لَتَجِدَنَّ اَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَدَاوَۃً لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا الۡیَہُوۡدَ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا ۚ وَ لَتَجِدَنَّ اَقۡرَبَہُمۡ مَّوَدَّۃً لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا الَّذِیۡنَ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّا نَصٰرٰی ؕ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّ مِنۡہُمۡ قِسِّیۡسِیۡنَ وَ رُہۡبَانًا وَّ اَنَّہُمۡ لَا یَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۳﴾
۞لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ ٱلنَّاسِ عَدَٰوَةٗ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱلۡيَهُودَ وَٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْۖ وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقۡرَبَهُم مَّوَدَّةٗ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا نَصَٰرَىٰۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنۡهُمۡ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهۡبَانٗا وَأَنَّهُمۡ لَا يَسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ
785. Qissis means, the head or chief of the Christians in knowledge or science; a learned man of the Christians who has sought after and acquired great knowledge; an intelligent and learned man (Lane). (close)
786. Ruhban is the plural of Rahib which means an ascetic, a Christian monk; a religious recluse; one who devotes himself to religious services or exercises in a cell or monastery (Lane). (close)
787. This state of affairs, however, was not to last for ever. The Qur’an elsewhere warns Muslims that they were destined to suffer most grievously at the hands of Christians who would attack them from all sides (21:97). In the Hadith also there are prophecies to this effect. The verse applies only to the Christians of the Holy Prophet’s time. History bears out this inference. Najashi, the Christian King of Abyssinia, gave shelter to Muslim refugees; and Muqauqas, the Christian ruler of Egypt, sent presents to the Holy Prophet. Humility seemed to be one of the chief characteristics of the early Christians. This is evident from the different ways in which the epistles of the Holy Prophet were treated by the King of Persia, who was a heathen, and by Heraclius, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, who was a Christian. The former tore the letter to pieces, while the latter received it with respect and even evinced some inclination towards Islam. (close)
713. Important Words:
قسیسین (savants) is the plural of قسیس which is formed from قس. They say قسه i.e. he sought after or pursued it; or he sought after or pursued it leisurely or repeatedly or by degrees. The word also means, he became a قسیس which means, the head or chief of the Christians in knowledge or science, or one of their heads or chiefs; a learned man of the Christians who has sought after and acquired great knowledge; an intelligent and learned man (Lane).
رھبانا (monks) is the plural of راھب which is derived from رھب which means, he feared, or he feared with caution. راھبmeans, a fearer or a cautious fearer; a fearer of God; an ascetic, because he fears God much; a Christian devotee or monk; a religious recluse; one who devotes himself to religious services or exercises in a cell or monastery. رھبانیة means the state of a (monk), and راھب signifies excess in religious exercises and discipline and detaching oneself from mankind; monkery; asceticism (Lane).
As a rule, the followers of a new Prophet meet with greater opposition from the followers of the Prophet immediately preceding him than from the followers of those Prophets who had appeared in the remote past. But, contrary to this general practice, Jews, who should have been less inimically disposed towards the Muslims than Christians, proved at least in the Holy Prophet’s time to be bitterer enemies of Islam than Christians, who were comparatively less inimical. This state of affairs, however, was not to last forever. The Quran elsewhere warns Muslims that they were destined to suffer most grievously at the hands of Christians, who would attack them from all directions, (21:97). In the Hadith also there are prophecies to this effect. So the verse under comment may not be taken to apply to Christians of all times but only to those of the Holy Prophet’s time who lived round about him; and history bears out this inference. Najjashi, the Christian King of Abyssinia, gave shelter to Muslim refugees; and Muqauqas the Christian ruler of Egypt, sent presents to the Holy Prophet.
It appears that humility formed one of the chief characteristics of early Christians, and the teachings of Jesus about turning the other cheek to the striker seems to have exercised its influence on their lives for some centuries. This is evident from the different ways in which the epistles of the Holy Prophet were treated by the King of Persia, who was a heathen, and by Heraclius, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, who was a Christian. The former tore the letter to pieces, while the latter received it respectfully and even evinced some inclination towards Islam.
So long as the above qualities formed distinctive features of the Christian character, Muslims generally met with fairer treatment at their hands. But as time passed, these qualities gradually took leave of them and now there are very few among Christian divines and religious leaders who are engaged in real and honest religious research, withdrawing from the cares of the world and taking an active and living interest in spiritual matters. Christian scholars began to meddle in politics in the 13th or 14th century, with the result that they became hostile to Islam. (close)
وَ اِذَا سَمِعُوۡا مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَی الرَّسُوۡلِ تَرٰۤی اَعۡیُنَہُمۡ تَفِیۡضُ مِنَ الدَّمۡعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُوۡا مِنَ الۡحَقِّ ۚ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ رَبَّنَاۤ اٰمَنَّا فَاکۡتُبۡنَا مَعَ الشّٰہِدِیۡنَ ﴿۸۴﴾
وَإِذَا سَمِعُواْ مَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ تَرَىٰٓ أَعۡيُنَهُمۡ تَفِيضُ مِنَ ٱلدَّمۡعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡحَقِّۖ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَآ ءَامَنَّا فَٱكۡتُبۡنَا مَعَ ٱلشَّـٰهِدِينَ
788. The verse has also been applied to the Najashi in particular. When Ja‘far, a cousin of the Holy Prophet and spokesman of Muslim refugees in Abyssinia read to him the opening verses of the Surah Maryam, the Najashi was visibly moved and tears rolled down his cheeks and he said in a voice full of pathos that that exactly was his belief about Jesus, and that he did not look upon him by even a twig more than that (Hisham). (close)
a. 3:54, 194. (close)
The description given in this verse of some of the Christians of the time of the Holy Prophet applies to all those who have a real hankering after truth and are ready to accept it wherever they find it. The verse has also been applied to Najjashi in particular. When Ja‘far, a cousin of the Holy Prophet and the spokesman of Muslim refugees to Abyssinia, tried to make clear their attitude towards Jesus and to dispel the suspicion caused by the Meccan emissaries about the alleged derogatory language used by the Quran concerning Jesus and read to Najjashithe opening verses of the chapter Maryam, the latter, along with such of his companions as feared God, was visibly moved, and tears rolled down his cheeks and he said in a voice full of pathos that that exactly was his belief about Jesus, and that he did not look upon him by even a twig more than that (Hisham, i. 305, 306). (close)
وَ مَا لَنَا لَا نُؤۡمِنُ بِاللّٰہِ وَ مَا جَآءَنَا مِنَ الۡحَقِّ ۙ وَ نَطۡمَعُ اَنۡ یُّدۡخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ الۡقَوۡمِ الصّٰلِحِیۡنَ ﴿۸۵﴾
وَمَا لَنَا لَا نُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَمَا جَآءَنَا مِنَ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَنَطۡمَعُ أَن يُدۡخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ
b. 26:52. (close)
The verse may be regarded as constituting the substance of the words, referred to in the preceding verse, which Najjashi spoke to those of his courtiers who remonstrated with him, saying that Jesus was God, and not a human being as represented in the Quran, and urged him to deliver the Muslim refugees to the Meccans. At this Najjashi is reported to have said that nothing could prevent him from accepting truth. (close)
فَاَثَابَہُمُ اللّٰہُ بِمَا قَالُوۡا جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَا ؕ وَ ذٰلِکَ جَزَآءُ الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿۸۶﴾
فَأَثَٰبَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا قَالُواْ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَاۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَآءُ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ
a. See 2:26. (close)
c. See 2:26. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَاۤ اُولٰٓئِکَ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡجَحِیۡمِ ﴿٪۸۷﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَآ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلۡجَحِيمِ
b. 5:87; 6:50; 7:37; 22:58. (close)
a. 5:87; 6:50; 7:37; 22:58. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تُحَرِّمُوۡا طَیِّبٰتِ مَاۤ اَحَلَّ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ وَ لَا تَعۡتَدُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یُحِبُّ الۡمُعۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تُحَرِّمُواْ طَيِّبَٰتِ مَآ أَحَلَّ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ وَلَا تَعۡتَدُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُعۡتَدِينَ
c. 10:60. (close)
b. 10:60. (close)
Just as the making of a forbidden thing lawful is an act of excess and transgression, similarly the declaring of a good and lawful thing to be unlawful, or practically treating it as such, is an act of sin. Both these acts are acts of transgression. The verse may have a figurative sense also. In this case the expression, make not unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you, would mean "do not shut the door of God’s favours on yourselves by rejecting the Prophet of Islam". (close)
وَ کُلُوۡا مِمَّا رَزَقَکُمُ اللّٰہُ حَلٰلًا طَیِّبًا ۪ وَّ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡتُمۡ بِہٖ مُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾
وَكُلُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ حَلَٰلٗا طَيِّبٗاۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَنتُم بِهِۦ مُؤۡمِنُونَ
d. 2:169; 8:70; 16:115. (close)
c. 2:169; 8:70; 16:115. (close)
لَا یُؤَاخِذُکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِاللَّغۡوِ فِیۡۤ اَیۡمَانِکُمۡ وَ لٰکِنۡ یُّؤَاخِذُکُمۡ بِمَا عَقَّدۡتُّمُ الۡاَیۡمَانَ ۚ فَکَفَّارَتُہٗۤ اِطۡعَامُ عَشَرَۃِ مَسٰکِیۡنَ مِنۡ اَوۡسَطِ مَا تُطۡعِمُوۡنَ اَہۡلِیۡکُمۡ اَوۡ کِسۡوَتُہُمۡ اَوۡ تَحۡرِیۡرُ رَقَبَۃٍ ؕ فَمَنۡ لَّمۡ یَجِدۡ فَصِیَامُ ثَلٰثَۃِ اَیَّامٍ ؕ ذٰلِکَ کَفَّارَۃُ اَیۡمَانِکُمۡ اِذَا حَلَفۡتُمۡ ؕ وَ احۡفَظُوۡۤا اَیۡمَانَکُمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۹۰﴾
لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِٱللَّغۡوِ فِيٓ أَيۡمَٰنِكُمۡ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ ٱلۡأَيۡمَٰنَۖ فَكَفَّـٰرَتُهُۥٓ إِطۡعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَٰكِينَ مِنۡ أَوۡسَطِ مَا تُطۡعِمُونَ أَهۡلِيكُمۡ أَوۡ كِسۡوَتُهُمۡ أَوۡ تَحۡرِيرُ رَقَبَةٖۖ فَمَن لَّمۡ يَجِدۡ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَٰثَةِ أَيَّامٖۚ ذَٰلِكَ كَفَّـٰرَةُ أَيۡمَٰنِكُمۡ إِذَا حَلَفۡتُمۡۚ وَٱحۡفَظُوٓاْ أَيۡمَٰنَكُمۡۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ
e. 2:226. (close)
789. Oaths which are contrary to Islamic Law are mere wasted breath. (close)
790. Ausat means both "middle" (average) and "the best." (close)
d. 2:226. (close)
The verb عقد (‘aqqada) is the intensive form of عقد (‘aqada) for which see 5:2. It conveys the idea of greater deliberation and solemnity. Hence the expression بما عقدتم الایمان (oaths which you take in earnest) would really mean, oaths which you swear solemnly and deliberately.
The use of the word اوسط (average) means both 'middle', (i.e. average) and 'best' (see 2:144) and is thus meant to imply that an oath may be regarded as expiated if ten poor men are fed with food the expiator ordinarily provides for his family, but that it is better to feed them with the best food with which he feeds his own family.
The pronoun ھم (their) in کسوتھم (their clothing) may refer either to families or to poor persons. In the former case, the sentence would read, "the clothing (of ten poor men) with the average (or the best) kind of clothing which you provide for your families". In the latter case, it would simply mean, "the clothing of ten poor men".
The verse should not be taken as describing three different ways by which a person can expiate a broken oath. The different ways are intended to represent three progressive stages of expiation, the third alternative being better than the second, and the second better than the first.
The injunction to expiate oaths does not mean that they may be broken with impunity and then expiated. The prescription of penalties is merely meant to meet a possible eventuality. But oaths contrary to Islamic Law are no oaths. They must be broken. Then there are oaths that pertain to the rights of individuals. These cannot be expiated even by adopting any of the above-mentioned three courses. If, for instance, a man promises on oath to give to a person certain sum of money, and then breaks his oath, and makes the prescribed expiation, the expiation will not absolve him from his obligation to make the promised payment. He must pay the man the promised sum, notwithstanding the expiation. The expiation will only atone for the sin he committed against God by breaking his oath. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِنَّمَا الۡخَمۡرُ وَ الۡمَیۡسِرُ وَ الۡاَنۡصَابُ وَ الۡاَزۡلَامُ رِجۡسٌ مِّنۡ عَمَلِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ فَاجۡتَنِبُوۡہُ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۹۱﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِنَّمَا ٱلۡخَمۡرُ وَٱلۡمَيۡسِرُ وَٱلۡأَنصَابُ وَٱلۡأَزۡلَٰمُ رِجۡسٞ مِّنۡ عَمَلِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ فَٱجۡتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ
a. 2:220; 5:92. (close)
b. 5:4. (close)
b. 5:4. (close)
718. Important Words:
الخمروالمیسر (wine and games of hazard). See note on 2:220.
انصاب والازلام (idols and divining arrows). See note on 5:4.
رجس (abomination) is derived from رجس which means, it was or became unclean or dirty or filthy or disliked or hated; he performed a bad or evil or abominable action. رجس means, it made a sound or noise. رجس means, dirt or filth; or a dirty or filthy thing; anything or any action that is disliked or hated for its uncleanness or filthiness; a sin or crime; an action that leads to punishment; punishment; unbelief and infidelity; suggestion of the devil (Lane & Aqrab).
See 2:220 & 5:4. Almost all the meanings of رجس are applicable here. (close)
اِنَّمَا یُرِیۡدُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اَنۡ یُّوۡقِعَ بَیۡنَکُمُ الۡعَدَاوَۃَ وَ الۡبَغۡضَآءَ فِی الۡخَمۡرِ وَ الۡمَیۡسِرِ وَ یَصُدَّکُمۡ عَنۡ ذِکۡرِ اللّٰہِ وَ عَنِ الصَّلٰوۃِ ۚ فَہَلۡ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّنۡتَہُوۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾
إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيۡنَكُمُ ٱلۡعَدَٰوَةَ وَٱلۡبَغۡضَآءَ فِي ٱلۡخَمۡرِ وَٱلۡمَيۡسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمۡ عَن ذِكۡرِ ٱللَّهِ وَعَنِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِۖ فَهَلۡ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ
790A. After stating that the four things mentioned in the previous verse are all abomination in one sense or another, the present verse is confined to two of them—wine and games of chance—and gives additional reasons against them. These reasons rest on political, social, spiritual and socio-religious grounds, these being implied in the words "enmity and hatred and keeping back from the remembrance of Allah and from Prayer." (close)
After stating that the four things mentioned in the previous verse are all رجس (abomination) in one sense or another, the present verse confines itself to two of the four mentioned things—wine and games of hazard—and gives additional reasons against them. These reasons are, as stated in the verse, four in number and rest on political, social, spiritual and socio-religious grounds, this being hinted in the words "enmity and hatred and keeping back from the remembrance of Allah and from Prayer". The interrogation in the clause, But will you keep back?, embodies a strong admonition not to do the thing, the use of the interrogative form being the most effective form of exhortation. See also 2:220. (close)