وَ مَا لَکُمۡ اَلَّا تَاۡکُلُوۡا مِمَّا ذُکِرَ اسۡمُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡہِ وَ قَدۡ فَصَّلَ لَکُمۡ مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِلَّا مَا اضۡطُرِرۡتُمۡ اِلَیۡہِ ؕ وَ اِنَّ کَثِیۡرًا لَّیُضِلُّوۡنَ بِاَہۡوَآئِہِمۡ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ ؕ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ ہُوَ اَعۡلَمُ بِالۡمُعۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۰﴾
وَمَا لَكُمۡ أَلَّا تَأۡكُلُواْ مِمَّا ذُكِرَ ٱسۡمُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡهِ وَقَدۡ فَصَّلَ لَكُم مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِلَّا مَا ٱضۡطُرِرۡتُمۡ إِلَيۡهِۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرٗا لَّيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهۡوَآئِهِم بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعۡلَمُ بِٱلۡمُعۡتَدِينَ
c. 2:174; 5:4, 5; 6:146; 16:116. (close)
a. 2:174; 5:4-5; 6:146; 16:116. (close)
In this verse the objection of disbelievers has been answered in the very words in which it was made. Their objection was that Muslims profess to be devoted to the name of Allah, yet they do not eat of the flesh of the animal killed by God, i.e. the animal that dies of itself. The answer given in the present verse is, "when we are devoted to Allah, why should we not eat of the food on which the name of our Lord is pronounced?" But the name of God is not pronounced on an animal that dies of itself. Its death takes place under the general law of nature.
The words, He has already explained, refer to 16:116, which was revealed earlier.
The word "mislead" signifies that man-made teachings, which are given by most men in opposition to the teachings of God, only lead people astray.
The word "transgressors" at the end of the verse indicates that the objections raised against the teachings of God have their source in malice and enmity and those who bring forward such objections are indeed transgressors. (close)
وَ ذَرُوۡا ظَاہِرَ الۡاِثۡمِ وَ بَاطِنَہٗ ؕ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَکۡسِبُوۡنَ الۡاِثۡمَ سَیُجۡزَوۡنَ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَقۡتَرِفُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۱﴾
وَذَرُواْ ظَٰهِرَ ٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَبَاطِنَهُۥٓۚ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَكۡسِبُونَ ٱلۡإِثۡمَ سَيُجۡزَوۡنَ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَقۡتَرِفُونَ
d. 6:152; 7:34. (close)
a. 6:152; 7:34. (close)
There are certain things which are manifestly evil and there are others which appear to be good but are really evil; or even if they do not appear to be good, their evil nature lies concealed and is not apparent. The Quran enjoins Muslims here to abstain from both, for such is the requirement of true piety.
The verse beautifully explains why it is forbidden to eat such animals as die of themselves or such as are not duly slaughtered by pronouncing thereupon the name of God. The pronouncing of the name of God exercises only a subtle influence. It brings about no physical change in the flesh, but it does produce a sanctifying effect on the heart. The killing of an animal is likely to harden the heart. But when a man pronounces the name of God at the time of slaughter, he, as it were, says: "I have no right to kill this animal of my own accord, but Allah Whose creation and property it is, has granted me permission to do so." This mental attitude will insure the heart against becoming hardened. Moreover, the pronouncing of the name of God is meant to be a guarantee that the animal is being slaughtered in the name of the Lord and Master of the universe and not in that of any other.
It was on a similar principle that ‘Umar, the Second Successor of the Holy Prophet, acted when, while kissing the Black Stone at the time of performing the طواف or circuit of the Ka‘bah, he addressed it in the memorable words: "I know thou art only a stone, but I kiss thee because I saw the Prophet of God kiss thee" (Bukhari, ch. on Hajj). By so saying, he pointed to the great truth that devotion to God should make man averse from paying homage to anything beside Him and that all actions of man should be performed for God. (close)
وَ لَا تَاۡکُلُوۡا مِمَّا لَمۡ یُذۡکَرِ اسۡمُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡہِ وَ اِنَّہٗ لَفِسۡقٌ ؕ وَ اِنَّ الشَّیٰطِیۡنَ لَیُوۡحُوۡنَ اِلٰۤی اَوۡلِیٰٓئِہِمۡ لِیُجَادِلُوۡکُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ اَطَعۡتُمُوۡہُمۡ اِنَّکُمۡ لَمُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۲﴾٪
وَلَا تَأۡكُلُواْ مِمَّا لَمۡ يُذۡكَرِ ٱسۡمُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡهِ وَإِنَّهُۥ لَفِسۡقٞۗ وَإِنَّ ٱلشَّيَٰطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَىٰٓ أَوۡلِيَآئِهِمۡ لِيُجَٰدِلُوكُمۡۖ وَإِنۡ أَطَعۡتُمُوهُمۡ إِنَّكُمۡ لَمُشۡرِكُونَ
a. 5:4; 6:146. (close)
905. The verse explains why it is forbidden to eat such animals as die of themselves or such as are not duly slaughtered with an invocation of the name of God. The pronouncement of the name of God produces sanctifying effect on man’s heart which nullifies the hardening effect which the killing of the animal is likely to produce. (close)
a. 5:4; 6:146. (close)
The verse points out that if believers eat of the flesh of those animals on which the name of God has not been pronounced, it will be an act of disobedience and transgression.
One sin leads to another. If a believer fails to pronounce the name of God on his food, his heart becomes devoid of reverence for Him and this gradually leads to شرك i.e. associating partners with God. (close)
اَوَ مَنۡ کَانَ مَیۡتًا فَاَحۡیَیۡنٰہُ وَ جَعَلۡنَا لَہٗ نُوۡرًا یَّمۡشِیۡ بِہٖ فِی النَّاسِ کَمَنۡ مَّثَلُہٗ فِی الظُّلُمٰتِ لَیۡسَ بِخَارِجٍ مِّنۡہَا ؕ کَذٰلِکَ زُیِّنَ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۳﴾
أَوَمَن كَانَ مَيۡتٗا فَأَحۡيَيۡنَٰهُ وَجَعَلۡنَا لَهُۥ نُورٗا يَمۡشِي بِهِۦ فِي ٱلنَّاسِ كَمَن مَّثَلُهُۥ فِي ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ لَيۡسَ بِخَارِجٖ مِّنۡهَاۚ كَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
b. 8:25. (close)
906. In the foregoing verses it was pointed out that man-made laws are always defective. Now it is mentioned in the present verse that man-made teachings cannot stand against Divine teachings. The case of those who devise laws, with the aid of human reason alone, is like one who gropes in darkness from which he will never come out. (close)
c. 6:109; 10:13; 27:5. (close)
a. 8:25. (close)
b. 6:109; 10:13; 27:5. (close)
In the foregoing verses it was pointed out that man-made teachings are always defective. Now, the Quran proceeds to show that man-made teachings cannot stand against Divine teachings.
The verse purports to put the question: "If there is a teaching which is really from God, will it not be better than that devised by man?" Now, this is a question which every man, even a disbeliever, will have to reply in the affirmative. Indeed, human reason cannot have the boldness to deny it. The question has thus been put to make disbelievers conscious of a great truth.
The expression, he is in utter darkness whence he cannot come forth, refers to the man who devises laws with the aid of reason alone— reason that is fettered by numberless limitations to which man is subject. The laws made by men are always subject to change owing to their intrinsic defectiveness. A law is made today but it has to be changed tomorrow on account of the defects which by experience are found in it. Then the new law is again changed for the same reason, and this process goes on indefinitely and sometimes even a sort of a circle comes into being. Thus the case of such men as devise their laws with the aid of human reason alone is like one who is in darkness from which he will never come out.
The words, made to seem fair, imply that Satan and his associates adorn the evil doings of men. In the beginning it is Satan who misleads men by inciting them to evil. But when a man goes on doing evil deeds, his evil deeds gradually begin to appear good to him. This is the law of God meant as a punishment. It is to this later adornment of deeds under the law of God that the Quran refers in 6:109 above. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ جَعَلۡنَا فِیۡ کُلِّ قَرۡیَۃٍ اَکٰبِرَ مُجۡرِمِیۡہَا لِیَمۡکُرُوۡا فِیۡہَا ؕ وَ مَا یَمۡکُرُوۡنَ اِلَّا بِاَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَ مَا یَشۡعُرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۴﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلۡنَا فِي كُلِّ قَرۡيَةٍ أَكَٰبِرَ مُجۡرِمِيهَا لِيَمۡكُرُواْ فِيهَاۖ وَمَا يَمۡكُرُونَ إِلَّا بِأَنفُسِهِمۡ وَمَا يَشۡعُرُونَ
d. 17:17. (close)
b. 17:17. (close)
The verse is rather difficult to translate. Some translators make the word اکابر (great ones) the first object of the verb جعلنا (have We made) and the word مجرمیھا (its sinners) the second object. But the better rendering and one more befitting the context is to treat the words اکابر and مجرمیھا as مضاف and مضاف الیه making them jointly the first object of جعلنا and supplying the second object from the expression "in utter darkness" occurring in the preceding verse. Similarly the لام in لیمکروا is not لام تعلیل but لام عاقبة.
We are told in 6:113 above that it is the law of God that wicked leaders from among the common people and from among the big ones are always hostile to the Prophets of God. It is to these wicked leaders that the verse under comment refers. They are surrounded by utter darkness from which they never emerge (see the preceding verse). (close)
وَ اِذَا جَآءَتۡہُمۡ اٰیَۃٌ قَالُوۡا لَنۡ نُّؤۡمِنَ حَتّٰی نُؤۡتٰی مِثۡلَ مَاۤ اُوۡتِیَ رُسُلُ اللّٰہِ ؕۘؔ اَللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ حَیۡثُ یَجۡعَلُ رِسَالَتَہٗ ؕ سَیُصِیۡبُ الَّذِیۡنَ اَجۡرَمُوۡا صَغَارٌ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ عَذَابٌ شَدِیۡدٌۢ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَمۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۵﴾
وَإِذَا جَآءَتۡهُمۡ ءَايَةٞ قَالُواْ لَن نُّؤۡمِنَ حَتَّىٰ نُؤۡتَىٰ مِثۡلَ مَآ أُوتِيَ رُسُلُ ٱللَّهِۘ ٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ حَيۡثُ يَجۡعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُۥۗ سَيُصِيبُ ٱلَّذِينَ أَجۡرَمُواْ صَغَارٌ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَعَذَابٞ شَدِيدُۢ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَمۡكُرُونَ
a. 28:49. (close)
906A. Allah knows best who is fit to be His Messenger and who is not. (close)
a. 28:49. (close)
The verse embodies the last argument or the last excuse of disbelievers in the present discussion. They say, "We will never believe in Divine revelation until we also receive revelation like unto the revelation of the Messengers of God. If God speaks to them, let Him speak to us also."
God answers this foolish objection by saying: "It is not to every man that God speaks; He speaks only to him whom He finds worthy of it and whom He selects for the purpose." As for those who make themselves deserving of humiliation and abasement, they cannot be honoured with messages from God. Their doom is only "humiliation and a severe punishment." (close)
فَمَنۡ یُّرِدِ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّہۡدِیَہٗ یَشۡرَحۡ صَدۡرَہٗ لِلۡاِسۡلَامِ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یُّرِدۡ اَنۡ یُّضِلَّہٗ یَجۡعَلۡ صَدۡرَہٗ ضَیِّقًا حَرَجًا کَاَنَّمَا یَصَّعَّدُ فِی السَّمَآءِ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَجۡعَلُ اللّٰہُ الرِّجۡسَ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۶﴾
فَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ أَن يَهۡدِيَهُۥ يَشۡرَحۡ صَدۡرَهُۥ لِلۡإِسۡلَٰمِۖ وَمَن يُرِدۡ أَن يُضِلَّهُۥ يَجۡعَلۡ صَدۡرَهُۥ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجٗا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي ٱلسَّمَآءِۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَجۡعَلُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلرِّجۡسَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
907. He regards Divine commandments as a burden and finds physical difficulty and mental trouble in carrying them out. His bosom, as it were, becomes narrow like one who is climbing up a steep height. (close)
b. 10:101. (close)
a. 10:101. (close)
867. Important Words:
حرجاً (close) means, close, strait or narrow (Lane). See also 4:66.
رجس (Punishment). See 5:91.
The desire of Allah, mentioned in the words, whomsoever Allah wishes to guide, follows the actions of man. It is the result of man’s own good deeds, and not arbitrary.
The words, He expands his bosom for the acceptance of Islam, signify that such a one is cheerfully willing to accept and obey every command of God. He feels pleasure in obeying God’s behests. If a man is always ready and willing to obey the commandments of God, it shows that he is progressing spiritually. But if a man feels Divine commandments to be a burden, it is an indication of the fact that he is spiritually retrogressing.
The "wish" of Allah to make a man go astray also comes as a sequence to man’s own evil deeds. When a man becomes a sinner and does wicked deeds the result is that he is led astray from the right path. Such a one feels the commandments of God to be burdensome, and perceives difficulty and mental trouble in carrying them out. His bosom becomes narrow and close. His case is like that of a person who is asked to climb up a steep height.
It may be noted here in passing that the verse also hints that to ascend into heaven with the physical body is a sort of punishment and not a boon.
The verse tells us that God helps those who practise virtue and willingly obey His commandments and He causes them to progress spiritually, while those who do not believe and lead sinful lives continue to advance in sin and wickedness.
The verse further teaches us that we cannot progress spiritually unless we render obedience to God with willing and cheerful hearts. (close)
وَ ہٰذَا صِرَاطُ رَبِّکَ مُسۡتَقِیۡمًا ؕ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا الۡاٰیٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ یَّذَّکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۷﴾
وَهَٰذَا صِرَٰطُ رَبِّكَ مُسۡتَقِيمٗاۗ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ لِقَوۡمٖ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
c. 6:154. (close)
b. 6:154. (close)
لَہُمۡ دَارُ السَّلٰمِ عِنۡدَ رَبِّہِمۡ وَ ہُوَ وَلِیُّہُمۡ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۸﴾
۞لَهُمۡ دَارُ ٱلسَّلَٰمِ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡۖ وَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 10:26. (close)
a. 10:26. (close)
As السلام (peace) is also one of the names of God, the expression دارالسلام may also be rendered as the abode of God, i.e. the presence of God. The virtuous are thus promised the reward of God’s nearness. (close)
وَ یَوۡمَ یَحۡشُرُہُمۡ جَمِیۡعًا ۚ یٰمَعۡشَرَ الۡجِنِّ قَدِ اسۡتَکۡثَرۡتُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاِنۡسِ ۚ وَ قَالَ اَوۡلِیٰٓؤُہُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاِنۡسِ رَبَّنَا اسۡتَمۡتَعَ بَعۡضُنَا بِبَعۡضٍ وَّ بَلَغۡنَاۤ اَجَلَنَا الَّذِیۡۤ اَجَّلۡتَ لَنَا ؕ قَالَ النَّارُ مَثۡوٰٮکُمۡ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اِلَّا مَا شَآءَ اللّٰہُ ؕ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ حَکِیۡمٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۲۹﴾
وَيَوۡمَ يَحۡشُرُهُمۡ جَمِيعٗا يَٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ قَدِ ٱسۡتَكۡثَرۡتُم مِّنَ ٱلۡإِنسِۖ وَقَالَ أَوۡلِيَآؤُهُم مِّنَ ٱلۡإِنسِ رَبَّنَا ٱسۡتَمۡتَعَ بَعۡضُنَا بِبَعۡضٖ وَبَلَغۡنَآ أَجَلَنَا ٱلَّذِيٓ أَجَّلۡتَ لَنَاۚ قَالَ ٱلنَّارُ مَثۡوَىٰكُمۡ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ إِلَّا مَا شَآءَ ٱللَّهُۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٞ
b. 7:39, 40; 10:29; 34:32. (close)
908. Ma‘shar means, a company of men whose affair is the same (Lane). In this verse the word jinn clearly signifies great and powerful men as opposed to Ins, i.e. the weak and poor classes. (close)
909. The Arabic words may mean: (1) You have won over many from among the common masses to your side and have made them follow you; (2) you have exploited them; (3) you have attached great importance to the masses, i.e. you did not accept the Truth out of fear lest the masses should cease to follow you. Just as weak people do not accept the Truth out of fear of the great, similarly the great ones are sometimes afraid of their followers and do not accept the Truth out of fear lest they should desert them. (close)
910. The verse provides another proof of the fact that by the word "jinn" is here meant only a class of human beings, viz. the great and the powerful, for it is only one class of men that exploits another class, jinn as beings different from men have never been found to exploit men, neither are Divine Messengers known to have ever been raised among them. (close)
b. 7:39-40; 10:29; 34:32. (close)
869. Important Words:
معشر (company) is derived from عشر. They say عشر المال i.e. he took one-tenth of the property. عشرھم means, he took one from among them, they being ten. عشرة and عشر mean, ten. معشر means, a company; a collective body; a community; a family. It is so called because a company or community consists of many individuals, the word عشرة (ten) being that large and perfect number after which there is no number but what is composed of the units comprised in it (Lane).
الجن (jinn) is derived from جن (janna). They say جنه i.e. he veiled, concealed, hid, covered or protected him or it. That is the primary significance which is retained in all the derivations of the word. Thus a garden is known as جنة (jannat) because its trees cover or conceal the ground. A child in its mother’s womb is known as جنن because it lies concealed in the womb. The heart is known as جنان because it lies concealed in the bosom. A grave is known as جنن because it conceals the dead body. The piece of cloth worn by a woman is known as جنة (junnah) because it covers her head and bosom. A shield is known مجنة as because it covers and protects the fighter. Madness or insanity is known as جنون because it obscures and, as it were, veils the faculty of reason. A serpent is known as جان because it generally lies concealed in holes or dark corners. Similarly, جن (jinn) are so called because they are considered to be invisible bodies concealed from human sight. جن also means the prime or first part of a thing, probably because it covers or conceals the main body that follows (Lisan & Taj). For a fuller discussion of the word and an explanation of the jinn see note on 15:28. See also 6:101.
استکثرتم (you sought to make subservient to yourselves a great many) is derived from کثر which means, it was or became much or abundant or many or numerous. استکثر من الشیء means, he desired or wished much of the thing; or he reckoned it much, abundant or many (Lane). استکثرتم منھم signifies, you have misled many of them; or you have made many of them follow you; or you have made them subservient to yourselves (Kashshaf).
مثوی (abode) is derived from ثوی. They say ثوی بالمکان i.e. he remained, stayed, or abode in the place; or he stayed or dwelt long in it; he settled in the place; he alighted at the place. So مثوی means, a place where one remains, stays, dwells or abides; an abode or a dwelling; a place of alighting (Lane).
The verse definitely proves that at least here the Quran does not use the word jinn to signify a species other than mankind. The very words and the only possible signification of the verse contradict that sense. The word as used in this verse, which thus holds a sort of key position, cannot but mean great and powerful men as opposed to the weak and poor classes. The word جن as shown under Important Words is derived from a root which means to hide or conceal. As the beings properly known as jinn are hidden from the eyes of men, therefore, they have been called جن. The great men have also been called jinn because they very rarely mix with the general public and remain, as it were, hidden from them.
The sentence قد استکثرتم من الانس (you have sought to make subservient to yourselves a great many from among men) has two meanings: (1) you have taken to yourselves many from among the masses, i.e. you have won them over to your side and made them follow you and have thus misled them; (2) you have reckoned the masses to be many (as against God), i.e. you have attached more importance to the masses than to God; you did not accept the truth out of fear of the masses, lest they should desert you and cease to hold you in honour. It is indeed strange that just as the weak do not sometimes accept the truth out of fear of the great, lest they should inflict loss or pain on them, similarly the great are sometimes afraid of their humbler followers and do not accept the truth, fearing lest the latter should turn away from them and desert them. Heraclius, for instance, was convinced of the truth of the Holy Prophet but did not openly acknowledge it out of the fear of his subjects who, he thought, were bitterly opposed to Islam and would rebel against him, if he declared his faith (Bukhari).
The words, we profited from one another, imply that the friendships of disbelievers are also transitory and that they will fall out among themselves on the Day of Judgement. The poor will say: "We led lives of humiliation in subjection to the big ones who derived profit from us. So, o Lord, inflict upon them a double punishment." This also shows that the word jinn, here, does not refer to any creatures separate from human beings but to a special class of men; for if taken in that sense the above-quoted words cannot apply to them, for human beings do not profit from the genii nor the genii from human beings. It is only one class of man that profits by the other, i.e. the great profit by the poor and vice versa.
The words, The Fire is your abode, are addressed to the humble class of people who pleaded that they were merely tools in the hands of the great. They are told that no pleading can do them any good now, and that they must enter the Fire and remain there until God is pleased to deliver them therefrom. Both the big and the poor are alike guilty. (close)