وَ کَیۡفَ یُحَکِّمُوۡنَکَ وَ عِنۡدَہُمُ التَّوۡرٰٮۃُ فِیۡہَا حُکۡمُ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ یَتَوَلَّوۡنَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اُولٰٓئِکَ بِالۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿٪۴۴﴾
وَكَيۡفَ يُحَكِّمُونَكَ وَعِندَهُمُ ٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةُ فِيهَا حُكۡمُ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّوۡنَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ذَٰلِكَۚ وَمَآ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ بِٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
748. The verse does not mean that the Qur’an regarded the Torah as it existed at the time of the Holy Prophet as containing God’s judgment on matters of dispute. It only expresses the attitude of the Jews towards the Torah. But at the same time the Qur’an does not regard it even in its present form as devoid of all truth. According to it the Torah did contain certain truths in their original, pure form, though it also believes that it has been tampered with (2:79). The verse further shows that the Torah in its pristine purity was meant only for the Israelites for a limited period while the Message of the Qur’an is meant for all peoples for all times. (close)
The verse means to say that when the Jews do not accept the verdict of their own Book which they believe to be the Word of God, how can they be expected to accept the decision of the Holy Prophet which they do not believe as such. Their coming to the Prophet and seeking his judgement in their disputes in the presence of their own Book exposes the wickedness of their motives.
The words, wherein is Allah’s judgement, do not mean that the Quran regarded the Torah as it existed at the time of the Holy Prophet to be God’s judgement on matters of dispute. The words have simply been used to express the attitude of the Jews towards the Torah. But at the same time it must not be understood that the Quran regards the Torah in its present form as devoid of all truth. In spite of its text having been tampered with, it does contain certain ordinances, laws and truths in their original, pure form. (close)
اِنَّاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا التَّوۡرٰٮۃَ فِیۡہَا ہُدًی وَّ نُوۡرٌ ۚ یَحۡکُمُ بِہَا النَّبِیُّوۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَسۡلَمُوۡا لِلَّذِیۡنَ ہَادُوۡا وَ الرَّبّٰنِیُّوۡنَ وَ الۡاَحۡبَارُ بِمَا اسۡتُحۡفِظُوۡا مِنۡ کِتٰبِ اللّٰہِ وَ کَانُوۡا عَلَیۡہِ شُہَدَآءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخۡشَوُا النَّاسَ وَ اخۡشَوۡنِ وَ لَا تَشۡتَرُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِیۡ ثَمَنًا قَلِیۡلًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ لَّمۡ یَحۡکُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۵﴾
إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَا ٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةَ فِيهَا هُدٗى وَنُورٞۚ يَحۡكُمُ بِهَا ٱلنَّبِيُّونَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَسۡلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَٱلرَّبَّـٰنِيُّونَ وَٱلۡأَحۡبَارُ بِمَا ٱسۡتُحۡفِظُواْ مِن كِتَٰبِ ٱللَّهِ وَكَانُواْ عَلَيۡهِ شُهَدَآءَۚ فَلَا تَخۡشَوُاْ ٱلنَّاسَ وَٱخۡشَوۡنِ وَلَا تَشۡتَرُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِي ثَمَنٗا قَلِيلٗاۚ وَمَن لَّمۡ يَحۡكُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرُونَ
a. 6:92; 7:155. (close)
749. See 432A. (close)
750. Ahbar is the plural of Hibr which means, a learned man of the Jews; or any learned man; a good or righteous man (Lane). In this verse the Qur’an brings home to the Jews the charge mentioned in the previous verse, viz. when even the Prophets of God who followed Moses were required to judge according to the Torah, who else can refuse to refer his disputes to it? (close)
b. 2:42. (close)
c. 5:46, 48. (close)
b. 2:42. (close)
c. 5:46, 48. (close)
676. Important Words:
ربانیون (godly people). See 3:80.
احبار (learned men) is the plural of حبر. They say حبره i.e. he made it beautiful; or he made him happy; or he treated him with honour. حبر (hibr) or حبر (habr) means, a learned man of the Jews; or any learned man; a good or righteous man (Lane & Aqrab).
استحفظوا (were required to preserve) is in the passive voice being formed from حفظ. They say حفظه i.e. he kept it or preserved it or guarded it or protected it; or he prevented it from perishing or becoming lost. استحفظه (in the active voice) means, he asked him to keep or guard or preserve it from perishing or becoming lost; or he asked him to be careful of, or attentive to, it; or he placed it with him to preserve or guard or take care of it; or he entrusted him with it or gave it to him in trust (Lane).
In this verse the Quran brings home to the Jews the charge mentioned in the previous verse. When even the Prophets of God who followed Moses were required to judge according to the Torah, who are they to refuse to refer their disputes to it?
The words, Therefore fear not men but fear Me, and barter not My Signs for a paltry price, mean that the referring by the Jews of their disputes to the Holy Prophet meant that they no longer looked upon the Torah as the revealed Word of God, and also that they had complete faith in the honesty, truthfulness and justice of the Holy Prophet. If such was the case, and there were also clear prophecies in their Scriptures bearing witness to his truth, then their refusal to believe in him showed that they feared men more than they feared God. Moreover, the rejection of the Holy Prophet meant not only the rejection of those prophecies but of Moses himself, who brought the Book which contains those prophecies.
It is also clear from this verse that it is not necessary for every Prophet to bring a new Law and not to be the follower of another Prophet or Book. The Prophets that appeared among the Jews after Moses, including Jesus, brought no new Law but followed Moses and acted upon the Law that was revealed to him. Says the verse, By it did the Prophets, who were obedient to Us, judge for the Jews. The Prophets who judged the Jews by the Torah were obviously subject to the Law of the Torah and had no Law of their own. (close)
وَ کَتَبۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ فِیۡہَاۤ اَنَّ النَّفۡسَ بِالنَّفۡسِ ۙ وَ الۡعَیۡنَ بِالۡعَیۡنِ وَ الۡاَنۡفَ بِالۡاَنۡفِ وَ الۡاُذُنَ بِالۡاُذُنِ وَ السِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ ۙ وَ الۡجُرُوۡحَ قِصَاصٌ ؕ فَمَنۡ تَصَدَّقَ بِہٖ فَہُوَ کَفَّارَۃٌ لَّہٗ ؕ وَ مَنۡ لَّمۡ یَحۡکُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۴۶﴾
وَكَتَبۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ فِيهَآ أَنَّ ٱلنَّفۡسَ بِٱلنَّفۡسِ وَٱلۡعَيۡنَ بِٱلۡعَيۡنِ وَٱلۡأَنفَ بِٱلۡأَنفِ وَٱلۡأُذُنَ بِٱلۡأُذُنِ وَٱلسِّنَّ بِٱلسِّنِّ وَٱلۡجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٞۚ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِۦ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٞ لَّهُۥۚ وَمَن لَّمۡ يَحۡكُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ
751. See Exod. 21:23-25 and Leviticus 24:19-21. The words, and whoso waives the right thereto, constitute evidence of the fact that teaching about forgiveness of which Christians boast so much was no monopoly of the Gospels. It also formed part of the teaching of Moses though Moses’s teaching lays stress on retaliation, as does that of Jesus on forgiveness and non-resistance. (close)
c. 5:45, 48. (close)
a. 5:45, 48. (close)
As the law mentioned in this verse is clearly stated to have belonged to the Torah, though it is not to be found in the Bible as we now have it, the words, And whoso waives the right thereto, constitute clear evidence of the fact that the teaching about forgiveness of which Christians boast so much was no monopoly of the Gospels. It was contained in the Torah also, though at the same time there can be no denying the fact that the teachings of Moses lay extra stress on retaliation, as do those of Jesus on forgiveness and non-resistance. (close)
وَ قَفَّیۡنَا عَلٰۤی اٰثَارِہِمۡ بِعِیۡسَی ابۡنِ مَرۡیَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ مِنَ التَّوۡرٰٮۃِ ۪ وَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُ الۡاِنۡجِیۡلَ فِیۡہِ ہُدًی وَّ نُوۡرٌ ۙ وَّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ مِنَ التَّوۡرٰٮۃِ وَ ہُدًی وَّ مَوۡعِظَۃً لِّلۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۴۷﴾
وَقَفَّيۡنَا عَلَىٰٓ ءَاثَٰرِهِم بِعِيسَى ٱبۡنِ مَرۡيَمَ مُصَدِّقٗا لِّمَا بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ مِنَ ٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةِۖ وَءَاتَيۡنَٰهُ ٱلۡإِنجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدٗى وَنُورٞ وَمُصَدِّقٗا لِّمَا بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ مِنَ ٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةِ وَهُدٗى وَمَوۡعِظَةٗ لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ
d. 2:88; 57:28. (close)
e. 3:51; 61:7. (close)
b. 2:88; 57:28. (close)
c. 3:51; 61:7. (close)
The words, We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps, show that, like the Prophets who preceded him, Jesus also was a follower of the Law of Moses, the Gospels being only an exposition of selected teachings of the Torah suited to those times. (close)
وَ لۡیَحۡکُمۡ اَہۡلُ الۡاِنۡجِیۡلِ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ فِیۡہِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ لَّمۡ یَحۡکُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾
وَلۡيَحۡكُمۡ أَهۡلُ ٱلۡإِنجِيلِ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ فِيهِۚ وَمَن لَّمۡ يَحۡكُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَٰسِقُونَ
a. 5:45, 46. (close)
a. 5:45-46. (close)
The words, And let the People of the Gospel judge according to what Allah has revealed therein, do not mean that the Gospel is a Book of Law and that Christians should act upon the Law revealed in it, for the obvious reason that the Gospel is not a Book of Law, Jesus himself having followed the Law of Moses from which not a jot or tittle was to pass away till there had come the revelation of the perfect Law embodied in the Quran.
In fact, these words, like the similar ones contained in 5:45, do not enjoin obedience to any Law of Moses or Jesus but refer to the prophecies contained in the Torah and the Gospel about the Holy Prophet of Islam. Thus the present verse as well as 5:45 warns Jews and Christians that if they defied these prophecies and rejected the Holy Prophet, they would be regarded as "wrongdoers" and "rebellious" in the sight of God. For the Biblical prophecies about the Holy Prophet of Islam see note on 2:42, 90; and also John 16:7-13. (close)
وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ بِالۡحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ مِنَ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ مُہَیۡمِنًا عَلَیۡہِ فَاحۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَہُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَہۡوَآءَہُمۡ عَمَّا جَآءَکَ مِنَ الۡحَقِّ ؕ لِکُلٍّ جَعَلۡنَا مِنۡکُمۡ شِرۡعَۃً وَّ مِنۡہَاجًا ؕ وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ لَجَعَلَکُمۡ اُمَّۃً وَّاحِدَۃً وَّ لٰکِنۡ لِّیَبۡلُوَکُمۡ فِیۡ مَاۤ اٰتٰٮکُمۡ فَاسۡتَبِقُوا الۡخَیۡرٰتِ ؕ اِلَی اللّٰہِ مَرۡجِعُکُمۡ جَمِیۡعًا فَیُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ تَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۹﴾
وَأَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ مُصَدِّقٗا لِّمَا بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ مِنَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَمُهَيۡمِنًا عَلَيۡهِۖ فَٱحۡكُم بَيۡنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ أَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ عَمَّا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَقِّۚ لِكُلّٖ جَعَلۡنَا مِنكُمۡ شِرۡعَةٗ وَمِنۡهَاجٗاۚ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمۡ أُمَّةٗ وَٰحِدَةٗ وَلَٰكِن لِّيَبۡلُوَكُمۡ فِي مَآ ءَاتَىٰكُمۡۖ فَٱسۡتَبِقُواْ ٱلۡخَيۡرَٰتِۚ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ مَرۡجِعُكُمۡ جَمِيعٗا فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمۡ فِيهِ تَخۡتَلِفُونَ
b. 6:106; 39:3. (close)
752. Muhaimin means, witness; afforder of security and peace; controller and superintendent of the affairs of men; guardian and protector (Lisan). The Qur’an is here spoken of as a guardian over the previous Scriptures in the sense that it has preserved all that was imperishable and of permanent worth and value in them, and has left out that which lacked the element of permanence and failed to meet the needs of mankind. Again, it is called a guardian over the previous Scriptures because it enjoys Divine protection against being tampered with, a blessing denied to them. (close)
c. 5:50. (close)
753. Shir‘ah signifies the religious Law of God consisting of such ordinances as those about Fasting, Prayer and Pilgrimage and other acts of piety; a way of belief and conduct which is manifest and right (Lane). Minhaj means, manifest, plainly apparent and open road or way (Lane). Al-Mubarrad says that the former word signifies the beginning of a way and the latter the well-trodden body of it (Qadir). Thus Shir‘ah is the law that mostly relates to spiritual matters and Minhaj is the law that relates to secular matters. Shir‘ah also means, a way leading to water. The meaning is that God has equipped all His creatures, according to the capacity of each, with the means to find the way to the spring of spiritual water, i.e. Divine revelation. (close)
a. 10:100; 11:119; 16:10. (close)
d. 3:134; 35:33; 57:22. (close)
a. 6:107; 39:3. (close)
b. 5:50. (close)
c. 10:100; 11:119; 16:10. (close)
d. 3:134; 35:33; 57:22. (close)
680. Important Words:
مھیمنا (guardian) is derived from ھیمن. They say ھیمن الرجل i.e. the man said, Amen. ھیمن الطائر علی فراخه means, the bird fluttered its wings over its young. ھیمن فلان علی کذا means, such a one became a protector and guardian over it. المھیمن when used about God means, He Who affords security and protection to His creatures when they are in a state of fear and danger (Aqrab). According to Lisan, the word مھیمن is derived from ھمن which is originally امن, the active participle مھیمنbeing really مؤامن. The word مھیمن means, witness; afforder of security and peace; controller and superintendent of the affairs of men; guardian and protector (Lisan).
شرعة (clear spiritual Law) is derived from شرع. They say شرع فی الامر i.e. he entered into the affair; or he entered upon or commenced the affair. شرع المال means, he brought the cattle to the watering place so that they might drink water. شرع الله لنا کذا means, God made it apparent or manifest to us; or God prescribed it for us as a religious Law. شرعة means, a custom; the religious Law of God consisting of such ordinances as those of Fasting, Prayer and Pilgrimage and other acts of piety; a way of belief and conduct which is manifest and right. شریعة means, a watering place such as is permanent and apparent to the eye, like the water of rivers, to which men and beasts resort; a way to water; religion or way of belief and practice (Lane).
منھاج (manifest way in secular matters) is derived from نھج i.e. it (a road or way) became manifest, plainly apparent or open; or he rendered (a road or an affair) manifest, plainly apparent or open. المنھاج or النھج means, a manifest, plainly apparent and open road or way (Lane). Al-Mubarrad says that شرعة signifies the beginning of a way and منھاج signifies the well-trodden body of it (Qadir). Thus شرعة would be mostly law relating to spiritual matters and منھاج law relating to secular matters.
The Quran is spoken of as a guardian over the previous Scriptures in the sense that it has preserved all that was true and permanent in them by embodying the same in itself, and has left out what lacked the element of permanence and failed to meet the needs of all mankind at all times. Again, it is called a guardian over Scriptures because it enjoys Divine protection against being tampered with, a blessing denied to other revealed Scriptures. All that is of permanent use in the previous Scriptures has been preserved in the Quran.
The words, for each of you, mean that not only for every nation but for every individual also God has appointed two clear ways, one pertaining to spiritual and the other to secular matters.
This verse also supplies an answer to the question, why God did not raise one Prophet for the whole of mankind in the beginning of the world, so that all peoples might have become one. The verse says that God has done so to "try" men and find out their fitness for the final Law. It is like appointing different stages of examinations to test the ability of students and thus raise them gradually to the final and topmost class. (close)
وَ اَنِ احۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَہُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَہۡوَآءَہُمۡ وَ احۡذَرۡہُمۡ اَنۡ یَّفۡتِنُوۡکَ عَنۡۢ بَعۡضِ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ اِلَیۡکَ ؕ فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاعۡلَمۡ اَنَّمَا یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یُّصِیۡبَہُمۡ بِبَعۡضِ ذُنُوۡبِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اِنَّ کَثِیۡرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ لَفٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾
وَأَنِ ٱحۡكُم بَيۡنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ أَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ وَٱحۡذَرۡهُمۡ أَن يَفۡتِنُوكَ عَنۢ بَعۡضِ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَيۡكَۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَٱعۡلَمۡ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعۡضِ ذُنُوبِهِمۡۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرٗا مِّنَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَفَٰسِقُونَ
c. 5:49. (close)
d. 17:74. (close)
a. 5:49. (close)
b. 17:74. (close)
681. Important Words:
یفتنوك (cause thee to fall into affliction). یفتنون is derived from فتن. They say فتنه i.e. he burnt it; he or it caused him to fall into trial, affliction, trouble or distress; he made him turn from or quit the position in which he was; or he made him turn from the right course (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:103, 192; 4:92.
عن (on account of) is a particle used to give a number of meanings. Here it signifies "because of" or "on account of" (Lane).
The words, they cause thee to fall into affliction on account of part of what Allah has revealed to thee, mean that the cause of the enmity and hatred of the disbelievers for the Holy Prophet is the revelation which God has sent down to him. His enemies hatch plots against him and seek to involve him in trouble because some parts of his teachings are particularly repugnant to them, running counter to their most cherished views. (close)
اَفَحُکۡمَ الۡجَاہِلِیَّۃِ یَبۡغُوۡنَ ؕ وَ مَنۡ اَحۡسَنُ مِنَ اللّٰہِ حُکۡمًا لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّوۡقِنُوۡنَ ﴿٪۵۱﴾
أَفَحُكۡمَ ٱلۡجَٰهِلِيَّةِ يَبۡغُونَۚ وَمَنۡ أَحۡسَنُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ حُكۡمٗا لِّقَوۡمٖ يُوقِنُونَ
754. Hukm means, judgment, rule, jurisdiction, dominion, government, ordinance, decree, law; predicament (Lane). (close)
755. The pre-Islamic period. (close)
682. Important Words:
حکم (judgement) gives a number of meanings including judgement, rule, jurisdiction, dominion, government, ordinance, decree, law; also predica-ment (Lane). See also 2:130; 3:8; 4:36. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الۡیَہُوۡدَ وَ النَّصٰرٰۤی اَوۡلِیَآءَ ۘؔ بَعۡضُہُمۡ اَوۡلِیَآءُ بَعۡضٍ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَوَلَّہُمۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ فَاِنَّہٗ مِنۡہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾
۞يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلۡيَهُودَ وَٱلنَّصَٰرَىٰٓ أَوۡلِيَآءَۘ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءُ بَعۡضٖۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمۡ فَإِنَّهُۥ مِنۡهُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
a. 3:29, 119; 4:145; 5:58; 60:10. (close)
756. The verse should not be construed to prohibit or discourage just or benevolent treatment of Jews, Christians and other disbelievers (60:9). It refers only to those Jews or Christians who are at war with Muslims and who are always hatching plots against them. (close)
757. Jews and Christians forget their own differences and become united in their opposition to Islam. Truly, has the Holy Prophet said, "All disbelief forms one community," viz. all disbelievers, however inimical to one another, behave like one people when opposed to Muslims. (close)
a. 3:29, 119; 4:145; 5:58; 60:10. (close)
The verse should not be construed to prohibit or discourage just or benevolent treatment of Jews, Christians and other disbelievers. Elsewhere, the Quran says: Allah forbids you not respecting those who have not fought against you on account of your religion and who have not driven you forth from your homes, that you be kind to them and act equitably towards them; surely Allah loves those who are equitable (60:9). Thus it is only those Jews or Christians who are at war with Muslims whom the Quran forbids to be taken for friends.
Moreover, the word اولیاء (friends) signifies not only friends but helpers and protectors also, and may thus be rendered as "protecting friends"; and surely Muslims cannot take Jews and Christians as their protecting friends. Their only protecting friends are God and His Prophet as well as their own brethren in faith. See also 5:56 below.
The expression, They are friends one to another, means that Jews and Christians forget their own differences and become united in their opposition to Islam and the Holy Prophet. Truly has the Prophet said: الکفر ملة واحدة i.e. "all disbelief forms one community" viz. all disbelievers, however inimical to one another, are like one community when opposed to Islam. (close)
فَتَرَی الَّذِیۡنَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ یُّسَارِعُوۡنَ فِیۡہِمۡ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ نَخۡشٰۤی اَنۡ تُصِیۡبَنَا دَآئِرَۃٌ ؕ فَعَسَی اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّاۡتِیَ بِالۡفَتۡحِ اَوۡ اَمۡرٍ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِہٖ فَیُصۡبِحُوۡا عَلٰی مَاۤ اَسَرُّوۡا فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ نٰدِمِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۵۳﴾
فَتَرَى ٱلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٞ يُسَٰرِعُونَ فِيهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ نَخۡشَىٰٓ أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَةٞۚ فَعَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَأۡتِيَ بِٱلۡفَتۡحِ أَوۡ أَمۡرٖ مِّنۡ عِندِهِۦ فَيُصۡبِحُواْ عَلَىٰ مَآ أَسَرُّواْ فِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ نَٰدِمِينَ
758. Da’irah means, a turn of fortune, specially an evil accident, a misfortune; a calamity; defeat or rout; slaughter or death (Lane). (close)
b. 32:30. (close)
759. "Victory" mentioned in the verse may either refer to the Fall of Mecca or to victory in general. The word "event" coming after victory evidently refers to something greater than victory. It seems to refer to the entry into the fold of Islam of the whole of the Arabian Peninsula and its establishment in it. (close)
a. 32:30, 31. (close)
684. Important Words:
دائرة (misfortune) is derived from دار meaning, he or it went or moved round; or he or it circled or revolved or returned to the place from which he or it began to move. داربالبیت means, he went round about the house; or he surrounded or encompassed it. They say دارت الایام meaning, the days came round in their turn, i.e. repeated themselves. The expression دارت به دوائرالزمان means, the revolutions of fortune or time made him turn around from one state or condition to another. They say: دارت علیھم الدوائر meaning, calamities befell them. دائرة therefore, means: (1) the circuit, ambit or circumference of a thing; (2) a ring, a circle; (3) a turn of fortune, especially an evil accident; a misfortune; a calamity; defeat or rout; slaughter or death (Lane & Aqrab).
The verb سارع (he hastened) from which یسارعون (hastening) has been formed is generally followed by the preposition الی;but according to Arabic usage sometimes a verb takes after it a preposition which properly belongs to another verb mentioned or understood before it, thus retaining not only its own sense but also acquiring that of the verb whose preposition it takes. In the present verse the verb یسارعون (hastening) has been followed not by the preposition الی meaning, to or toward, but by the preposition فی which means in, among or into, thus adding to its own sense the further significance of the verb یدخلون (they enter). Hence the expression یسارعون فیھم (hastening towards them) would really mean "hastening towards them, they enter among them".
The word "victory" mentioned in the verse may either refer to the Fall of Mecca or to victory in general. The word امر (event) coming after victory evidently refers to something greater than victory. Obviously, it refers to the entry into Islam of the whole Arabian peninsula and the establishment of the power of Islam in it. (close)