یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ وَ ابۡتَغُوۡۤا اِلَیۡہِ الۡوَسِیۡلَۃَ وَ جَاہِدُوۡا فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۳۶﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱبۡتَغُوٓاْ إِلَيۡهِ ٱلۡوَسِيلَةَ وَجَٰهِدُواْ فِي سَبِيلِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ
b. 17:58. (close)
743. Wasilah signifies, a means of access to a thing; honourable rank with a king; degree; affinity, a tie or connection (Lane). The word does not mean "an intermediary between God and man." This latter meaning is not only unsupported by the usage of the Arabic language, but is also opposed to the Qur’an and the sayings of the Holy Prophet. The prayer after the usual 'Call to Prayer' includes the words, "O God! Give Muhammad Wasilah," meaning that God may vouchsafe to the Prophet increasing nearness to Himself, and not that the Prophet may have someone to act as intermediary between him and God. (close)
c. 9:41; 22:79. (close)
a. 17:58. (close)
b. 9:41; 22:79. (close)
671. Important Words:
الوسیلة (way of approach) is the noun-infinitive from وسل. They say وسل الی الله بعمل i.e. he did a deed by which he became near to God. وسل الیه بکذا means, he sought to bring himself near to him, or to approach or gain access to him, or to advance himself in his favour. وسیلة therefore, signifies, a means of access to a thing; a means of becoming near to, or intimate with, a thing or person; honourable rank with a king; degree; affinity; a tie or connection (Lane).
It is wrong to interpret the word الوسیلة as meaning "an intermediary between man and God"; such an interpretation is not only unsupported by the usage of the Arabic language, but is also opposed to the teachings of the Quran and the sayings of the Holy Prophet. The Quran says that those whom people invoke beside God and whom they desire to make intermediaries between themselves and God, in order to attain His nearness, are themselves in need of attaining His nearness (17:58). The Holy Prophet is also reported to have said: "Ask for وسیلة(nearness of God) for me", i.e. pray to God that He may grant me His special nearness. The prayer after the usual call to Prayer includes the words, "O God! give Muhammad wasilah", meaning that God may vouchsafe to the Prophet increasingly greater nearness to Himself, and not that he may have someone to act as intermediary between him and God. The words that follow, viz. strive in His way, also point to the same interpretation; for they describe the means by which the nearness of God may be attained. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لَوۡ اَنَّ لَہُمۡ مَّا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ جَمِیۡعًا وَّ مِثۡلَہٗ مَعَہٗ لِیَفۡتَدُوۡا بِہٖ مِنۡ عَذَابِ یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ مَا تُقُبِّلَ مِنۡہُمۡ ۚ وَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۳۷﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوۡ أَنَّ لَهُم مَّا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعٗا وَمِثۡلَهُۥ مَعَهُۥ لِيَفۡتَدُواْ بِهِۦ مِنۡ عَذَابِ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ مَا تُقُبِّلَ مِنۡهُمۡۖ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٞ
d. 13:19; 39:48. (close)
a. 13:19; 39:48. (close)
یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّخۡرُجُوۡا مِنَ النَّارِ وَ مَا ہُمۡ بِخٰرِجِیۡنَ مِنۡہَا ۫ وَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ مُّقِیۡمٌ ﴿۳۸﴾
يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَخۡرُجُواْ مِنَ ٱلنَّارِ وَمَا هُم بِخَٰرِجِينَ مِنۡهَاۖ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٞ مُّقِيمٞ
The word مقیم rendered here as "lasting" does not mean "never ending" but simply very long and not merely transitory. See also 11:108, 199. (close)
وَ السَّارِقُ وَ السَّارِقَۃُ فَاقۡطَعُوۡۤا اَیۡدِیَہُمَا جَزَآءًۢ بِمَا کَسَبَا نَکَالًا مِّنَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَزِیۡزٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۳۹﴾
وَٱلسَّارِقُ وَٱلسَّارِقَةُ فَٱقۡطَعُوٓاْ أَيۡدِيَهُمَا جَزَآءَۢ بِمَا كَسَبَا نَكَٰلٗا مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٞ
744. Whereas in this verse the words the man who steals have been put before the words the woman who steals because stealing is more common among men than among women, in 24:3 the word fornicatress precedes the word fornicator because the guilt of fornication can more easily be proved against women than against men. This arrangement of words shows that there exists not only an intelligent order in the verses of the Qur’an, as shown elsewhere, but also an intelligent order in its words. The punishment prescribed for stealing may appear to be too severe. But human experience shows that punishment, if it is to be deterrent, should be exemplary. It is better to be severe to one and save a thousand than to be indulgent to all and ruin many. He certainly is a good surgeon who does not hesitate to amputate a rotten limb to save the whole body. In the heyday of Islam there were extremely rare cases of the cutting of hands of thieves because the punishment prescribed was deterrent and was put in force. Even today incidents of theft are very rare in Arabia where punishment for theft prescribed by the Qur’an is in force. In order to arrive at a right understanding of the nature of this punishment, it is necessary to know both the literal and metaphorical use of the two words used here, viz. Qat’ and Yad. The Arabic expression Qata‘a-hu bil-Hujjati, means, he silenced him with argument (Lane). And Yad among other things means, the power and capacity to do a certain thing. Thus the phrase, Qata‘a Yada-hu, metaphorically means, he deprived him of the power to do the thing; or he restrained him from doing it. See also 12:32. In view of this signification of the two words the Arabic expression used in the verse may mean, "deprive them of the power to commit theft or employ any practical means calculated to restrain them from committing theft." Taking the verse literally the punishment prescribed in the verse is maximum punishment, and maximum punishment is awarded in extreme cases only, the lesser punishment being the adoption of any practical means by which the offender is deprived of the capacity of, or restrained from, committing the offence. In awarding the punishment the nature and scope of all the attending circumstances are also to be taken into consideration. Moreover, the use of the word as-Sariq which is a noun (instead of the verb Saraqa—he stole) implying the sense of intensiveness signifies an habitual thief or one addicted to theft, is worthy of special consideration. Scholars differ as to the amount of money or property stolen for which the prescribed punishment is to be imposed. Whereas according to some traditions it is three dirhams or a quarter of a dinar, according to others the hand is not to be cut off for stealing fruit on a tree or when theft is committed in the course of journey (Dawud). Imam Abu Hanifah holds it to be ten dirhams, while Imam Malik and Imam Shafi’i consider three dirhams to be the least amount. This disagreement among theologians shows that much discretion is left to the judge who awards the punishment regarding its form and scope. (close)
In this verse the words, the man who steals, have been put before the words, the woman who steals, because stealing is more common among men than among women, while in 24:3 the word fornicatress precedes the word fornicator because the guilt of fornication is generally more easily proved against women than against men. This arrangement of words shows that there exists not only an intelligent order in the verses of the Quran, as shown elsewhere, but also an intelligent order in its words as well.
The punishment prescribed for a thief in this verse may appear to be too severe in the sight of those who are swayed by false sentiments. But the experience of the world shows that punishment, if it is to be deterrent, should be severe and exemplary. It is better to be severe to one and save a thousand than to be indulgent to all and ruin many. The God of Islam would not make Muslims spoilt children. When Islam was in power, there were very few cases of the cutting-off of the hands of thieves for the obvious reason that in view of the deterrent punishment prescribed by Islam there were very few cases of theft. Nowadays, however, when false sentiment prevails, thieves are given a light punishment, with the result that cases of theft are appallingly on the increase. He is certainly not a good surgeon who hesitates to amputate a rotten limb and thereby destroys the whole body.
As for the definition of the word ید (hand) ‘Ali, Son-in-law and Fourth Successor of the Holy Prophet, holds that only the fingers of a thief are to be cut off (Ma‘ani, vol. ii, p. 304); while most scholars are of the view that the hand is to be cut off at the wrist.
Theologians differ as to the least amount of money or property stolen for which the prescribed punishment is to be inflicted. Imam Abu Hanifah held it to be ten dirhams, while Imam Malik and Imam Shafi‘i considered three dirhams or a quarter of a dinar to be the least amount, dirham and dinar being old silver and gold coins respectively. Both the above views are based on different interpretations of the sayings of the Holy Prophet.
A dirham or a drachm (dram) is believed to be one-sixteenth part of an oz. in avoirdupois weight or one-eighth part of an ounce in apothecaries weight, while a dinar is equal to 71 and a half barley-corns (Lane and New Standard Dictionary). (close)
فَمَنۡ تَابَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ظُلۡمِہٖ وَ اَصۡلَحَ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَتُوۡبُ عَلَیۡہِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۴۰﴾
فَمَن تَابَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ظُلۡمِهِۦ وَأَصۡلَحَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَتُوبُ عَلَيۡهِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٌ
a. 6:55; 20:83; 25:72. (close)
a. 6:55; 20:83; 25:72. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَعۡلَمۡ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ لَہٗ مُلۡکُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ یُعَذِّبُ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَغۡفِرُ لِمَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۴۱﴾
أَلَمۡ تَعۡلَمۡ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَهُۥ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ يُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَغۡفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
b. 5:19; 48:15. (close)
745. Expressions like these do not mean that the Divine Government of the universe is arbitrary and is based on no system or law. They are intended to point out that God being the Final Authority in the universe, His Word is the law, there being no appeal or redress against His decrees. (close)
Expressions like, He punishes whom He pleases and forgives whom He pleases, do not mean that the divine government of the universe is arbitrary and is based on no system or law. Such expressions are only intended to point out that, God being the final authority in the universe, His word is the law, there being no appeal against His orders. So man should be extremely careful in following His wish and carrying out His commandments. But, as God has Himself ordained, "His mercy surpasses or outweighs His anger" (Bukhari), and the universe is governed by "set laws of good and evil" (Muslim, ch. on Iman). (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الرَّسُوۡلُ لَا یَحۡزُنۡکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُسَارِعُوۡنَ فِی الۡکُفۡرِ مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ قَالُوۡۤا اٰمَنَّا بِاَفۡوَاہِہِمۡ وَ لَمۡ تُؤۡمِنۡ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ ۚۛ وَ مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ ہَادُوۡا ۚۛ سَمّٰعُوۡنَ لِلۡکَذِبِ سَمّٰعُوۡنَ لِقَوۡمٍ اٰخَرِیۡنَ ۙ لَمۡ یَاۡتُوۡکَ ؕ یُحَرِّفُوۡنَ الۡکَلِمَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَوَاضِعِہٖ ۚ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اِنۡ اُوۡتِیۡتُمۡ ہٰذَا فَخُذُوۡہُ وَ اِنۡ لَّمۡ تُؤۡتَوۡہُ فَاحۡذَرُوۡا ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّرِدِ اللّٰہُ فِتۡنَتَہٗ فَلَنۡ تَمۡلِکَ لَہٗ مِنَ اللّٰہِ شَیۡئًا ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَمۡ یُرِدِ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یُّطَہِّرَ قُلُوۡبَہُمۡ ؕ لَہُمۡ فِی الدُّنۡیَا خِزۡیٌ ۚۖ وَّ لَہُمۡ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۴۲﴾
۞يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلرَّسُولُ لَا يَحۡزُنكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُسَٰرِعُونَ فِي ٱلۡكُفۡرِ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِأَفۡوَٰهِهِمۡ وَلَمۡ تُؤۡمِن قُلُوبُهُمۡۛ وَمِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُواْۛ سَمَّـٰعُونَ لِلۡكَذِبِ سَمَّـٰعُونَ لِقَوۡمٍ ءَاخَرِينَ لَمۡ يَأۡتُوكَۖ يُحَرِّفُونَ ٱلۡكَلِمَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَوَاضِعِهِۦۖ يَقُولُونَ إِنۡ أُوتِيتُمۡ هَٰذَا فَخُذُوهُ وَإِن لَّمۡ تُؤۡتَوۡهُ فَٱحۡذَرُواْۚ وَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ فِتۡنَتَهُۥ فَلَن تَمۡلِكَ لَهُۥ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔاۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَمۡ يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُطَهِّرَ قُلُوبَهُمۡۚ لَهُمۡ فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا خِزۡيٞۖ وَلَهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٞ
a. 9:47. (close)
746. The expression may also mean, (1) they listen in order to lie; (2) they accept as true the lies which others utter about the Holy Prophet. (close)
b. 2:76; 3:79; 4:47. (close)
a. 9:47. (close)
The expression سماعون للکذب (who would fondly listen to any lie) is capable of bearing two meanings: (1) they listen to you in order to lie, i.e. they come to you so that they may listen to your words, and then go out and distort and twist your words and their meanings before their own people and ascribe to you things which you did not say or mean; (2) they hearken to lies and accept them, i.e. they believe the lies which others utter about you and accept them as true. Similarly, the clause سماعون لقوم آخرین (who listen for conveying it to another people) means: (1) they listen (to you) for the sake of another people; i.e. they come and listen to what you say in order to report it to another people; (2) they believe what others say about you and take it as true. (close)
سَمّٰعُوۡنَ لِلۡکَذِبِ اَکّٰلُوۡنَ لِلسُّحۡتِ ؕ فَاِنۡ جَآءُوۡکَ فَاحۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَہُمۡ اَوۡ اَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡہُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تُعۡرِضۡ عَنۡہُمۡ فَلَنۡ یَّضُرُّوۡکَ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ اِنۡ حَکَمۡتَ فَاحۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَہُمۡ بِالۡقِسۡطِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُحِبُّ الۡمُقۡسِطِیۡنَ ﴿۴۳﴾
سَمَّـٰعُونَ لِلۡكَذِبِ أَكَّـٰلُونَ لِلسُّحۡتِۚ فَإِن جَآءُوكَ فَٱحۡكُم بَيۡنَهُمۡ أَوۡ أَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡهُمۡۖ وَإِن تُعۡرِضۡ عَنۡهُمۡ فَلَن يَضُرُّوكَ شَيۡـٔٗاۖ وَإِنۡ حَكَمۡتَ فَٱحۡكُم بَيۡنَهُم بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُقۡسِطِينَ
c. 5:63, 64. (close)
747. Suht means, a thing which is forbidden or unlawful; that which is foul and of bad repute; a bribe that is given to a judge or the like; or anything paltry, mean and inconsiderable (Lane). (close)
a. 5:63, 64. (close)
674. Important Words:
السحت (things forbidden) is the noun-infinitive from سحت. They say سحته i.e. he extirpated or destroyed it utterly. سحت شعرهmeans, he removed his hair utterly (in shaving and cutting). سحت فی تجارته means, he earned foul or unlawful gain in his trade. An Arab would say ماله سحت i.e. his property may be destroyed with impunity. سحت therefore means, a thing which is forbidden or unlawful; that which is foul and of bad repute; a bribe that is given to a judge or the like; anything little or small in quantity or number; or anything paltry, mean and inconsiderable (Lane).
The words اکالون للسحت mean: (1) that the Jews devour things that are forbidden and unlawful; or (2) they devour things the result of which is spiritual ruin and national destruction; or (3) they do not hesitate to take paltry and mean things unlawfully; or (4) they accept bribes. For an explanation of the words سماعون للکذب see the previous verse. (close)
وَ کَیۡفَ یُحَکِّمُوۡنَکَ وَ عِنۡدَہُمُ التَّوۡرٰٮۃُ فِیۡہَا حُکۡمُ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ یَتَوَلَّوۡنَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اُولٰٓئِکَ بِالۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿٪۴۴﴾
وَكَيۡفَ يُحَكِّمُونَكَ وَعِندَهُمُ ٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةُ فِيهَا حُكۡمُ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّوۡنَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ذَٰلِكَۚ وَمَآ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ بِٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
748. The verse does not mean that the Qur’an regarded the Torah as it existed at the time of the Holy Prophet as containing God’s judgment on matters of dispute. It only expresses the attitude of the Jews towards the Torah. But at the same time the Qur’an does not regard it even in its present form as devoid of all truth. According to it the Torah did contain certain truths in their original, pure form, though it also believes that it has been tampered with (2:79). The verse further shows that the Torah in its pristine purity was meant only for the Israelites for a limited period while the Message of the Qur’an is meant for all peoples for all times. (close)
The verse means to say that when the Jews do not accept the verdict of their own Book which they believe to be the Word of God, how can they be expected to accept the decision of the Holy Prophet which they do not believe as such. Their coming to the Prophet and seeking his judgement in their disputes in the presence of their own Book exposes the wickedness of their motives.
The words, wherein is Allah’s judgement, do not mean that the Quran regarded the Torah as it existed at the time of the Holy Prophet to be God’s judgement on matters of dispute. The words have simply been used to express the attitude of the Jews towards the Torah. But at the same time it must not be understood that the Quran regards the Torah in its present form as devoid of all truth. In spite of its text having been tampered with, it does contain certain ordinances, laws and truths in their original, pure form. (close)
اِنَّاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا التَّوۡرٰٮۃَ فِیۡہَا ہُدًی وَّ نُوۡرٌ ۚ یَحۡکُمُ بِہَا النَّبِیُّوۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَسۡلَمُوۡا لِلَّذِیۡنَ ہَادُوۡا وَ الرَّبّٰنِیُّوۡنَ وَ الۡاَحۡبَارُ بِمَا اسۡتُحۡفِظُوۡا مِنۡ کِتٰبِ اللّٰہِ وَ کَانُوۡا عَلَیۡہِ شُہَدَآءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخۡشَوُا النَّاسَ وَ اخۡشَوۡنِ وَ لَا تَشۡتَرُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِیۡ ثَمَنًا قَلِیۡلًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ لَّمۡ یَحۡکُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۵﴾
إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَا ٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةَ فِيهَا هُدٗى وَنُورٞۚ يَحۡكُمُ بِهَا ٱلنَّبِيُّونَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَسۡلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَٱلرَّبَّـٰنِيُّونَ وَٱلۡأَحۡبَارُ بِمَا ٱسۡتُحۡفِظُواْ مِن كِتَٰبِ ٱللَّهِ وَكَانُواْ عَلَيۡهِ شُهَدَآءَۚ فَلَا تَخۡشَوُاْ ٱلنَّاسَ وَٱخۡشَوۡنِ وَلَا تَشۡتَرُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِي ثَمَنٗا قَلِيلٗاۚ وَمَن لَّمۡ يَحۡكُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرُونَ
a. 6:92; 7:155. (close)
749. See 432A. (close)
750. Ahbar is the plural of Hibr which means, a learned man of the Jews; or any learned man; a good or righteous man (Lane). In this verse the Qur’an brings home to the Jews the charge mentioned in the previous verse, viz. when even the Prophets of God who followed Moses were required to judge according to the Torah, who else can refuse to refer his disputes to it? (close)
b. 2:42. (close)
c. 5:46, 48. (close)
b. 2:42. (close)
c. 5:46, 48. (close)
676. Important Words:
ربانیون (godly people). See 3:80.
احبار (learned men) is the plural of حبر. They say حبره i.e. he made it beautiful; or he made him happy; or he treated him with honour. حبر (hibr) or حبر (habr) means, a learned man of the Jews; or any learned man; a good or righteous man (Lane & Aqrab).
استحفظوا (were required to preserve) is in the passive voice being formed from حفظ. They say حفظه i.e. he kept it or preserved it or guarded it or protected it; or he prevented it from perishing or becoming lost. استحفظه (in the active voice) means, he asked him to keep or guard or preserve it from perishing or becoming lost; or he asked him to be careful of, or attentive to, it; or he placed it with him to preserve or guard or take care of it; or he entrusted him with it or gave it to him in trust (Lane).
In this verse the Quran brings home to the Jews the charge mentioned in the previous verse. When even the Prophets of God who followed Moses were required to judge according to the Torah, who are they to refuse to refer their disputes to it?
The words, Therefore fear not men but fear Me, and barter not My Signs for a paltry price, mean that the referring by the Jews of their disputes to the Holy Prophet meant that they no longer looked upon the Torah as the revealed Word of God, and also that they had complete faith in the honesty, truthfulness and justice of the Holy Prophet. If such was the case, and there were also clear prophecies in their Scriptures bearing witness to his truth, then their refusal to believe in him showed that they feared men more than they feared God. Moreover, the rejection of the Holy Prophet meant not only the rejection of those prophecies but of Moses himself, who brought the Book which contains those prophecies.
It is also clear from this verse that it is not necessary for every Prophet to bring a new Law and not to be the follower of another Prophet or Book. The Prophets that appeared among the Jews after Moses, including Jesus, brought no new Law but followed Moses and acted upon the Law that was revealed to him. Says the verse, By it did the Prophets, who were obedient to Us, judge for the Jews. The Prophets who judged the Jews by the Torah were obviously subject to the Law of the Torah and had no Law of their own. (close)