یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّخَذُوۡا دِیۡنَکُمۡ ہُزُوًا وَّ لَعِبًا مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ وَ الۡکُفَّارَ اَوۡلِیَآءَ ۚ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ دِينَكُمۡ هُزُوٗا وَلَعِبٗا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَٱلۡكُفَّارَ أَوۡلِيَآءَۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
a. 3:29, 119; 4:145; 5:52; 60:10. (close)
761. In 5:52 Muslims were forbidden to make friends with disbelievers because of the latter’s hostile and belligerent attitude towards them. The present verse gives the reason for that commandment, but does not mean that Muslims are prevented from having friendly dealings of any kind with all disbelievers or from doing good to them and treating them kindly. (close)
b. 6:71; 7:52. (close)
b. 3:29, 119; 4:145; 5:52; 60:10. (close)
c. 6:71; 7:52. (close)
This verse further explains the previous verses about the principle underlying the befriending of disbelievers. Muslims are not allowed to have friendly relations with people who scoff at their religion and mock at their Prophet. It would kill a Muslim’s self-respect if he were to do so, and who can be more jealous and more self-respecting than a true Muslim? In 5:52, Muslims are forbidden to make friends with disbelievers because of their hostile and belligerent attitude towards them; in the present verse they are forbidden to do so because they scoff at their religion. This, however, does not mean that they are prevented from having dealings of any kind with disbelievers or from doing good to them and treating them kindly. In this connection see also 60:9, 10.
The word کفار (disbelievers) when used in contrast to the People of the Book means, "disbelievers from among idolaters"; but when used generally, it is applied both to the People of the Book and the idolaters. Here it refers to idolaters. (close)
وَ اِذَا نَادَیۡتُمۡ اِلَی الصَّلٰوۃِ اتَّخَذُوۡہَا ہُزُوًا وَّ لَعِبًا ؕ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ قَوۡمٌ لَّا یَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۵۹﴾
وَإِذَا نَادَيۡتُمۡ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوٗا وَلَعِبٗاۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٞ لَّا يَعۡقِلُونَ
The verse cites an instance of how the People of the Book and idolaters made a jest of the religion of Islam. (close)
قُلۡ یٰۤاَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ ہَلۡ تَنۡقِمُوۡنَ مِنَّاۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ اٰمَنَّا بِاللّٰہِ وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡنَا وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ۙ وَ اَنَّ اَکۡثَرَکُمۡ فٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۰﴾
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ هَلۡ تَنقِمُونَ مِنَّآ إِلَّآ أَنۡ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَأَنَّ أَكۡثَرَكُمۡ فَٰسِقُونَ
c. 7:127; 60:2. (close)
762. Hal is an interrogative particle which, when followed by illa, may signify, as in the present verse, a negative statement. The words besides the meaning given in the text may also mean, "you do not find fault with us but because we believe." Sometimes it is used to express a positive statement as in 76:2. (close)
a. 7:127; 60:2. (close)
690. Important Words:
ھل (do you?) is an interrogative particle which, when followed by الا (except or but), may be translated in the form of a negative statement. Thus the words ھل تنقمون منا الا ان آمنا may also be rendered as, "you do not find fault with us but because we believe". Sometimes it is used in the sense of ان (verily) to express a positive statement as ھل اتی علی الانسان حین من الدھر i.e.Surely, there has come upon man a period of time, etc.
تنقمون (you find fault with) is formed from نقم. They say نقم منه i.e. he punished or exacted vengeance on him. نقم منه کذاmeans, he criticized him, found fault with him and severely disliked him for such an evil deed of his. ما تنقم منا means, what fault do you find with us, or what blame do you bring against us while we have committed no offence? (Aqrab). See also 3:5.
The verse drives home to Jews and Christians their folly in persecuting Muslims and finding fault with them. It seems, in effect, to say to them that the only offence which has made Muslims deserving of their persecution and criticism is that they believe in all the Prophets and all the Books of God; while before the advent of Islam they disbelieved in all these things. A Muslim not only believes in the Holy Prophet and the Quran but also in Moses and Jesus and all other Prophets, and looks upon what was revealed to each one of them as of Divine origin. Thus, the verse administers a subtle but very effective rebuke to Christians and Jews, whose Prophets Islam calls upon its followers to respect and honour as true Messengers of God. The verse may equally apply to the opponents of every other Prophet, because the attitude of the rejecters of all Prophets of God and the reason for their persecuting believers are invariably the same. (close)
قُلۡ ہَلۡ اُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِشَرٍّ مِّنۡ ذٰلِکَ مَثُوۡبَۃً عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ؕ مَنۡ لَّعَنَہُ اللّٰہُ وَ غَضِبَ عَلَیۡہِ وَ جَعَلَ مِنۡہُمُ الۡقِرَدَۃَ وَ الۡخَنَازِیۡرَ وَ عَبَدَ الطَّاغُوۡتَ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ شَرٌّ مَّکَانًا وَّ اَضَلُّ عَنۡ سَوَآءِ السَّبِیۡلِ ﴿۶۱﴾
قُلۡ هَلۡ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرّٖ مِّن ذَٰلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ ٱللَّهِۚ مَن لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيۡهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡهُمُ ٱلۡقِرَدَةَ وَٱلۡخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ شَرّٞ مَّكَانٗا وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ
763. Dhalika may either refer to the persecution of the Muslims or to their persecutors. (close)
a. 2:66; 7:167. (close)
764. The words "apes" and "swine" have been used here in a figurative sense. Certain traits are peculiar to particular animals, and these cannot be fully described unless the animal to which they are known to belong is expressly named. The ape is noted for its mimicry and the swine is characterized by filthy and shameless habits and also by its stupidity. The expression, "who worship the Evil One," shows that the words "apes" and "swine" have been used here figuratively. See 107. (close)
b. 2:258; 4:52. (close)
c. 12:78; 25:35. (close)
a. 2:66; 7:167. (close)
b. 2:258; 4:52. (close)
c. 12:78; 25:35. (close)
The word ذالك (that) may refer either to the persecution of Muslims by the People of the Book hinted in the words, do you find fault with us? occurring in the previous verse, or it may refer to the party of believers whom they persecuted. In the former case, the first clause of the present verse would be rendered as "Shall I inform you of those whose reward with God is worse than the pain and misery they are inflicting upon Muslims?" In the latter case, the clause would be rendered as "Shall I inform you of those whose reward with God is worse than that of those people whom they persecute?" Those whose reward with God is worse are, of course, the Jews themselves. They are warned that they will suffer much greater torment than that which they can inflict on Muslims.
The words "apes" and "swine" have been used here in a figurative sense. Certain traits are peculiar to particular animals, and these cannot be fully described unless the animal to which they are known to belong is expressly named. For instance, in order to express the unluckiness or inauspiciousness of a person, an Arab would say, "Such a one is more inauspicious than the owl". Similarly, the words "apes" and "swine" have been used in the present verse not by way of abuse, for the Quran does not use abusive language, nor was the Holy Prophet an abuser, but to point to the typical traits of the Jewish character. The peculiar characteristic of the ape is expressed in the well-known Arabic saying: "Such a one is more adulterous than the ape" (an epithet also used by Jesus about the Jews of his time). The ape is also noted for its mimicry (see 2:66). The swine is characterized by filthy and shameless habits and also by its foolishness. See also 2:174.
Though the Holy Prophet himself never used these words about the Jews, yet the Quran does so, because God as Judge and Master is justified and entitled to do so. A judge is often called upon to use expressions that may be necessary fully to describe the guilt of the condemned party. In fact, he would be failing in his duty if he did not do so. Jesus used similar expressions with regard to the Jews of his day. He did not abuse them; but only condemned them as a judge and vicegerent of God. See also note on 2:66. (close)
وَ اِذَا جَآءُوۡکُمۡ قَالُوۡۤا اٰمَنَّا وَ قَدۡ دَّخَلُوۡا بِالۡکُفۡرِ وَ ہُمۡ قَدۡ خَرَجُوۡا بِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡتُمُوۡنَ ﴿۶۲﴾
وَإِذَا جَآءُوكُمۡ قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا وَقَد دَّخَلُواْ بِٱلۡكُفۡرِ وَهُمۡ قَدۡ خَرَجُواْ بِهِۦۚ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡتُمُونَ
765. By hypocritically uttering the words, we believe, the Jews merely copied the believers’ mode of expressing their belief without understanding and realizing their real import; thus they displayed (as hinted in the foregoing verse) the mimicking characteristic of the ape. See also the next verse. (close)
By hypocritically uttering the words, We believe, the Jews merely copied the believers’ mode of expressing their belief without understanding and realizing the real import of these words; and thus they displayed (as hinted in the foregoing verse) the mimicking characteristic of the ape. See also the next verse. (close)
وَ تَرٰی کَثِیۡرًا مِّنۡہُمۡ یُسَارِعُوۡنَ فِی الۡاِثۡمِ وَ الۡعُدۡوَانِ وَ اَکۡلِہِمُ السُّحۡتَ ؕ لَبِئۡسَ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۶۳﴾
وَتَرَىٰ كَثِيرٗا مِّنۡهُمۡ يُسَٰرِعُونَ فِي ٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡعُدۡوَٰنِ وَأَكۡلِهِمُ ٱلسُّحۡتَۚ لَبِئۡسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
d. 5:43. (close)
a. 5:43. (close)
This and the preceding verse give the reasons why the Jews have been called apes and swine in 5:61. Whereas the ape imitates and mimics, the swine eats filth and is aggressive in attack, beside being extra filthy in some of its habits. (close)
لَوۡ لَا یَنۡہٰہُمُ الرَّبّٰنِیُّوۡنَ وَ الۡاَحۡبَارُ عَنۡ قَوۡلِہِمُ الۡاِثۡمَ وَ اَکۡلِہِمُ السُّحۡتَ ؕ لَبِئۡسَ مَا کَانُوۡا یَصۡنَعُوۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾
لَوۡلَا يَنۡهَىٰهُمُ ٱلرَّبَّـٰنِيُّونَ وَٱلۡأَحۡبَارُ عَن قَوۡلِهِمُ ٱلۡإِثۡمَ وَأَكۡلِهِمُ ٱلسُّحۡتَۚ لَبِئۡسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَصۡنَعُونَ
766. As Ithm (sin) is generally committed and not uttered, some Commentators have suggested that the word Qaul (uttering) has been used here in the sense of "doing." But more probably it has been joined to the word Ithm (sin) in order to express the combined idea of both "uttering" and "doing," signifying both sinful words and evil deeds. (close)
a. 5:80. (close)
b. 5:80. (close)
The words قولھم الاثم (uttering falsehood) literally mean "their uttering of sin". As اثم (sin), in spite of including a sinful utterance, is generally committed and not uttered, some commentators have suggested that the word قول has been used here in the sense of "doing." But it is more probable that the word قول has been joined to the word اثم (sin) in order to express the combined idea of both "uttering" and "doing". As will be noted, the present verse is preceded both by a saying of the Jews, viz. "we believe" (5:62), which being a false utterance is a sin, and by a "deed" of theirs, viz. "hastening towards sin and transgression" (5:63), which are obviously sinful acts. Thus, by joining the word قول (uttering) to the word اثم (sin), the Quran aims at combining both sinful words and deeds.
Mention of the second wicked deed of the Jews referred to in 5:63, viz. "their eating of forbidden things", is repeated in the present verse in order to point out that not only the common folk but the leaders of the Jewish community also were steeped in sin. (close)
وَ قَالَتِ الۡیَہُوۡدُ یَدُ اللّٰہِ مَغۡلُوۡلَۃٌ ؕ غُلَّتۡ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ لُعِنُوۡا بِمَا قَالُوۡا ۘ بَلۡ یَدٰہُ مَبۡسُوۡطَتٰنِ ۙ یُنۡفِقُ کَیۡفَ یَشَآءُ ؕ وَ لَیَزِیۡدَنَّ کَثِیۡرًا مِّنۡہُمۡ مَّاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ مِنۡ رَّبِّکَ طُغۡیَانًا وَّ کُفۡرًا ؕ وَ اَلۡقَیۡنَا بَیۡنَہُمُ الۡعَدَاوَۃَ وَ الۡبَغۡضَآءَ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ؕ کُلَّمَاۤ اَوۡقَدُوۡا نَارًا لِّلۡحَرۡبِ اَطۡفَاَہَا اللّٰہُ ۙ وَ یَسۡعَوۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَسَادًا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یُحِبُّ الۡمُفۡسِدِیۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾
وَقَالَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ يَدُ ٱللَّهِ مَغۡلُولَةٌۚ غُلَّتۡ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَلُعِنُواْ بِمَا قَالُواْۘ بَلۡ يَدَاهُ مَبۡسُوطَتَانِ يُنفِقُ كَيۡفَ يَشَآءُۚ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرٗا مِّنۡهُم مَّآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغۡيَٰنٗا وَكُفۡرٗاۚ وَأَلۡقَيۡنَا بَيۡنَهُمُ ٱلۡعَدَٰوَةَ وَٱلۡبَغۡضَآءَ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِۚ كُلَّمَآ أَوۡقَدُواْ نَارٗا لِّلۡحَرۡبِ أَطۡفَأَهَا ٱللَّهُۚ وَيَسۡعَوۡنَ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَسَادٗاۚ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ
b. 3:182; 36:48. (close)
767. The expression signifies that the Jews shall be punished for their insolence in saying that the hand of Allah is tied up. They shall become a miserly and stingy nation. (close)
768. The hand is used both as an instrument for bestowing a favour or bounty and as a symbol of power and dominion for seizing and punishing an offender. God’s both hands are wide open—the one to bestow plenty on the believers and the other to punish the Jews for their insolence. (close)
c. 5:69. (close)
d. 3:56; 5:15. (close)
e. 2:18. (close)
769. The words refer to the attempts of Jews to incite the idolaters of Arabia to wage war against Muslims as well as to their own hostile activities against Islam. (close)
a. 3:182; 36:48. (close)
b. 5:69. (close)
c. 3:56; 5:15. (close)
d. 2:18. (close)
695. Important Words:
یداه (both His hands). The word ید (hand or arm) is derived from یدی (yadyun) and, besides its literal meaning, gives a number of figurative meanings e.g., (1) favour, benefit, bounty or generosity; (2) power, dominion, control, authority or superiority (Aqrab & Lane).
The expression: Their own hands shall be tied up, signifies that the Jews shall be suitably punished for their insolent saying expressed in the words, The hand of Allah is tied up. The sentence may also be taken as optative, meaning, "may their hands be tied up." But as what Allah wills must come to pass, therefore the expression may be better rendered in the form of a positive statement, meaning that the Jews shall become miserly and stingy.
The clause, Nay, both His hands are wide open, constitutes a crushing reply to the taunt of the Jews, that the hand of Allah is tied up. The Quran says that not only is the hand of God not tied up but that both His hands are wide open—the one to give to the believers in plenty and the other to punish the Jews for their insolence. The sentences which follow the clause, Nay, both His hands are wide open, refer respectively to the work of the two hands of God, namely (1) the bestowal of special bounties upon believers, and (2) the exemplary punishment of Jews for their sins. It will be noted that the hand is used both as an instrument for bestowing a favour or bounty and as a symbol of power and dominion for seizing and punishing an offender.
The enmity and hatred referred to in the verse are to exist and continue not only among Jews themselves but also among Christians, as well as between Jews and Christians.
The expression, Whenever they kindle a fire for war, refers to the attempts of Jews to incite the idolaters of Arabia to wage war against Muslims, as well as to their own hostile activities against Islam. (close)
وَ لَوۡ اَنَّ اَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ اتَّقَوۡا لَکَفَّرۡنَا عَنۡہُمۡ سَیِّاٰتِہِمۡ وَ لَاَدۡخَلۡنٰہُمۡ جَنّٰتِ النَّعِیۡمِ ﴿۶۶﴾
وَلَوۡ أَنَّ أَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ ءَامَنُواْ وَٱتَّقَوۡاْ لَكَفَّرۡنَا عَنۡهُمۡ سَيِّـَٔاتِهِمۡ وَلَأَدۡخَلۡنَٰهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتِ ٱلنَّعِيمِ
f. 7:97. (close)
770. The expression, Gardens of bliss denotes a perfect state of spiritual joy as well as an abode of bliss. While qualifying the words "Garden" and "Heaven" the Qur’an has used four distinct expressions: (1) "Gardens of bliss" as in the present verse; (2) "Gardens of Refuge" (32:20); (3) "Gardens of Eternity" (9:72) and (4) "Gardens of Paradise" (18:108). These expressions represent different aspects as well as different grades of Heaven. (close)
a. 7:97. (close)
696. Important Words:
النعیم (bliss) is derived from نعم. They say نعم عیشه i.e. his life was or became plentiful and easy; or it was or became good or pleasant. نعمة (na‘mat) means, ease and plenty; pleasantness and softness of life; enjoyment of a life of ease; comfort and affluence; tenderness, bloom, or freshness. نعمة (ni‘mat) means, a benefit; favour; boon; blessing; bounty; grace or what God bestows on man. نعیم means, grace of God; ease and plenty; welfare; well-being; delight and pleasure; blessing (Lane).
The verse makes it absolutely clear that in order to get salvation and enter Heaven, it is necessary that the People of the Book should believe in the Holy Prophet and the Quran and that their believing in past Prophets and past Books is not sufficient. In this connection see also 2:63.
The expression, gardens of bliss, denotes a perfect state of spiritual pleasure as well as an abode of bliss. It may be noted here that while qualifying the word جنة (garden or Heaven) the Quran uses four distinct expressions:
(1) جنات النعیم i.e. gardens of bliss, as in the present verse; (2) جنات الماوی i.e. gardens of refuge, as in 32:20; (3) جنات عدن i.e. gardens of eternity, as in 9:72; and (4) جنات الفردوس i.e. gardens of Paradise, as in 18:108. These names represent different aspects as well as different grades and sections of Heaven. (close)
وَ لَوۡ اَنَّہُمۡ اَقَامُوا التَّوۡرٰٮۃَ وَ الۡاِنۡجِیۡلَ وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ رَّبِّہِمۡ لَاَکَلُوۡا مِنۡ فَوۡقِہِمۡ وَ مِنۡ تَحۡتِ اَرۡجُلِہِمۡ ؕ مِنۡہُمۡ اُمَّۃٌ مُّقۡتَصِدَۃٌ ؕ وَ کَثِیۡرٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ سَآءَ مَا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿٪۶۷﴾
وَلَوۡ أَنَّهُمۡ أَقَامُواْ ٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةَ وَٱلۡإِنجِيلَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡهِم مِّن رَّبِّهِمۡ لَأَكَلُواْ مِن فَوۡقِهِمۡ وَمِن تَحۡتِ أَرۡجُلِهِمۚ مِّنۡهُمۡ أُمَّةٞ مُّقۡتَصِدَةٞۖ وَكَثِيرٞ مِّنۡهُمۡ سَآءَ مَا يَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 5:48. (close)
771. (1) They would have received heavenly blessings, such as Divine revelation and communion with God, as well as worldly prosperity. (2) They would have had not only timely and abundant rains from above but the earth would also have yielded its produce for them in abundance. (3) God would have provided them with both heavenly and earthly means of progress. (close)
a. 5:48. (close)
If Jews and Christians had given due consideration to the prophecies in their Scriptures, they would certainly have believed in the Quran, which had come in fulfilment of those prophecies.
The words, they would surely have eaten of good things from above them and from under their feet, mean: (1) they would have received both heavenly blessings, such as Divine revelation and communion with God, as well as worldly prosperity; (2) they would have had not only timely and abundant rains from above but the earth below their feet would also have yielded to them its produce in abundance; and (3) God would have provided them with both heavenly and earthly means of progress. (close)