یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الۡیَہُوۡدَ وَ النَّصٰرٰۤی اَوۡلِیَآءَ ۘؔ بَعۡضُہُمۡ اَوۡلِیَآءُ بَعۡضٍ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَوَلَّہُمۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ فَاِنَّہٗ مِنۡہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾
۞يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلۡيَهُودَ وَٱلنَّصَٰرَىٰٓ أَوۡلِيَآءَۘ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءُ بَعۡضٖۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمۡ فَإِنَّهُۥ مِنۡهُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
a. 3:29, 119; 4:145; 5:58; 60:10. (close)
756. The verse should not be construed to prohibit or discourage just or benevolent treatment of Jews, Christians and other disbelievers (60:9). It refers only to those Jews or Christians who are at war with Muslims and who are always hatching plots against them. (close)
757. Jews and Christians forget their own differences and become united in their opposition to Islam. Truly, has the Holy Prophet said, "All disbelief forms one community," viz. all disbelievers, however inimical to one another, behave like one people when opposed to Muslims. (close)
a. 3:29, 119; 4:145; 5:58; 60:10. (close)
The verse should not be construed to prohibit or discourage just or benevolent treatment of Jews, Christians and other disbelievers. Elsewhere, the Quran says: Allah forbids you not respecting those who have not fought against you on account of your religion and who have not driven you forth from your homes, that you be kind to them and act equitably towards them; surely Allah loves those who are equitable (60:9). Thus it is only those Jews or Christians who are at war with Muslims whom the Quran forbids to be taken for friends.
Moreover, the word اولیاء (friends) signifies not only friends but helpers and protectors also, and may thus be rendered as "protecting friends"; and surely Muslims cannot take Jews and Christians as their protecting friends. Their only protecting friends are God and His Prophet as well as their own brethren in faith. See also 5:56 below.
The expression, They are friends one to another, means that Jews and Christians forget their own differences and become united in their opposition to Islam and the Holy Prophet. Truly has the Prophet said: الکفر ملة واحدة i.e. "all disbelief forms one community" viz. all disbelievers, however inimical to one another, are like one community when opposed to Islam. (close)
فَتَرَی الَّذِیۡنَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ یُّسَارِعُوۡنَ فِیۡہِمۡ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ نَخۡشٰۤی اَنۡ تُصِیۡبَنَا دَآئِرَۃٌ ؕ فَعَسَی اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّاۡتِیَ بِالۡفَتۡحِ اَوۡ اَمۡرٍ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِہٖ فَیُصۡبِحُوۡا عَلٰی مَاۤ اَسَرُّوۡا فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ نٰدِمِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۵۳﴾
فَتَرَى ٱلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٞ يُسَٰرِعُونَ فِيهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ نَخۡشَىٰٓ أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَةٞۚ فَعَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَأۡتِيَ بِٱلۡفَتۡحِ أَوۡ أَمۡرٖ مِّنۡ عِندِهِۦ فَيُصۡبِحُواْ عَلَىٰ مَآ أَسَرُّواْ فِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ نَٰدِمِينَ
758. Da’irah means, a turn of fortune, specially an evil accident, a misfortune; a calamity; defeat or rout; slaughter or death (Lane). (close)
b. 32:30. (close)
759. "Victory" mentioned in the verse may either refer to the Fall of Mecca or to victory in general. The word "event" coming after victory evidently refers to something greater than victory. It seems to refer to the entry into the fold of Islam of the whole of the Arabian Peninsula and its establishment in it. (close)
a. 32:30, 31. (close)
684. Important Words:
دائرة (misfortune) is derived from دار meaning, he or it went or moved round; or he or it circled or revolved or returned to the place from which he or it began to move. داربالبیت means, he went round about the house; or he surrounded or encompassed it. They say دارت الایام meaning, the days came round in their turn, i.e. repeated themselves. The expression دارت به دوائرالزمان means, the revolutions of fortune or time made him turn around from one state or condition to another. They say: دارت علیھم الدوائر meaning, calamities befell them. دائرة therefore, means: (1) the circuit, ambit or circumference of a thing; (2) a ring, a circle; (3) a turn of fortune, especially an evil accident; a misfortune; a calamity; defeat or rout; slaughter or death (Lane & Aqrab).
The verb سارع (he hastened) from which یسارعون (hastening) has been formed is generally followed by the preposition الی;but according to Arabic usage sometimes a verb takes after it a preposition which properly belongs to another verb mentioned or understood before it, thus retaining not only its own sense but also acquiring that of the verb whose preposition it takes. In the present verse the verb یسارعون (hastening) has been followed not by the preposition الی meaning, to or toward, but by the preposition فی which means in, among or into, thus adding to its own sense the further significance of the verb یدخلون (they enter). Hence the expression یسارعون فیھم (hastening towards them) would really mean "hastening towards them, they enter among them".
The word "victory" mentioned in the verse may either refer to the Fall of Mecca or to victory in general. The word امر (event) coming after victory evidently refers to something greater than victory. Obviously, it refers to the entry into Islam of the whole Arabian peninsula and the establishment of the power of Islam in it. (close)
وَ یَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَہٰۤؤُلَآءِ الَّذِیۡنَ اَقۡسَمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ جَہۡدَ اَیۡمَانِہِمۡ ۙ اِنَّہُمۡ لَمَعَکُمۡ ؕ حَبِطَتۡ اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ فَاَصۡبَحُوۡا خٰسِرِیۡنَ ﴿۵۴﴾
وَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَهَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ٱلَّذِينَ أَقۡسَمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ جَهۡدَ أَيۡمَٰنِهِمۡ إِنَّهُمۡ لَمَعَكُمۡۚ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡ فَأَصۡبَحُواْ خَٰسِرِينَ
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مَنۡ یَّرۡتَدَّ مِنۡکُمۡ عَنۡ دِیۡنِہٖ فَسَوۡفَ یَاۡتِی اللّٰہُ بِقَوۡمٍ یُّحِبُّہُمۡ وَ یُحِبُّوۡنَہٗۤ ۙ اَذِلَّۃٍ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اَعِزَّۃٍ عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ۫ یُجَاہِدُوۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا یَخَافُوۡنَ لَوۡمَۃَ لَآئِمٍ ؕ ذٰلِکَ فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ یُؤۡتِیۡہِ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَن يَرۡتَدَّ مِنكُمۡ عَن دِينِهِۦ فَسَوۡفَ يَأۡتِي ٱللَّهُ بِقَوۡمٖ يُحِبُّهُمۡ وَيُحِبُّونَهُۥٓ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ يُجَٰهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا يَخَافُونَ لَوۡمَةَ لَآئِمٖۚ ذَٰلِكَ فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ يُؤۡتِيهِ مَن يَشَآءُۚ وَٱللَّهُ وَٰسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
a. 3:145. (close)
760. If the followers of a religion are found to be steadily and perpetually decreasing with no prospects for recovery, that religion must be considered as dead. (close)
685. Important Words:
اذلة (kind and humble) is derived from ذل i.e. he or it was or became low, base, paltry, humble or weak. ذلت الدابة means, the beast became easy, submissive and manageable. ذل الطریق means, the road became beaten and trodden and easy to be travelled. اذله means, he rendered him low, base, humble or weak. ذل (dhillun) or ذل (dhullun) means, submissiveness or manageableness; also gentleness and mercy. ذلیل which is the singular of اذلة means low, base, mean, paltry, humble or weak; easy and smooth; also gentle and merciful (Lane).
اعزة (hard and firm) is the plural of عزیز which is verbal adjective from عز meaning, he was or became mighty, potent, powerful or strong, or high and elevated; he magnified or exalted himself; he resisted or withstood; he was indomitable and invincible; it (a thing) was or became rare, scarce, hard to find; or he or it was or became dear, highly esteemed and greatly valued; or it became difficult and hard. عزیز of which the plural is اعزة means, mighty and powerful; high and elevated; resisting and invincible; hard and difficult rough in manners; rare or scarce or highly esteemed (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:130.
واسع (Bountiful) is derived from وسع i.e. it (place, vessel, etc.) was sufficient or sufficiently large or capacious or ample or abundant. السعة means, width or extent; ampleness or plentifulness; capacity or power. واسع means, possessing ample power or ability; powerful, bountiful; One Who gives to all; One Who encompasses all things (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse lays down an infallible sign of a true and living religion which is that the number of its followers is never allowed to fall or decrease permanently. If one individual goes out of its pale, God brings in a number to take his place. If the followers of a religion are found to be steadily and perpetually decreasing with no arrangement for recovery, that religion must be dead and truth must have departed from it.
The words اذلة علی المؤمنین (kind and humble toward believers) mean that true believers whom God will bring in place of apostates will be susceptible to the influence of brother believers, will be lenient in their dealings with them, will connive at their shortcomings, will be ready to forgive and forget their faults and will love and be kind to them. And the expression اعزة علی الکافرین (hard and firm toward disbelievers) means that they will not be afraid of disbelievers nor will they be susceptible to their baneful influence. In fact, the above are the two main characteristic qualities of a rising people who love God.
The words, They will strive in the cause of Allah, mean that, unlike the weak of faith who are ever ready to turn back from their religion and stumble at every trial, the newcomers will be zealous Muslims, eager to bring others into the fold of Islam.
We are further told in the verse that a true believer is never afraid of laying down his life in the cause of Allah. He does not fear the reproaches of fault-finders or scoffers. He fears neither the sword nor the censure of the enemy. (close)
اِنَّمَا وَلِیُّکُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا الَّذِیۡنَ یُقِیۡمُوۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ یُؤۡتُوۡنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ ہُمۡ رٰکِعُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾
إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَيُؤۡتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَهُمۡ رَٰكِعُونَ
b. 2:258; 3:69. (close)
a. 2:258; 3:69. (close)
686. Important Words:
راکعون (who worship God alone). See 2:44. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یَّتَوَلَّ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا فَاِنَّ حِزۡبَ اللّٰہِ ہُمُ الۡغٰلِبُوۡنَ ﴿٪۵۷﴾
وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فَإِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلۡغَٰلِبُونَ
c. 58:23. (close)
a. 58:23. (close)
People seek the friendship of great men in order to succeed in life. But, asks the verse, who is greater than God and His Messenger and the true believers, and how can those who make friends with them fail in life? (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّخَذُوۡا دِیۡنَکُمۡ ہُزُوًا وَّ لَعِبًا مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ وَ الۡکُفَّارَ اَوۡلِیَآءَ ۚ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ دِينَكُمۡ هُزُوٗا وَلَعِبٗا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَٱلۡكُفَّارَ أَوۡلِيَآءَۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
a. 3:29, 119; 4:145; 5:52; 60:10. (close)
761. In 5:52 Muslims were forbidden to make friends with disbelievers because of the latter’s hostile and belligerent attitude towards them. The present verse gives the reason for that commandment, but does not mean that Muslims are prevented from having friendly dealings of any kind with all disbelievers or from doing good to them and treating them kindly. (close)
b. 6:71; 7:52. (close)
b. 3:29, 119; 4:145; 5:52; 60:10. (close)
c. 6:71; 7:52. (close)
This verse further explains the previous verses about the principle underlying the befriending of disbelievers. Muslims are not allowed to have friendly relations with people who scoff at their religion and mock at their Prophet. It would kill a Muslim’s self-respect if he were to do so, and who can be more jealous and more self-respecting than a true Muslim? In 5:52, Muslims are forbidden to make friends with disbelievers because of their hostile and belligerent attitude towards them; in the present verse they are forbidden to do so because they scoff at their religion. This, however, does not mean that they are prevented from having dealings of any kind with disbelievers or from doing good to them and treating them kindly. In this connection see also 60:9, 10.
The word کفار (disbelievers) when used in contrast to the People of the Book means, "disbelievers from among idolaters"; but when used generally, it is applied both to the People of the Book and the idolaters. Here it refers to idolaters. (close)
وَ اِذَا نَادَیۡتُمۡ اِلَی الصَّلٰوۃِ اتَّخَذُوۡہَا ہُزُوًا وَّ لَعِبًا ؕ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ قَوۡمٌ لَّا یَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۵۹﴾
وَإِذَا نَادَيۡتُمۡ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوٗا وَلَعِبٗاۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٞ لَّا يَعۡقِلُونَ
The verse cites an instance of how the People of the Book and idolaters made a jest of the religion of Islam. (close)
قُلۡ یٰۤاَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ ہَلۡ تَنۡقِمُوۡنَ مِنَّاۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ اٰمَنَّا بِاللّٰہِ وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡنَا وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ۙ وَ اَنَّ اَکۡثَرَکُمۡ فٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۰﴾
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ هَلۡ تَنقِمُونَ مِنَّآ إِلَّآ أَنۡ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَأَنَّ أَكۡثَرَكُمۡ فَٰسِقُونَ
c. 7:127; 60:2. (close)
762. Hal is an interrogative particle which, when followed by illa, may signify, as in the present verse, a negative statement. The words besides the meaning given in the text may also mean, "you do not find fault with us but because we believe." Sometimes it is used to express a positive statement as in 76:2. (close)
a. 7:127; 60:2. (close)
690. Important Words:
ھل (do you?) is an interrogative particle which, when followed by الا (except or but), may be translated in the form of a negative statement. Thus the words ھل تنقمون منا الا ان آمنا may also be rendered as, "you do not find fault with us but because we believe". Sometimes it is used in the sense of ان (verily) to express a positive statement as ھل اتی علی الانسان حین من الدھر i.e.Surely, there has come upon man a period of time, etc.
تنقمون (you find fault with) is formed from نقم. They say نقم منه i.e. he punished or exacted vengeance on him. نقم منه کذاmeans, he criticized him, found fault with him and severely disliked him for such an evil deed of his. ما تنقم منا means, what fault do you find with us, or what blame do you bring against us while we have committed no offence? (Aqrab). See also 3:5.
The verse drives home to Jews and Christians their folly in persecuting Muslims and finding fault with them. It seems, in effect, to say to them that the only offence which has made Muslims deserving of their persecution and criticism is that they believe in all the Prophets and all the Books of God; while before the advent of Islam they disbelieved in all these things. A Muslim not only believes in the Holy Prophet and the Quran but also in Moses and Jesus and all other Prophets, and looks upon what was revealed to each one of them as of Divine origin. Thus, the verse administers a subtle but very effective rebuke to Christians and Jews, whose Prophets Islam calls upon its followers to respect and honour as true Messengers of God. The verse may equally apply to the opponents of every other Prophet, because the attitude of the rejecters of all Prophets of God and the reason for their persecuting believers are invariably the same. (close)
قُلۡ ہَلۡ اُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِشَرٍّ مِّنۡ ذٰلِکَ مَثُوۡبَۃً عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ؕ مَنۡ لَّعَنَہُ اللّٰہُ وَ غَضِبَ عَلَیۡہِ وَ جَعَلَ مِنۡہُمُ الۡقِرَدَۃَ وَ الۡخَنَازِیۡرَ وَ عَبَدَ الطَّاغُوۡتَ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ شَرٌّ مَّکَانًا وَّ اَضَلُّ عَنۡ سَوَآءِ السَّبِیۡلِ ﴿۶۱﴾
قُلۡ هَلۡ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرّٖ مِّن ذَٰلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ ٱللَّهِۚ مَن لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيۡهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡهُمُ ٱلۡقِرَدَةَ وَٱلۡخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ شَرّٞ مَّكَانٗا وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ
763. Dhalika may either refer to the persecution of the Muslims or to their persecutors. (close)
a. 2:66; 7:167. (close)
764. The words "apes" and "swine" have been used here in a figurative sense. Certain traits are peculiar to particular animals, and these cannot be fully described unless the animal to which they are known to belong is expressly named. The ape is noted for its mimicry and the swine is characterized by filthy and shameless habits and also by its stupidity. The expression, "who worship the Evil One," shows that the words "apes" and "swine" have been used here figuratively. See 107. (close)
b. 2:258; 4:52. (close)
c. 12:78; 25:35. (close)
a. 2:66; 7:167. (close)
b. 2:258; 4:52. (close)
c. 12:78; 25:35. (close)
The word ذالك (that) may refer either to the persecution of Muslims by the People of the Book hinted in the words, do you find fault with us? occurring in the previous verse, or it may refer to the party of believers whom they persecuted. In the former case, the first clause of the present verse would be rendered as "Shall I inform you of those whose reward with God is worse than the pain and misery they are inflicting upon Muslims?" In the latter case, the clause would be rendered as "Shall I inform you of those whose reward with God is worse than that of those people whom they persecute?" Those whose reward with God is worse are, of course, the Jews themselves. They are warned that they will suffer much greater torment than that which they can inflict on Muslims.
The words "apes" and "swine" have been used here in a figurative sense. Certain traits are peculiar to particular animals, and these cannot be fully described unless the animal to which they are known to belong is expressly named. For instance, in order to express the unluckiness or inauspiciousness of a person, an Arab would say, "Such a one is more inauspicious than the owl". Similarly, the words "apes" and "swine" have been used in the present verse not by way of abuse, for the Quran does not use abusive language, nor was the Holy Prophet an abuser, but to point to the typical traits of the Jewish character. The peculiar characteristic of the ape is expressed in the well-known Arabic saying: "Such a one is more adulterous than the ape" (an epithet also used by Jesus about the Jews of his time). The ape is also noted for its mimicry (see 2:66). The swine is characterized by filthy and shameless habits and also by its foolishness. See also 2:174.
Though the Holy Prophet himself never used these words about the Jews, yet the Quran does so, because God as Judge and Master is justified and entitled to do so. A judge is often called upon to use expressions that may be necessary fully to describe the guilt of the condemned party. In fact, he would be failing in his duty if he did not do so. Jesus used similar expressions with regard to the Jews of his day. He did not abuse them; but only condemned them as a judge and vicegerent of God. See also note on 2:66. (close)