یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا کُوۡنُوۡا قَوّٰمِیۡنَ لِلّٰہِ شُہَدَآءَ بِالۡقِسۡطِ ۫ وَ لَا یَجۡرِمَنَّکُمۡ شَنَاٰنُ قَوۡمٍ عَلٰۤی اَلَّا تَعۡدِلُوۡا ؕ اِعۡدِلُوۡا ۟ ہُوَ اَقۡرَبُ لِلتَّقۡوٰی ۫ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّـٰمِينَ لِلَّهِ شُهَدَآءَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۖ وَلَا يَجۡرِمَنَّكُمۡ شَنَـَٔانُ قَوۡمٍ عَلَىٰٓ أَلَّا تَعۡدِلُواْۚ ٱعۡدِلُواْ هُوَ أَقۡرَبُ لِلتَّقۡوَىٰۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
c. 4:136. (close)
d. 5:3; 11:90. (close)
a. 4:136. (close)
b. 5:3; 11:90. (close)
As the word قوام (for which see 4:35), mean one who performs his work thoroughly and ceaselessly, the expression, be steadfast in the cause of Allah, would mean that Muslims should take a firm hold of the commandments of God and carry them out completely and thoroughly and should never become lax or negligent.
The words, bearing witness in equity, mean that the Faithful should bear practical witness to the truth of Islam by becoming good Muslims and leading good lives in order to become examples for others. They also signify that the Muslims should convey the Message of Islam to others and thus become witnesses for them. As, however, propagation of Islam implies contact with other peoples, the verse fittingly ends with the commandment, let not a people’s enmity incite you to act otherwise than with justice. Be always just, that is nearer to righteousness. Surely no other religion gives such fair and just teachings about its enemies as does Islam. A true Muslim should act justly not only to other Muslims but also to all non-Muslims–even to those who are enemies of Islam.
The words, And fear Allah, surely Allah is aware of what you do, contain a stern warning that the just and equitable treatment of the enemy enjoined above should not be by way of show but should proceed from the heart and be based on the fear of God, from Whom nothing is hidden. (close)
وَعَدَ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ ۙ لَہُمۡ مَّغۡفِرَۃٌ وَّ اَجۡرٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰﴾
وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ لَهُم مَّغۡفِرَةٞ وَأَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٞ
e. 24:56; 48:30. (close)
c. 22:57; 24:56; 48:30. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَاۤ اُولٰٓئِکَ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡجَحِیۡمِ ﴿۱۱﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَآ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلۡجَحِيمِ
a. 5:87; 6:50; 7:37, 41; 22:58. (close)
d. 5:87; 6:50; 7:37, 41; 22:58. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اذۡکُرُوۡا نِعۡمَتَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِذۡ ہَمَّ قَوۡمٌ اَنۡ یَّبۡسُطُوۡۤا اِلَیۡکُمۡ اَیۡدِیَہُمۡ فَکَفَّ اَیۡدِیَہُمۡ عَنۡکُمۡ ۚ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ وَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ فَلۡیَتَوَکَّلِ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿٪۱۲﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِذۡ هَمَّ قَوۡمٌ أَن يَبۡسُطُوٓاْ إِلَيۡكُمۡ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ فَكَفَّ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ عَنكُمۡۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَۚ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَكَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ
b. 5:111. (close)
727. The verse may not necessarily be applied to any particular incident and may be taken to refer generally to the protection which God vouchsafed to Muslims from the aggressive attacks of their enemies. By the words "a people" are here primarily meant the disbelievers of Mecca who spared no pains to extirpate Islam and the Muslims. (close)
a. 5:111. (close)
The verse is considered by some commentators to refer to an incident which took place when the Holy Prophet was returning from Tabuk. It is said that on this occasion six hypocrites lay in ambush to kill him, but God saved him by disclosing the plot to him. The verse may, however, not necessarily be applied to any particular incident. It may be taken to refer generally to the protection which God vouchsafed to Muslims from the aggressive attacks of their enemies. By "a people" is here primarily meant the disbelievers of Mecca, who spared no pains to extirpate Islam and the Muslims, but the word is also general in its application. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اَخَذَ اللّٰہُ مِیۡثَاقَ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ۚ وَ بَعَثۡنَا مِنۡہُمُ اثۡنَیۡ عَشَرَ نَقِیۡبًا ؕ وَ قَالَ اللّٰہُ اِنِّیۡ مَعَکُمۡ ؕ لَئِنۡ اَقَمۡتُمُ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَیۡتُمُ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ اٰمَنۡتُمۡ بِرُسُلِیۡ وَ عَزَّرۡتُمُوۡہُمۡ وَ اَقۡرَضۡتُمُ اللّٰہَ قَرۡضًا حَسَنًا لَّاُکَفِّرَنَّ عَنۡکُمۡ سَیِّاٰتِکُمۡ وَ لَاُدۡخِلَنَّکُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ ۚ فَمَنۡ کَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذٰلِکَ مِنۡکُمۡ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ سَوَآءَ السَّبِیۡلِ ﴿۱۳﴾
۞وَلَقَدۡ أَخَذَ ٱللَّهُ مِيثَٰقَ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ وَبَعَثۡنَا مِنۡهُمُ ٱثۡنَيۡ عَشَرَ نَقِيبٗاۖ وَقَالَ ٱللَّهُ إِنِّي مَعَكُمۡۖ لَئِنۡ أَقَمۡتُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَيۡتُمُ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَءَامَنتُم بِرُسُلِي وَعَزَّرۡتُمُوهُمۡ وَأَقۡرَضۡتُمُ ٱللَّهَ قَرۡضًا حَسَنٗا لَّأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنكُمۡ سَيِّـَٔاتِكُمۡ وَلَأُدۡخِلَنَّكُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُۚ فَمَن كَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذَٰلِكَ مِنكُمۡ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ سَوَآءَ ٱلسَّبِيلِ
c. 2:41, 84. (close)
d. 2:61; 7:161. (close)
727A. By "twelve leaders" are meant the twelve Prophets of Israel who came after Moses. According to some authorities, these were the twelve "princes" said to have been appointed by Moses (Num. 1:5-16; 43:3-15). See also 2:61. (close)
e. See 2:26. (close)
a. 2:169. (close)
a. 2:41, 84. (close)
b. 2:61; 7:161. (close)
c. See 2:26. (close)
d. 2:109. (close)
650. Important Words:
نقیبا (leaders) is the verbal adjective from نقب. They say نقبه i.e. he perforated or made a hole through it. نقب فی الارض means, he went through the land. نقب عن الاخبار means, he scrutinized or examined the news. نقب علی قومه means, he acted as نقیب (leader or supervisor) over his people. نقیب means, a thing perforated or pierced through; a musical reed or pipe; the head or chief of people who investigates and superintends their affairs, takes notice of their actions and is responsible for them (Lane).
عزرتموھم (you support them) is derived from عزر. عزرہ means, he censured him; he helped him. They say عزره عن کذا i.e. he prevented or hindered him or turned him away from such a thing. عزره (‘azzarahu) means: (1) he chastised or punished or censured or corrected him, in order to turn him away from evil; (2) he aided and assisted him; he strengthened him; he aided him against his enemy by repelling the latter; (3) he treated him with reverence, respect or honour (Lane).
The verse contains a veiled warning to Muslims that they can expect the help of God only so long as they adhere to their covenant with Him and obey His behests.
By the words "twelve leaders" are meant the twelve Prophets of Israel who came after Moses. According to some authorities, these were the twelve "Princes" said to have been appointed by Moses (Num. 1:4-16).
The words قرضاحسنا (goodly loan) may either mean good deeds for which a reward is expected from God, or voluntary contributions to help the cause of religion. The verse is addressed to the Israelites. (close)
فَبِمَا نَقۡضِہِمۡ مِّیۡثَاقَہُمۡ لَعَنّٰہُمۡ وَ جَعَلۡنَا قُلُوۡبَہُمۡ قٰسِیَۃً ۚ یُحَرِّفُوۡنَ الۡکَلِمَ عَنۡ مَّوَاضِعِہٖ ۙ وَ نَسُوۡا حَظًّا مِّمَّا ذُکِّرُوۡا بِہٖ ۚ وَ لَا تَزَالُ تَطَّلِعُ عَلٰی خَآئِنَۃٍ مِّنۡہُمۡ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا مِّنۡہُمۡ فَاعۡفُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ اصۡفَحۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُحِبُّ الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾
فَبِمَا نَقۡضِهِم مِّيثَٰقَهُمۡ لَعَنَّـٰهُمۡ وَجَعَلۡنَا قُلُوبَهُمۡ قَٰسِيَةٗۖ يُحَرِّفُونَ ٱلۡكَلِمَ عَن مَّوَاضِعِهِۦ وَنَسُواْ حَظّٗا مِّمَّا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِۦۚ وَلَا تَزَالُ تَطَّلِعُ عَلَىٰ خَآئِنَةٖ مِّنۡهُمۡ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا مِّنۡهُمۡۖ فَٱعۡفُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَٱصۡفَحۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ
727B. The verse contains a very apt description of the Jewish people. (close)
b. 4:156. (close)
c. 2:76; 3:79; 4:47; 5:42 (close)
651. Important Words:
قاسیة (hardened) is derived from قسی which means: (1) it was or became hardened; (2) it became darkened (Aqrab). Thus, the words جعلنا قلوبھم قاسیة rendered as, We have hardened their hearts, may also mean, We have made their hearts devoid of light.
نسوا (have forgotten) is derived from نسی meaning, he forgot, or he abandoned or ceased acting on (Aqrab).
خائنة (treachery) is both the noun-infinitive and the active participle from خان i.e. he acted unfaithfully or treacherously. They say خانه i.e. he was unfaithful to the confidence or trust that he (the other party) reposed in him; he was treacherous or perfidious to him. خائنة means: (1) treachery, perfidiousness or unfaithfulness; (2) one who is very treacherous, unfaithful or perfidious. In the latter sense the word خائنة is the intensive form of خائن. The expression خائنة الاعین used elsewhere in the Quran (40:20) means, a surreptitious or intentional look at a thing at which it is not allowable to look; or the looking with a look that induces suspicion or evil opinion; or the making of a sign with the eye to indicate a thing that one conceals in the mind; or as some say, the contracting of the eye by way of making an obscure indication (Lane). The word خائنة may also be taken to have been used as an adjective qualifying the noun امة (people or party) which may be taken to be understood before it.
The words, They pervert the words from their proper places, may mean: (1) they tamper with the text of the Book, or (2) they distort the true meaning of the text.
The words نسواحظا rendered as they have forgotten a good part, may also be translated as, "they have abandoned and ceased to act on a goodly part". (close)
وَ مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّا نَصٰرٰۤی اَخَذۡنَا مِیۡثَاقَہُمۡ فَنَسُوۡا حَظًّا مِّمَّا ذُکِّرُوۡا بِہٖ ۪ فَاَغۡرَیۡنَا بَیۡنَہُمُ الۡعَدَاوَۃَ وَ الۡبَغۡضَآءَ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ؕ وَ سَوۡفَ یُنَبِّئُہُمُ اللّٰہُ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَصۡنَعُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا نَصَٰرَىٰٓ أَخَذۡنَا مِيثَٰقَهُمۡ فَنَسُواْ حَظّٗا مِّمَّا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِۦ فَأَغۡرَيۡنَا بَيۡنَهُمُ ٱلۡعَدَاوَةَ وَٱلۡبَغۡضَآءَ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِۚ وَسَوۡفَ يُنَبِّئُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَصۡنَعُونَ
727C. This seems to be a reference to Jesus’s prophecy about the advent of the Holy Prophet (John, 16:12, 13) which his followers deliberately ignored or upon which they vainly sought to put a wrong interpretation. (close)
a. 3:56; 5:65. (close)
After referring to the Jews in the preceding verses, the Quran here refers to the Christians, who had also fallen low owing to their ceasing to act on the commandments of God.
The words, We have caused enmity and hatred among them, either refer to the Christians and the Jews spoken of in the preceding verse or they refer to the Christians alone as understood by the present verse. In any case they embody a great prophecy to the truth of which the whole world is a witness. Unappeasable animosity, hatred and rivalry exist not only between Christians and Jews but also between the different sections of Christians themselves. This enmity and discord are a natural result of their rejection of Islam. The Holy Prophet, who had a universal mission, brought the Message of the oneness of all mankind. All nations of the world were invited to assemble under his banner and thus become welded into one nation and one people. But the People of the Book refused to accept him. So not only will Jews and Christians as well as the sections thereof continue to remain at loggerheads with each other, but the phantom of world-peace will also continue to elude humanity till men come to render allegiance to that Great and Noble Prophet whom God sent as "a mercy for all mankind".
The Arabic word یصنعون (have been doing) is generally used concerning works of art. The allusion is thus primarily to the works of art in which Christian nations were to excel and take pride. (close)
یٰۤاَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ قَدۡ جَآءَکُمۡ رَسُوۡلُنَا یُبَیِّنُ لَکُمۡ کَثِیۡرًا مِّمَّا کُنۡتُمۡ تُخۡفُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ یَعۡفُوۡا عَنۡ کَثِیۡرٍ ۬ؕ قَدۡ جَآءَکُمۡ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ نُوۡرٌ وَّ کِتٰبٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿ۙ۱۶﴾
يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ قَدۡ جَآءَكُمۡ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمۡ كَثِيرٗا مِّمَّا كُنتُمۡ تُخۡفُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَيَعۡفُواْ عَن كَثِيرٖۚ قَدۡ جَآءَكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ نُورٞ وَكِتَٰبٞ مُّبِينٞ
727D. The Holy Prophet (33:46, 47). (close)
a. 5:20. (close)
653. Important Words:
یعفو (passes over) is derived from عفا which gives a number of meanings for which see 2:110. Among others the word عفاmeans, it became effaced or obliterated; or He (God) effaced or obliterated (a sin, etc.), i.e. forgave and pardoned. عفوت عن الحق means, I have relinquished or given up my right or what was due to me. The word العفو is also used in the sense of التركi.e. the act of giving up or abandoning or leaving off or passing over (Taj).
The verse refers to the suppression of many noble teachings and great truths by the People of the Book and draws their attention to the fact that not only are many of the truths contained in the older Books being re-taught by the Holy Prophet of Islam but also many more are being revealed and new and wider avenues of guidance have been opened, though at the same time some laws and ordinances which proved burdensome to the previous peoples or were meant only for a specific period have not been embodied in the teachings of the new Faith.
The word "Light" at the end of the verse refers to the Holy Prophet, who elsewhere in the Quran has been called "a Bright Lamp" (33:47), because from him later Reformers were to receive the light of divine knowledge. It may also contain a reference to the fact that the Holy Prophet was the "Seal of the Prophets" (33:41) in the sense that he who followed him in the most perfect manner could receive even the gift of prophethood from God—a great truth laid bare by the Holy Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement. The Holy Prophet was, thus, a great spiritual light that could kindle other similar lights. But it must be clearly understood that since the Law of Islam is perfect in all respects and is meant for all ages to come, no other Book of Law can come after the Quran. (close)
یَّہۡدِیۡ بِہِ اللّٰہُ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضۡوَانَہٗ سُبُلَ السَّلٰمِ وَ یُخۡرِجُہُمۡ مِّنَ الظُّلُمٰتِ اِلَی النُّوۡرِ بِاِذۡنِہٖ وَ یَہۡدِیۡہِمۡ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۷﴾
يَهۡدِي بِهِ ٱللَّهُ مَنِ ٱتَّبَعَ رِضۡوَٰنَهُۥ سُبُلَ ٱلسَّلَٰمِ وَيُخۡرِجُهُم مِّنَ ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ بِإِذۡنِهِۦ وَيَهۡدِيهِمۡ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٖ مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
a. 2:258; 14:2; 33:44; 57:10; 65:12. (close)
The pronoun in یھدی به (thereby does Allah guide) may refer either to the "Book" or the "Light" spoken of in the previous verse. The use of the word سبل (paths) in the plural number indicates that just as there are diverse kinds of difficulties and obstacles that beset the path of a spiritual wayfarer, so God has also provided for him many means of deliverance and safe arrival at his destination. السلام (peace) being also one of the names of God (see 50:24), the words سبل السلام may mean, "the paths leading to God".
The clause, and guides them to the right path, is added to show that the God of Islam not only leads men out of darkness into light but also does so by the shortest and the straightest path, the word مستقیم (right) also meaning "straight". See 2:6. (close)
لَقَدۡ کَفَرَ الَّذِیۡنَ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡمَسِیۡحُ ابۡنُ مَرۡیَمَ ؕ قُلۡ فَمَنۡ یَّمۡلِکُ مِنَ اللّٰہِ شَیۡئًا اِنۡ اَرَادَ اَنۡ یُّہۡلِکَ الۡمَسِیۡحَ ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ وَ اُمَّہٗ وَ مَنۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ جَمِیۡعًا ؕ وَ لِلّٰہِ مُلۡکُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَا ؕ یَخۡلُقُ مَا یَشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۱۸﴾
لَّقَدۡ كَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡمَسِيحُ ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَۚ قُلۡ فَمَن يَمۡلِكُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔا إِنۡ أَرَادَ أَن يُهۡلِكَ ٱلۡمَسِيحَ ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ وَأُمَّهُۥ وَمَن فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعٗاۗ وَلِلَّهِ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَاۚ يَخۡلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُۚ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
b. 5:73, 74. (close)
728. The very strong language used here is intended to expose and condemn the monstrous doctrine that Jesus is son of God. Similarly, strong language is used in 19:89-92 (close)
c. See 3:190. (close)
a. 5:73, 74. (close)
b. See 3:190. (close)
655. Important Words:
یھلك (bring to naught) is derived from اھلك which is the causative form of ھلك which means, he or it perished or came to naught; or he or it came to an end and became non-existent. اھلكه means, he caused him or it to perish, or he destroyed him or it, or he brought him or it to naught (Lane). اھلكه also means, he punished him (Mufradat). The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: اذاقال الرجل ھلك الناس فھواھلکھم i.e. "When a man says, such and such people have perished (viz. they have become morally and spiritually ruined and their state is past recovery), it is he himself who causes them to perish by saying so, for he makes them despair of recovery and of salvation" (Muslim, ch. on Birr Was-Silah). The word is used in this sense also elsewhere in the Quran (67:29; 8:43).
The expression یھلك (bring to naught) is used here not simply in the sense of destroying but in that of destroying by punishment. It is indeed a jealous and indignant God that speaks in this verse. He condemns Christians in a tone of strong indignation and vehement reproach at their preposterous claims about the Godhead of Jesus; and as Jesus and his mother, Mary, have become the means and object of this highly sinful doctrine, the verse fittingly refers to the divine power of punishing them also if God should so desire. It will be noted that a section of Christians looks upon Mary also as Divine and superhuman.
The words, those that are in the earth, obviously refer to those who deify Jesus. God’s purpose in using such strong language is to expose the monstrosity of the doctrine that Jesus was God or the Son of God. Elsewhere also in the Quran strong language has been used about those who hold such blasphemous beliefs and they are threatened with exemplary punishment (19:89-92).
The words, what is between them, corroborate and add force and strength to the argument given in the earlier part of the verse at the same time hinting at the final dissolution of Christian empires as a result of the most blasphemous doctrine of the divinity of Jesus. See also 3:27.
What the Christians say is, "The Messiah, son of Mary, is God," and not "God is none but the Messiah" as the verse puts it. The assertion has been inverted in order to bring home to Christians their great error; for, to say that "The Messiah is God" is really tantamount to saying that "God is none but the Messiah," But Christians, being too conscious of the weaknesses of their Messiah, dare not accept the latter proposition, which thus goes to prove the hollowness of their claim that the Messiah, son of Mary, is God. (close)