the early Christian Church shows that God did actually make extraordinary provision for the sustenance of those who devoted their lives to the preaching of the message of Jesus. Nay, even now Christians, though they have drifted far away from the truth, are enjoying an extra good table spread with food. (close)
قَالَ عِیۡسَی ابۡنُ مَرۡیَمَ اللّٰہُمَّ رَبَّنَاۤ اَنۡزِلۡ عَلَیۡنَا مَآئِدَۃً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ تَکُوۡنُ لَنَا عِیۡدًا لِّاَوَّلِنَا وَ اٰخِرِنَا وَ اٰیَۃً مِّنۡکَ ۚ وَ ارۡزُقۡنَا وَ اَنۡتَ خَیۡرُ الرّٰزِقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۵﴾
قَالَ عِيسَى ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ ٱللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَآ أَنزِلۡ عَلَيۡنَا مَآئِدَةٗ مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ تَكُونُ لَنَا عِيدٗا لِّأَوَّلِنَا وَءَاخِرِنَا وَءَايَةٗ مِّنكَۖ وَٱرۡزُقۡنَا وَأَنتَ خَيۡرُ ٱلرَّـٰزِقِينَ
808A. The Christians were granted temporal power in the beginning as under the Romans and they hold sway now over vast areas of the earth. (close)
809. There were to be two periods of prosperity and progress for the Christian peoples, as the word ‘Id literally meaning "a day which returns," shows. Christian peoples were granted worldly goods in abundance in the early ages after Constantine and then in the 18th and 19th centuries they had material prosperity and political grandeur in such measure as has no parallel in the history of any other people. (close)
This verse shows that Jesus approved of the wish of his disciples and, therefore, while praying, he included himself among them.
The words, that it may be to us a festival, to the first of us and to the last of us, embody a great prophecy. There were to be two periods of prosperity and progress for the Christian peoples, as the word عید (festival) literally meaning "a day which returns", shows. The first was to be in the time immediately after Jesus, while the second was to be in the latter days; and the period between these two was to be marked by decay and decline. And this is exactly what is more clearly referred to in the words, to the first of us and to the last of us. Christian peoples were granted worldly goods in abundance in the early ages, i.e. before the rise of Islam, and now in the latter days, i.e. after the decline of Islam, they have had material prosperity and grandeur in such measure as has no parallel in the history of any other religion. But with the advent of the like of Jesus in the person of Ahmad, the Promised Messiah, in Islam, the sun is indeed nearing its setting on "the last of the Christians", who can now save themselves only by identifying themselves with him who had come in the spirit and power of their Master. (close)
قَالَ اللّٰہُ اِنِّیۡ مُنَزِّلُہَا عَلَیۡکُمۡ ۚ فَمَنۡ یَّکۡفُرۡ بَعۡدُ مِنۡکُمۡ فَاِنِّیۡۤ اُعَذِّبُہٗ عَذَابًا لَّاۤ اُعَذِّبُہٗۤ اَحَدًا مِّنَ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۶﴾٪
قَالَ ٱللَّهُ إِنِّي مُنَزِّلُهَا عَلَيۡكُمۡۖ فَمَن يَكۡفُرۡ بَعۡدُ مِنكُمۡ فَإِنِّيٓ أُعَذِّبُهُۥ عَذَابٗا لَّآ أُعَذِّبُهُۥٓ أَحَدٗا مِّنَ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
810. The punishment referred to in the verse is the same as mentioned in 19:91. The last two World Wars along with their repercussions may constitute one phase of the fulfilment of this prophecy and God alone knows what dire punishments are yet in store for the Christian nations of the West. (close)
743. This verse also makes it clear that the مائدة (the table spread with food) did not mean a meal that was actually to descend from heaven, for such miracles are never shown, it being impossible to disbelieve after one has witnessed the wonderful phenomenon of a table set out with food actually descending from on high.
The punishment referred to in the verse is the same as is mentioned in 19:91.
Christians did "disbelieve afterwards" and the threatened punishment has already made its appearance. The last and the present World War, along with their repercussions, constitute one phase of the fulfilment of this prophecy, and God knows what dreadful forms the fulfilment of this great prophecy is decreed to take in future and what dire visitations are yet in store for Christians in this world and in the next. (close)
وَ اِذۡ قَالَ اللّٰہُ یٰعِیۡسَی ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ ءَاَنۡتَ قُلۡتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُوۡنِیۡ وَ اُمِّیَ اِلٰہَیۡنِ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ قَالَ سُبۡحٰنَکَ مَا یَکُوۡنُ لِیۡۤ اَنۡ اَقُوۡلَ مَا لَیۡسَ لِیۡ ٭ بِحَقٍّ ؕ اِنۡ کُنۡتُ قُلۡتُہٗ فَقَدۡ عَلِمۡتَہٗ ؕ تَعۡلَمُ مَا فِیۡ نَفۡسِیۡ وَ لَاۤ اَعۡلَمُ مَا فِیۡ نَفۡسِکَ ؕ اِنَّکَ اَنۡتَ عَلَّامُ الۡغُیُوۡبِ ﴿۱۱۷﴾
وَإِذۡ قَالَ ٱللَّهُ يَٰعِيسَى ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ ءَأَنتَ قُلۡتَ لِلنَّاسِ ٱتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَٰهَيۡنِ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۖ قَالَ سُبۡحَٰنَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِيٓ أَنۡ أَقُولَ مَا لَيۡسَ لِي بِحَقٍّۚ إِن كُنتُ قُلۡتُهُۥ فَقَدۡ عَلِمۡتَهُۥۚ تَعۡلَمُ مَا فِي نَفۡسِي وَلَآ أَعۡلَمُ مَا فِي نَفۡسِكَۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ عَلَّـٰمُ ٱلۡغُيُوبِ
811. The verse refers to the practice of the Christian Church to ascribe Divine powers to Mary. Mary’s help is invoked in Litany, and in Catechism of the Roman Church the doctrine that she is the mother of God is inculcated. Church Fathers in the past have regarded her as Divine and only a few years ago Pope Pius XII incorporated the bodily ascension of Mary in the doctrine of the Church. All this amounts to raising her to the pedestal of Divinity and this is what Protestants denounce as Mariolatry. (close)
812. The Arabic expression in the text which is translated as "I could never" may also be interpreted as: It did not behove me; or it was impossible for me; or I had no right; to do so, etc. (close)
a. 5:110; 9:78; 34:49. (close)
a. 5:110; 9:78; 34:49. (close)
744. Important Words:
The words ما یکون لی (I could not) may be interpreted in various ways, such as, it was not fitting or proper for me to do so; or it did not behove me; or it was beyond my power or position; or it was impossible for me; or I had no right to do so, etc. See also 3:80.
نفس (mind) means, among other things, knowledge; purpose or intention (Lane). See also 3:29.
The expression, Holy art Thou, besides hinting that it is only God Who is free from error, embodies a beautiful reply on the part of Jesus to the question put to him by God in the words, didst thou say to men, 'Take me and my mother for two gods', which seemed to imply a sort of reproach and an expression of displeasure. The reply of Jesus appears to be something like this: "I was only a humble Messenger, O God, therefore I could not ask men to take me and my mother as gods beside Thee, for if I had done so, that would have been a reflection on Thee that Thou didst choose as Thy Messenger a person who turned faithless to Thee and asked his followers to take him and his mother as gods beside Thee. But Thy choice, o God, cannot be wrong; hence it was impossible that I, a Messenger of Thine, should have bidden men take me and my mother as gods, and Thine own all-embracing knowledge, o God, is a testimony of my innocence."
The word نفس (mind) when used about God implies "intention." Thus the last sentence of the verse would mean, "I do not know what Thou meanest by this question. Thou, being All-Knowing, well knowest that I did not say so; hence, I fail to understand the object or purpose of Thy ques-tion." This reply of Jesus shows that in his heart he was afraid that some shortcoming in the execution of his duty might have displeased the Almighty. (close)