فَمَنۡ یُّرِدِ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّہۡدِیَہٗ یَشۡرَحۡ صَدۡرَہٗ لِلۡاِسۡلَامِ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یُّرِدۡ اَنۡ یُّضِلَّہٗ یَجۡعَلۡ صَدۡرَہٗ ضَیِّقًا حَرَجًا کَاَنَّمَا یَصَّعَّدُ فِی السَّمَآءِ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَجۡعَلُ اللّٰہُ الرِّجۡسَ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۶﴾
فَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ أَن يَهۡدِيَهُۥ يَشۡرَحۡ صَدۡرَهُۥ لِلۡإِسۡلَٰمِۖ وَمَن يُرِدۡ أَن يُضِلَّهُۥ يَجۡعَلۡ صَدۡرَهُۥ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجٗا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي ٱلسَّمَآءِۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَجۡعَلُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلرِّجۡسَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
907. He regards Divine commandments as a burden and finds physical difficulty and mental trouble in carrying them out. His bosom, as it were, becomes narrow like one who is climbing up a steep height. (close)
b. 10:101. (close)
a. 10:101. (close)
867. Important Words:
حرجاً (close) means, close, strait or narrow (Lane). See also 4:66.
رجس (Punishment). See 5:91.
The desire of Allah, mentioned in the words, whomsoever Allah wishes to guide, follows the actions of man. It is the result of man’s own good deeds, and not arbitrary.
The words, He expands his bosom for the acceptance of Islam, signify that such a one is cheerfully willing to accept and obey every command of God. He feels pleasure in obeying God’s behests. If a man is always ready and willing to obey the commandments of God, it shows that he is progressing spiritually. But if a man feels Divine commandments to be a burden, it is an indication of the fact that he is spiritually retrogressing.
The "wish" of Allah to make a man go astray also comes as a sequence to man’s own evil deeds. When a man becomes a sinner and does wicked deeds the result is that he is led astray from the right path. Such a one feels the commandments of God to be burdensome, and perceives difficulty and mental trouble in carrying them out. His bosom becomes narrow and close. His case is like that of a person who is asked to climb up a steep height.
It may be noted here in passing that the verse also hints that to ascend into heaven with the physical body is a sort of punishment and not a boon.
The verse tells us that God helps those who practise virtue and willingly obey His commandments and He causes them to progress spiritually, while those who do not believe and lead sinful lives continue to advance in sin and wickedness.
The verse further teaches us that we cannot progress spiritually unless we render obedience to God with willing and cheerful hearts. (close)
وَ ہٰذَا صِرَاطُ رَبِّکَ مُسۡتَقِیۡمًا ؕ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا الۡاٰیٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ یَّذَّکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۷﴾
وَهَٰذَا صِرَٰطُ رَبِّكَ مُسۡتَقِيمٗاۗ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ لِقَوۡمٖ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
c. 6:154. (close)
b. 6:154. (close)
لَہُمۡ دَارُ السَّلٰمِ عِنۡدَ رَبِّہِمۡ وَ ہُوَ وَلِیُّہُمۡ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۸﴾
۞لَهُمۡ دَارُ ٱلسَّلَٰمِ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡۖ وَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 10:26. (close)
a. 10:26. (close)
As السلام (peace) is also one of the names of God, the expression دارالسلام may also be rendered as the abode of God, i.e. the presence of God. The virtuous are thus promised the reward of God’s nearness. (close)
وَ یَوۡمَ یَحۡشُرُہُمۡ جَمِیۡعًا ۚ یٰمَعۡشَرَ الۡجِنِّ قَدِ اسۡتَکۡثَرۡتُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاِنۡسِ ۚ وَ قَالَ اَوۡلِیٰٓؤُہُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاِنۡسِ رَبَّنَا اسۡتَمۡتَعَ بَعۡضُنَا بِبَعۡضٍ وَّ بَلَغۡنَاۤ اَجَلَنَا الَّذِیۡۤ اَجَّلۡتَ لَنَا ؕ قَالَ النَّارُ مَثۡوٰٮکُمۡ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اِلَّا مَا شَآءَ اللّٰہُ ؕ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ حَکِیۡمٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۲۹﴾
وَيَوۡمَ يَحۡشُرُهُمۡ جَمِيعٗا يَٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ قَدِ ٱسۡتَكۡثَرۡتُم مِّنَ ٱلۡإِنسِۖ وَقَالَ أَوۡلِيَآؤُهُم مِّنَ ٱلۡإِنسِ رَبَّنَا ٱسۡتَمۡتَعَ بَعۡضُنَا بِبَعۡضٖ وَبَلَغۡنَآ أَجَلَنَا ٱلَّذِيٓ أَجَّلۡتَ لَنَاۚ قَالَ ٱلنَّارُ مَثۡوَىٰكُمۡ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ إِلَّا مَا شَآءَ ٱللَّهُۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٞ
b. 7:39, 40; 10:29; 34:32. (close)
908. Ma‘shar means, a company of men whose affair is the same (Lane). In this verse the word jinn clearly signifies great and powerful men as opposed to Ins, i.e. the weak and poor classes. (close)
909. The Arabic words may mean: (1) You have won over many from among the common masses to your side and have made them follow you; (2) you have exploited them; (3) you have attached great importance to the masses, i.e. you did not accept the Truth out of fear lest the masses should cease to follow you. Just as weak people do not accept the Truth out of fear of the great, similarly the great ones are sometimes afraid of their followers and do not accept the Truth out of fear lest they should desert them. (close)
910. The verse provides another proof of the fact that by the word "jinn" is here meant only a class of human beings, viz. the great and the powerful, for it is only one class of men that exploits another class, jinn as beings different from men have never been found to exploit men, neither are Divine Messengers known to have ever been raised among them. (close)
b. 7:39-40; 10:29; 34:32. (close)
869. Important Words:
معشر (company) is derived from عشر. They say عشر المال i.e. he took one-tenth of the property. عشرھم means, he took one from among them, they being ten. عشرة and عشر mean, ten. معشر means, a company; a collective body; a community; a family. It is so called because a company or community consists of many individuals, the word عشرة (ten) being that large and perfect number after which there is no number but what is composed of the units comprised in it (Lane).
الجن (jinn) is derived from جن (janna). They say جنه i.e. he veiled, concealed, hid, covered or protected him or it. That is the primary significance which is retained in all the derivations of the word. Thus a garden is known as جنة (jannat) because its trees cover or conceal the ground. A child in its mother’s womb is known as جنن because it lies concealed in the womb. The heart is known as جنان because it lies concealed in the bosom. A grave is known as جنن because it conceals the dead body. The piece of cloth worn by a woman is known as جنة (junnah) because it covers her head and bosom. A shield is known مجنة as because it covers and protects the fighter. Madness or insanity is known as جنون because it obscures and, as it were, veils the faculty of reason. A serpent is known as جان because it generally lies concealed in holes or dark corners. Similarly, جن (jinn) are so called because they are considered to be invisible bodies concealed from human sight. جن also means the prime or first part of a thing, probably because it covers or conceals the main body that follows (Lisan & Taj). For a fuller discussion of the word and an explanation of the jinn see note on 15:28. See also 6:101.
استکثرتم (you sought to make subservient to yourselves a great many) is derived from کثر which means, it was or became much or abundant or many or numerous. استکثر من الشیء means, he desired or wished much of the thing; or he reckoned it much, abundant or many (Lane). استکثرتم منھم signifies, you have misled many of them; or you have made many of them follow you; or you have made them subservient to yourselves (Kashshaf).
مثوی (abode) is derived from ثوی. They say ثوی بالمکان i.e. he remained, stayed, or abode in the place; or he stayed or dwelt long in it; he settled in the place; he alighted at the place. So مثوی means, a place where one remains, stays, dwells or abides; an abode or a dwelling; a place of alighting (Lane).
The verse definitely proves that at least here the Quran does not use the word jinn to signify a species other than mankind. The very words and the only possible signification of the verse contradict that sense. The word as used in this verse, which thus holds a sort of key position, cannot but mean great and powerful men as opposed to the weak and poor classes. The word جن as shown under Important Words is derived from a root which means to hide or conceal. As the beings properly known as jinn are hidden from the eyes of men, therefore, they have been called جن. The great men have also been called jinn because they very rarely mix with the general public and remain, as it were, hidden from them.
The sentence قد استکثرتم من الانس (you have sought to make subservient to yourselves a great many from among men) has two meanings: (1) you have taken to yourselves many from among the masses, i.e. you have won them over to your side and made them follow you and have thus misled them; (2) you have reckoned the masses to be many (as against God), i.e. you have attached more importance to the masses than to God; you did not accept the truth out of fear of the masses, lest they should desert you and cease to hold you in honour. It is indeed strange that just as the weak do not sometimes accept the truth out of fear of the great, lest they should inflict loss or pain on them, similarly the great are sometimes afraid of their humbler followers and do not accept the truth, fearing lest the latter should turn away from them and desert them. Heraclius, for instance, was convinced of the truth of the Holy Prophet but did not openly acknowledge it out of the fear of his subjects who, he thought, were bitterly opposed to Islam and would rebel against him, if he declared his faith (Bukhari).
The words, we profited from one another, imply that the friendships of disbelievers are also transitory and that they will fall out among themselves on the Day of Judgement. The poor will say: "We led lives of humiliation in subjection to the big ones who derived profit from us. So, o Lord, inflict upon them a double punishment." This also shows that the word jinn, here, does not refer to any creatures separate from human beings but to a special class of men; for if taken in that sense the above-quoted words cannot apply to them, for human beings do not profit from the genii nor the genii from human beings. It is only one class of man that profits by the other, i.e. the great profit by the poor and vice versa.
The words, The Fire is your abode, are addressed to the humble class of people who pleaded that they were merely tools in the hands of the great. They are told that no pleading can do them any good now, and that they must enter the Fire and remain there until God is pleased to deliver them therefrom. Both the big and the poor are alike guilty. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ نُوَلِّیۡ بَعۡضَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ بَعۡضًۢا بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡسِبُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۰﴾٪
وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُوَلِّي بَعۡضَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ بَعۡضَۢا بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡسِبُونَ
910A. The words may also mean, 'And thus do We set some of the evil doers over others.' (close)
The verse signifies that actually both the poor and the great are wrongdoers and it is on account of their sins that the poor become tools in the hands of the great.
This verse provides another proof of the fact that by the word جن (jinn) is here meant only a class of human beings, viz. the great and the powerful, for it is only one class of men that is set over the other. jinn as beings different from men have never been set over men, nor men over jinn. (close)
یٰمَعۡشَرَ الۡجِنِّ وَ الۡاِنۡسِ اَلَمۡ یَاۡتِکُمۡ رُسُلٌ مِّنۡکُمۡ یَقُصُّوۡنَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اٰیٰتِیۡ وَ یُنۡذِرُوۡنَکُمۡ لِقَآءَ یَوۡمِکُمۡ ہٰذَا ؕ قَالُوۡا شَہِدۡنَا عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِنَا وَ غَرَّتۡہُمُ الۡحَیٰوۃُ الدُّنۡیَا وَ شَہِدُوۡا عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ اَنَّہُمۡ کَانُوۡا کٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۱﴾
يَٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ أَلَمۡ يَأۡتِكُمۡ رُسُلٞ مِّنكُمۡ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ ءَايَٰتِي وَيُنذِرُونَكُمۡ لِقَآءَ يَوۡمِكُمۡ هَٰذَاۚ قَالُواْ شَهِدۡنَا عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِنَاۖ وَغَرَّتۡهُمُ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَشَهِدُواْ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ أَنَّهُمۡ كَانُواْ كَٰفِرِينَ
a. 39:72; 40:51; 67:9, 10. (close)
b. 7:38. (close)
a. 39:72; 40:51; 67:9-10. (close)
The words, Messengers from among yourselves, supply further evidence of the fact that the word jinn does not here refer to a separate creation but to only a section of human beings. We learn from the Quran that Moses and the Holy Prophet were sent as Messengers to jinn also (46:30-33; 72:2-16) and we find no trace of any separate Messengers having ever been raised from among jinn, which shows that the word jinn here refers only to a special class of men. It may also be noted here that this word when applied to the great and powerful persons from among men is generally used in a bad sense, being applied to the wicked among them. (close)
ذٰلِکَ اَنۡ لَّمۡ یَکُنۡ رَّبُّکَ مُہۡلِکَ الۡقُرٰی بِظُلۡمٍ وَّ اَہۡلُہَا غٰفِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۲﴾
ذَٰلِكَ أَن لَّمۡ يَكُن رَّبُّكَ مُهۡلِكَ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ بِظُلۡمٖ وَأَهۡلُهَا غَٰفِلُونَ
c. 11:118; 20:135; 26:209; 28:60. (close)
911. As the Holy Prophet was raised for all mankind, the word al-Qura would in his case apply to the whole world. (close)
912. God never sends down general calamities unless He first warns people of the impending visitation by raising a Warner. Calamities referred to here are general calamities such as earthquakes, devastating wars, epidemics, etc. which smite a whole people. (close)
b. 11:118; 20:135; 26:209; 28:60. (close)
The word القری (towns) refers to all those cities, towns and villages to which a Prophet of God is sent. As the Holy Prophet was raised for all mankind, the word would, in his case, apply to the whole world.
The expression بظلم (unjustly) also means, "by reason of their iniquity." The verse would then be translated: "That is because thy Lord would not destroy the towns on account of their iniquity, while their people were unwarned."
The verse gives an important law of God—that He never sends general calamities upon cities on account of their iniquities, unless He first warns them of the impending punishment by sending a warner.
If God had destroyed cities without first raising a Messenger, the people might have excused themselves by saying that, being unwarned, they were following their own reason. After receiving a warner, however, they have no excuse left to them. The world has been visited with widespread calamities in the present age, and in accordance with the law enunciated in the verse under comment, there must have appeared a warner in this age too. There has indeed come a great warner in the person of Ahmad of Qadian, the Promised Messiah, Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, who has warned the world of impending disasters and called it to repentance. Let the God-fearing ponder over it.
The verse also shows that the calamities here referred to are not calamities which overtake individuals only, but general calamities which smite whole peoples and nations, as has been the case in the present age. (close)
وَ لِکُلٍّ دَرَجٰتٌ مِّمَّا عَمِلُوۡا ؕ وَ مَا رَبُّکَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۳﴾
وَلِكُلّٖ دَرَجَٰتٞ مِّمَّا عَمِلُواْۚ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا يَعۡمَلُونَ
وَ رَبُّکَ الۡغَنِیُّ ذُو الرَّحۡمَۃِ ؕ اِنۡ یَّشَاۡ یُذۡہِبۡکُمۡ وَ یَسۡتَخۡلِفۡ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِکُمۡ مَّا یَشَآءُ کَمَاۤ اَنۡشَاَکُمۡ مِّنۡ ذُرِّیَّۃِ قَوۡمٍ اٰخَرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۴﴾ؕ
وَرَبُّكَ ٱلۡغَنِيُّ ذُو ٱلرَّحۡمَةِۚ إِن يَشَأۡ يُذۡهِبۡكُمۡ وَيَسۡتَخۡلِفۡ مِنۢ بَعۡدِكُم مَّا يَشَآءُ كَمَآ أَنشَأَكُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوۡمٍ ءَاخَرِينَ
d. 6:148; 18:59. (close)
a. 4:134; 14:20; 35:17. (close)
a. 6:148; 18:59. (close)
b. 4:134; 14:20; 35:17. (close)
The Divine attribute of الغنی (Self-Sufficient) means, "one able to do without others" (see 2:264). As God is Self-Sufficient, He can punish rejecters as and when He desires; but He is also full of mercy; therefore, He delays the hour of punishment.
The words مایشاء (what He pleases) have been used in preference to من یشاء (whom He pleases) in order to combine the idea of "any other people" with that of "in any other state or condition." (close)
اِنَّ مَا تُوۡعَدُوۡنَ لَاٰتٍ ۙ وَّ مَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ بِمُعۡجِزِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۵﴾
إِنَّ مَا تُوعَدُونَ لَأٓتٖۖ وَمَآ أَنتُم بِمُعۡجِزِينَ
b. 11:34; 42:32. (close)
c. 11:34; 42:32. (close)
874. Important Words:
معجزین (frustrate) is derived from اعجز which again is derived from عجز which means, he lacked strength, power or ability; he was or became powerless. اعجزہ means, he found him to be without strength, power or ability; or he made him to be without strength, power or ability; or he disabled or incapacitated him; or he rendered him unable to accomplish or attain his object; or he frustrated his endeavours; or he escaped him (Lane).
The words, that which you are promised, refer to the promise of destruction contained in the previous verse. The chapter was revealed at Mecca, when Muslims were few and weak while their enemies were strong and numerous and were subjecting them to bitter persecution with a view to annihilating Islam. In these circumstances, the prophecy relating to the destruction of the enemy in such forceful words and in such tones of certainty could not be made by the helpless man that the Holy Prophet at that time was. It could proceed from none but God the Almighty, Who alone could bring about its fulfilment; and it is writ large on the pages of history how the prophecy was fulfilled. The same prophecy or challenge is continued in the next verse in equally forceful words. (close)