یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِنَّمَا الۡخَمۡرُ وَ الۡمَیۡسِرُ وَ الۡاَنۡصَابُ وَ الۡاَزۡلَامُ رِجۡسٌ مِّنۡ عَمَلِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ فَاجۡتَنِبُوۡہُ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۹۱﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِنَّمَا ٱلۡخَمۡرُ وَٱلۡمَيۡسِرُ وَٱلۡأَنصَابُ وَٱلۡأَزۡلَٰمُ رِجۡسٞ مِّنۡ عَمَلِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ فَٱجۡتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ
a. 2:220; 5:92. (close)
b. 5:4. (close)
b. 5:4. (close)
718. Important Words:
الخمروالمیسر (wine and games of hazard). See note on 2:220.
انصاب والازلام (idols and divining arrows). See note on 5:4.
رجس (abomination) is derived from رجس which means, it was or became unclean or dirty or filthy or disliked or hated; he performed a bad or evil or abominable action. رجس means, it made a sound or noise. رجس means, dirt or filth; or a dirty or filthy thing; anything or any action that is disliked or hated for its uncleanness or filthiness; a sin or crime; an action that leads to punishment; punishment; unbelief and infidelity; suggestion of the devil (Lane & Aqrab).
See 2:220 & 5:4. Almost all the meanings of رجس are applicable here. (close)
اِنَّمَا یُرِیۡدُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اَنۡ یُّوۡقِعَ بَیۡنَکُمُ الۡعَدَاوَۃَ وَ الۡبَغۡضَآءَ فِی الۡخَمۡرِ وَ الۡمَیۡسِرِ وَ یَصُدَّکُمۡ عَنۡ ذِکۡرِ اللّٰہِ وَ عَنِ الصَّلٰوۃِ ۚ فَہَلۡ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّنۡتَہُوۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾
إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيۡنَكُمُ ٱلۡعَدَٰوَةَ وَٱلۡبَغۡضَآءَ فِي ٱلۡخَمۡرِ وَٱلۡمَيۡسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمۡ عَن ذِكۡرِ ٱللَّهِ وَعَنِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِۖ فَهَلۡ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ
790A. After stating that the four things mentioned in the previous verse are all abomination in one sense or another, the present verse is confined to two of them—wine and games of chance—and gives additional reasons against them. These reasons rest on political, social, spiritual and socio-religious grounds, these being implied in the words "enmity and hatred and keeping back from the remembrance of Allah and from Prayer." (close)
After stating that the four things mentioned in the previous verse are all رجس (abomination) in one sense or another, the present verse confines itself to two of the four mentioned things—wine and games of hazard—and gives additional reasons against them. These reasons are, as stated in the verse, four in number and rest on political, social, spiritual and socio-religious grounds, this being hinted in the words "enmity and hatred and keeping back from the remembrance of Allah and from Prayer". The interrogation in the clause, But will you keep back?, embodies a strong admonition not to do the thing, the use of the interrogative form being the most effective form of exhortation. See also 2:220. (close)
وَ اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ وَ احۡذَرُوۡا ۚ فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّیۡتُمۡ فَاعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّمَا عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِنَا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۹۳﴾
وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَٱحۡذَرُواْۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ فَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّمَا عَلَىٰ رَسُولِنَا ٱلۡبَلَٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
c. 3:133; 4:70; 64:13. (close)
d. 5:100; 16:83; 36:18; 64:13. (close)
a. 3:133; 4:70; 64:13. (close)
b. 5:100; 16:83; 36:18; 64:13. (close)
The words, be on your guard, may either mean, "you should be on your guard against evils" or they may signify that if you obey Allah and obey the Prophet, the result will be that you will be able to guard yourselves against evil.
The concluding part of the verse means that the duty of a Messenger of God is only to convey to men His commandments. It forms no part of his work to force them to follow him. This exposes the absurdity of the objection that Islam enjoins the use of force for its propagation. Elsewhere the Quran says: There should be no compulsion in religion (2:257). Both these verses and many similar others were revealed at Medina when a state of war existed between disbelievers and believers, which clearly shows that the Holy Prophet took up arms only to defend himself and his followers and not to propagate his religion at the point of the sword, as is often maliciously alleged by the opponents of Islam. (close)
لَیۡسَ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ جُنَاحٌ فِیۡمَا طَعِمُوۡۤا اِذَا مَا اتَّقَوۡا وَّ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ ثُمَّ اتَّقَوۡا وَّ اٰمَنُوۡا ثُمَّ اتَّقَوۡا وَّ اَحۡسَنُوۡا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یُحِبُّ الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿٪۹۴﴾
لَيۡسَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ جُنَاحٞ فِيمَا طَعِمُوٓاْ إِذَا مَا ٱتَّقَواْ وَّءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ ثُمَّ ٱتَّقَواْ وَّءَامَنُواْ ثُمَّ ٱتَّقَواْ وَّأَحۡسَنُواْۚ وَٱللَّهُ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ
791. Two important principles emerge from this verse: (a) That the things of this world having been made for the use and benefit of man are, as a rule, pure and clean; the forbidden things being only exceptions. (b) That clean and pure food exercises a beneficial influence on man’s moral development, while unclean and impure food produces an adverse effect. The verse lays down three stages of spiritual progress. In the first stage, believers fear God and believe and do good works; in the second stage they fear God and believe, their belief at this stage being so strong that the doing of good works becomes, as it were, a part and parcel of their belief. In the third stage they fear God and do good to their fellow beings as if they are actually seeing God. (close)
The verse does not mean, as may be wrongly inferred, that if a person believes and does good works, he can take any food. On the contrary, it purports to lay down a condition the observance of which can secure a person against using a forbidden food, i.e. a food which is calculated to do him physical or spiritual harm. The condition is that he should fear God and believe and do good works; and it is evident that those who really fear God and believe in Him and do good works can never think of eating forbidden food. Indeed, a person may eat anything, if his partaking of it leads to his becoming pious and God fearing; and it is clear that such food, the eating of which makes a person pious and God-fearing, cannot but be pure and clean, for it is only clean food which can bring about such a result.
Two important principles emerge from this verse: (a) that the things of this world having been made for the use and benefit of man are, as a rule, pure and clean; the forbidden things being only exceptions; (b) that clean and pure food exercises a beneficial influence on man’s spiritual development, while unclean and impure food produces an adverse effect upon it.
Moreover, the verse lays down three stages of spiritual progress for believers. In the first stage, believers fear God and believe and do good works, while in the second stage they fear God and believe, their belief being at this stage so strong as to become a natural and constant source of good works which become, as it were, part and parcel of their belief, and in the third and final stage they fear God and do good to others which is not possible without perfect belief and good works, the mention of both of which has consequently been here left out as being understood. Thus, the words "and do good works" have been omitted in the description of the second stage, while the words "and believe" have been replaced with the words "and do good" in the description of the third stage.
It should be noted that the expression اتقوا (fear God), which has been repeated three times in the verse under comment, is peculiar to the Arabic language and gives a very vast meaning, the root idea underlying the word being "to be ever watchful and to be ever taking God for shelter" (see 2:3). Similarly, the expression احسنوا (do good) is very vast in its significance, for which see 2:113. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَیَبۡلُوَنَّکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِشَیۡءٍ مِّنَ الصَّیۡدِ تَنَالُہٗۤ اَیۡدِیۡکُمۡ وَ رِمَاحُکُمۡ لِیَعۡلَمَ اللّٰہُ مَنۡ یَّخَافُہٗ بِالۡغَیۡبِ ۚ فَمَنِ اعۡتَدٰی بَعۡدَ ذٰلِکَ فَلَہٗ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۹۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَيَبۡلُوَنَّكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِشَيۡءٖ مِّنَ ٱلصَّيۡدِ تَنَالُهُۥٓ أَيۡدِيكُمۡ وَرِمَاحُكُمۡ لِيَعۡلَمَ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَخَافُهُۥ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِۚ فَمَنِ ٱعۡتَدَىٰ بَعۡدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُۥ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٞ
a. 57:26. (close)
792. As hunting is ordinarily done in a jungle where one is generally alone and where there is none beside God to observe one breaking the Divine commandments, the verse fittingly mentions hunting to illustrate God- fearingness. It also serves as an introduction to the commandment that follows in the next verse. (close)
a. 57:26. (close)
As hunting is ordinarily done in a jungle where one is generally alone and where there is none beside God to observe one’s breaking Divine commandments, the verse fittingly mentions hunting to illustrate تقوی or God-fearingness. While engaged in hunting, man’s abstention from violating Divine commandments would show that he has really done so out of the fear of God. It is thus that, by an outward act, the inner condition of a man’s heart may become revealed.
The verse also serves as an introduction to the commandment that follows in the next verse and prepares believers for the acceptance of an injunction which ran counter to the prevalent practice. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَقۡتُلُوا الصَّیۡدَ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ حُرُمٌ ؕ وَ مَنۡ قَتَلَہٗ مِنۡکُمۡ مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَآءٌ مِّثۡلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ یَحۡکُمُ بِہٖ ذَوَا عَدۡلٍ مِّنۡکُمۡ ہَدۡیًۢا بٰلِغَ الۡکَعۡبَۃِ اَوۡ کَفَّارَۃٌ طَعَامُ مَسٰکِیۡنَ اَوۡ عَدۡلُ ذٰلِکَ صِیَامًا لِّیَذُوۡقَ وَبَالَ اَمۡرِہٖ ؕ عَفَا اللّٰہُ عَمَّا سَلَفَ ؕ وَ مَنۡ عَادَ فَیَنۡتَقِمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡہُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَزِیۡزٌ ذُو انۡتِقَامٍ ﴿۹۶﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَقۡتُلُواْ ٱلصَّيۡدَ وَأَنتُمۡ حُرُمٞۚ وَمَن قَتَلَهُۥ مِنكُم مُّتَعَمِّدٗا فَجَزَآءٞ مِّثۡلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ ٱلنَّعَمِ يَحۡكُمُ بِهِۦ ذَوَا عَدۡلٖ مِّنكُمۡ هَدۡيَۢا بَٰلِغَ ٱلۡكَعۡبَةِ أَوۡ كَفَّـٰرَةٞ طَعَامُ مَسَٰكِينَ أَوۡ عَدۡلُ ذَٰلِكَ صِيَامٗا لِّيَذُوقَ وَبَالَ أَمۡرِهِۦۗ عَفَا ٱللَّهُ عَمَّا سَلَفَۚ وَمَنۡ عَادَ فَيَنتَقِمُ ٱللَّهُ مِنۡهُۚ وَٱللَّهُ عَزِيزٞ ذُو ٱنتِقَامٍ
b. 5:2, 97. (close)
a. 2:276. (close)
a. 5:2, 97. (close)
723. Important Words:
انتقام (retribution) is derived from نقم. They say نقم الیه i.e. he exacted vengeance upon him; he punished him. انتقمت منهmeans, I took vengeance on him; I inflicted penal retribution on him or I punished him. انتقام thus means, vengeance, punishment or penal retribution (Lane & Aqrab). See also 3:5 and 5:60.
If a man kills game, when he is in the state of احرام (pilgrimage), he should give as compensation a like animal to be taken to Mecca for sacrifice. For instance, if the game killed by him is a deer, he should offer a goat. If the like of the game killed cannot be found, then an animal costing approximately as much as the game killed should be offered, or failing that, the pilgrim should spend the estimated price of the game in feeding the poor, which is two مد per head according to some theologians and one صاع according to others, a مد being roughly two handfuls of corn while a صاع is four times as much as a مد. If, however, the pilgrim is unable to do even that, he should fast for as many days as the number of the poor he could feed with the estimated price of the game killed. The fasting and the feeding of the poor, as the case may be, should preferably be done at Mecca. (close)
اُحِلَّ لَکُمۡ صَیۡدُ الۡبَحۡرِ وَ طَعَامُہٗ مَتَاعًا لَّکُمۡ وَ لِلسَّیَّارَۃِ ۚ وَ حُرِّمَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ صَیۡدُ الۡبَرِّ مَا دُمۡتُمۡ حُرُمًا ؕ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ الَّذِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِ تُحۡشَرُوۡنَ ﴿۹۷﴾
أُحِلَّ لَكُمۡ صَيۡدُ ٱلۡبَحۡرِ وَطَعَامُهُۥ مَتَٰعٗا لَّكُمۡ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِۖ وَحُرِّمَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ صَيۡدُ ٱلۡبَرِّ مَا دُمۡتُمۡ حُرُمٗاۗ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِيٓ إِلَيۡهِ تُحۡشَرُونَ
793. The word "sea" includes rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, etc. See 7:139. (close)
b. 5:2, 96. (close)
a. 5:2, 96. (close)
The word بحر (sea) here includes rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, etc. See 7:139.
As during the time of Pilgrimage, hunting on land is likely to prove inconvenient and even dangerous to pilgrims visiting the Ka‘bah, whereas the catching of sea-game does not interfere with traffic, so the former has been prohibited and the latter allowed. (close)
جَعَلَ اللّٰہُ الۡکَعۡبَۃَ الۡبَیۡتَ الۡحَرَامَ قِیٰمًا لِّلنَّاسِ وَ الشَّہۡرَ الۡحَرَامَ وَ الۡہَدۡیَ وَ الۡقَلَآئِدَ ؕ ذٰلِکَ لِتَعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۹۸﴾
۞جَعَلَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡكَعۡبَةَ ٱلۡبَيۡتَ ٱلۡحَرَامَ قِيَٰمٗا لِّلنَّاسِ وَٱلشَّهۡرَ ٱلۡحَرَامَ وَٱلۡهَدۡيَ وَٱلۡقَلَـٰٓئِدَۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِتَعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ
c. 2:126; 3:97, 98. (close)
794. God has made Pilgrimage to the Ka‘bah a sign for the progress and prosperity of Muslims. So long as they will continue to perform Pilgrimage, God’s grace will continue to attend them. Pilgrimage is a means of support for men in a material sense also. Muslims from all parts of the world visit the Ka‘bah in hundreds of thousands every year and this serves as a potent means of support for the Meccans. But the promise is not confined to the people of Mecca but encompasses in its purview all mankind. Qiyam also signifies a teaching which is permanent and not subject to abrogation. (close)
a. 5:3. (close)
b. 2:126; 3:97-98. (close)
c. 5:3. (close)
725. Important Words:
قیاما (means of support and uplift) is the noun-infinitive from قام meaning, he stood up, or he stood still. They say: قام المرأةi.e. he (the husband) supported or maintained the woman. قام به قیاما تاما means, he managed it (an affair, etc.) perfectly. قیاماtherefore signifies, means of support and uplift (Lane, Aqrab & Zamakhshari). See also 4:6.
God has made Pilgrimage to the Ka‘bah a sign for the progress and prosperity of Muslims. So long as they will continue to perform Pilgrimage, God’s grace will continue to attend them. But it is regrettable that wealthy Muslims have now generally grown negligent in this respect, with the result that their glory has departed.
Pilgrimage is also a means of support for men in a material sense. Muslims from all parts of the world visit the Ka‘bah and this serves as a means of support for the people of Mecca. Abraham left his wife Hagar and his son Ishmael in the wilderness of Paran near Mecca, apparently to die from starvation. But God made provision not only for Hagar and Ishmael in that barren and bleak desert but also for their posterity for all times to come. See also ch. 106. But to say that the promise that the Pilgrimage will continue to prove a means of subsistence for Meccans only is to limit its vast scope and application. It certainly is not confined to the people of Mecca but encompasses all mankind. It is clear from the verse that not only will the Pilgrimage to Mecca with its attendant rites continue till the end of time, but that the world itself will last only so long as the Pilgrimage to the Ka‘bah continues and that it will come to an end when the Pilgrimage ceases to be performed. This is indeed a great prophecy; for there have been many places in the world which were the resorts of pilgrims in their own time but which have long ceased to be so and are now deserted and forgotten. But the Ka‘bah is meant to remain for all times "an inviolable house and a means of support and uplift for mankind". (close)
اِعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿ؕ۹۹﴾
ٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
b. 15:50, 51. (close)
a. 15:50-51. (close)
The Divine attributes of forgiveness and mercy are given great prominence in the Quran. My mercy encompasses all things, says the Holy Book (7:157). Therefore, whenever God warns people of His punishment in the Quran, He also makes it a point to remind them of His attributes of forgiveness and mercy, thus showing that these attributes predominate over His other attributes and only await a gesture of goodness on the part of man to show themselves. (close)
مَا عَلَی الرَّسُوۡلِ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تُبۡدُوۡنَ وَ مَا تَکۡتُمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۰﴾
مَّا عَلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَٰغُۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تُبۡدُونَ وَمَا تَكۡتُمُونَ
c. 16:83; 36:18; 64:13. (close)
d. 2:78; 6:4; 11:6; 16:20. (close)
a. 16:83; 36:18; 64:13. (close)
b. 2:78; 6:4; 11:6; 16:20. (close)
This verse sheds some light on the responsibility and duty of a Prophet. With the deliverance of the message entrusted to a Prophet, his duty ends, and he is not responsible if, in spite of his clear warnings, the people reject his mission. He has not been given the power to force them to believe. In fact, each Divine Message serves as a guidance for the people to whom it is given. If they live upto it and repent of their evil ways, they find God Forgiving and Merciful; but if they persist in their wicked practices, they are punished and God makes another people take their place. (close)