قُلۡ لِّمَنۡ مَّا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ قُلۡ لِّلّٰہِ ؕ کَتَبَ عَلٰی نَفۡسِہِ الرَّحۡمَۃَ ؕ لَیَجۡمَعَنَّکُمۡ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ لَا رَیۡبَ فِیۡہِ ؕ اَلَّذِیۡنَ خَسِرُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾
قُل لِّمَن مَّا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۖ قُل لِّلَّهِۚ كَتَبَ عَلَىٰ نَفۡسِهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَةَۚ لَيَجۡمَعَنَّكُمۡ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ لَا رَيۡبَ فِيهِۚ ٱلَّذِينَ خَسِرُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
b. 6:55; 7:157. (close)
828. As all things in the heavens and the earth belong to Allah, the enemies of Faith also belong to Him. No one would like to destroy his own handiwork, much less would God do so. He is Merciful and grants respite to disbelievers in order that they may repent and be shown mercy. (close)
c. 3:10; 4:88; 45:27. (close)
b. 6:55; 7:157. (close)
c. 3:10; 4:88; 45:27. (close)
760. Important Words:
خسروا انفسھم (who ruin their souls). خسروا is derived from خسر which means, he lost; he suffered a loss; he went astray; he became lost; he perished (Lane). From the above it is clear that the word خسر is really intransitive. The transitive use of the word in the verse is merely apparent. In fact when the Quran says خسروا انفسھم it does not mean, they made their souls suffer, but, that they suffered with regard to themselves, i.e. they themselves suffered. The correct transitive form of the word is خسر (khasara), i.e. he caused to perish, and not خسر (khasira), i.e. he suffered or he was lost, which the Quran has used. This peculiar use of the word is intended to intensify the meaning. Thus, the words الذین خسروا انفسھم would really read الذین خسروا و خسروا انفسھم i.e. those who suffered a loss and caused their souls to perish. For the sake of convenience, however, the expression has been rendered in the text as, those who ruin their souls. For a somewhat similar expression, i.e. سفه نفسهsee Lisan where that expression has been fully dealt with.
Here God first puts a question, and then Himself answers it. This form has also been employed elsewhere in the Quran. It is meant to bring out the disbelievers’ extreme weakness of faith and make them realize it.
All that is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah; so the enemies of Faith also belong to God. No one would like to destroy that which belongs to him, much less would God like to do so, for He is Merciful and has made mercy binding on Himself. So He is giving the enemies of the Holy Prophet time to repent. He is putting off punishment so that they may turn to Him and repent of their sins. Hence, instead of demanding punishment, let them ask forgiveness and benefit by His mercy.
It should be noted that disbelief alone does not bring punishment upon men in this life. So far as simple disbelief is concerned, the case of the believers and the disbelievers will be decided on the Day of Judgement when all will be assembled together and God’s judgement will be pronounced. It is only the extreme wickedness of men and their active opposition to the Prophets of God that hastens punishment for them in this life. So the verse exhorts disbelievers not to demand punishment, but rather to repent, so that God may have mercy on them. (close)
وَ لَہٗ مَا سَکَنَ فِی الَّیۡلِ وَ النَّہَارِ ؕ وَ ہُوَ السَّمِیۡعُ الۡعَلِیۡمُ ﴿۱۴﴾
۞وَلَهُۥ مَا سَكَنَ فِي ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِۚ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ
Not only have darkness and light been made by God (6:2), but, as the present verse puts it, all that dwells in them also belongs to Him. This shows that both darkness and light have been made with a purpose. Now when God is the Master of all that dwells in darkness and light, how could He entrust His own possessions to other beings?
As pointed out under 6:2 above, even darkness and afflictions have their advantages. God involves men in darkness and sends down afflictions so that their character may be perfected and they may pray to God and He may hear them, for He is All-Hearing. And if there is no time for men to pray or they do not know or do not realize the danger and consequently do not pray, even then God is All-Knowing and may come to their help without their praying for it. (close)
قُلۡ اَغَیۡرَ اللّٰہِ اَتَّخِذُ وَلِیًّا فَاطِرِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ ہُوَ یُطۡعِمُ وَ لَا یُطۡعَمُ ؕ قُلۡ اِنِّیۡۤ اُمِرۡتُ اَنۡ اَکُوۡنَ اَوَّلَ مَنۡ اَسۡلَمَ وَ لَا تَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾
قُلۡ أَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيّٗا فَاطِرِ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَهُوَ يُطۡعِمُ وَلَا يُطۡعَمُۗ قُلۡ إِنِّيٓ أُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنۡ أَسۡلَمَۖ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
d. 12:102; 14:11; 35:2; 39:47. (close)
829. The word Fatir when used about God means, the Originator or the Creator, or the Maker. (close)
e. 20:133; 51:48-59. (close)
f. 6:164; 39:13. (close)
a. 12:102; 14:11; 35:2; 39:47. (close)
b. 20:133; 51:58-59. (close)
c. 6:164; 39:13. (close)
762. Important Words:
فاطر (Maker) is derived from فطر. They say فطره i.e. he clove or split or rent it; he created it or brought it into existence; or he originated it. فطر العجین means, he made the dough into bread without leavening it. افطر means, he broke the fast. انفطر and تفطر mean, it became cleft or split or rent. الفطرة means, the natural constitution with which a child is created. فاطر when used about God, means the Originator or the Creator or the Maker (Taj).
The question in the first part of the verse implies that, as God alone is the Maker of the heavens and the earth and as it is He alone Who feeds all without being fed by anybody, therefore there is none worthy of being taken as protector but He. None else is worthy of being worshipped as God.
The words, Who feeds, refute the Godhead of those lifeless objects which men have taken for gods. They admittedly feed none, but God feeds all; hence these objects are not worthy of being taken as God.
The words, is not fed, negate the Godhead of those living beings who have been deified by men. They stand in need of food, but God needs no food; hence they cannot be gods. (close)
قُلۡ اِنِّیۡۤ اَخَافُ اِنۡ عَصَیۡتُ رَبِّیۡ عَذَابَ یَوۡمٍ عَظِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۶﴾
قُلۡ إِنِّيٓ أَخَافُ إِنۡ عَصَيۡتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوۡمٍ عَظِيمٖ
a. 10:16; 39:14. (close)
830. The verse constitutes an emphatic exhortation to men to be on their guard against being disobedient to God, not that the Holy Prophet could ever disobey Him. (close)
d. 10:16; 39:14. (close)
This verse is an expression of the supreme independence of God. The Holy Prophet is made to say, "O men, it is indeed strange that you should not fear the punishment of God while I, who am a Prophet of God, fear His punishment if I disobey Him." This is an emphatic way of exhorting men to avoid disobedience of God. The expression does not imply that the Holy Prophet is likely to disobey God or even that it is possible for him to do so. It is simply meant to convince disbelievers that God is above all and none can dare disobey Him with impunity. (close)
مَنۡ یُّصۡرَفۡ عَنۡہُ یَوۡمَئِذٍ فَقَدۡ رَحِمَہٗ ؕ وَ ذٰلِکَ الۡفَوۡزُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۱۷﴾
مَّن يُصۡرَفۡ عَنۡهُ يَوۡمَئِذٖ فَقَدۡ رَحِمَهُۥۚ وَذَٰلِكَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
831. Dhalika may either refer to "the averting of punishment" or to "mercy." (close)
The word ذالك (that) may either refer to the "averting of punishment" or to "mercy", for both "mercy" and the "averting of punishing" are manifest triumphs. (close)
وَ اِنۡ یَّمۡسَسۡکَ اللّٰہُ بِضُرٍّ فَلَا کَاشِفَ لَہٗۤ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ وَ اِنۡ یَّمۡسَسۡکَ بِخَیۡرٍ فَہُوَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۱۸﴾
وَإِن يَمۡسَسۡكَ ٱللَّهُ بِضُرّٖ فَلَا كَاشِفَ لَهُۥٓ إِلَّا هُوَۖ وَإِن يَمۡسَسۡكَ بِخَيۡرٖ فَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
b. 10:108. (close)
a. 10:108. (close)
It is his own actions that are the cause of all harm that befalls a man. The words, if Allah touch thee with affliction, therefore, do not mean that God is the cause of affliction. They are meant to convey the idea that God being the first cause of all things, everything that happens in the universe is in a way attributable to Him. The expression is also intended to hint that it is God alone Who can remove man’s afflictions.
Happiness indeed comes from God, Who is the real source of all good. This is why, when speaking of happiness coming to man, the Quran uses the expression, He has power to do all that He wills. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الۡقَاہِرُ فَوۡقَ عِبَادِہٖ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡحَکِیۡمُ الۡخَبِیۡرُ ﴿۱۹﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلۡقَاهِرُ فَوۡقَ عِبَادِهِۦۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ
c. 6:62. (close)
832. The Divine attribute Al-Qahir refutes the theory that matter and soul are coexistent with God and have not been created by Him. If they were not created by Him then He had no right or power to subdue or overrule them. (close)
b. 6:62. (close)
766. Important Words:
قاھر (Supreme) is derived from قھر. They say قھرہ i.e. he overcame, conquered or subjected him; or he became superior in power or force to him. It also means, he oppressed him; or he forced or compelled him. So قاھر means, one who overcomes, conquers or subdues. القاھر and القھار are attributes of God, meaning, the Subduer of His creatures by His sovereign authority and power, and the Disposer of them as He pleases (Lane).
The attribute القاھر (Supreme) does not imply any injustice on the part of God. All things being His servants, He does not subdue anything which does not belong to Him and is not His creation. This refutes those, who allege that matter and soul are co-existent with God and are not His creation. If they were not the creation of God, He had no right to subdue or rule over them. Hence, those who allege that matter and soul are not the creation of God, attribute to Him an act of injustice; for in that case we would have to assume that God has subdued such things as are not His creation. (close)
قُلۡ اَیُّ شَیۡءٍ اَکۡبَرُ شَہَادَۃً ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ ۟ۙ شَہِیۡدٌۢ بَیۡنِیۡ وَ بَیۡنَکُمۡ ۟ وَ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیَّ ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنُ لِاُنۡذِرَکُمۡ بِہٖ وَ مَنۡۢ بَلَغَ ؕ اَئِنَّکُمۡ لَتَشۡہَدُوۡنَ اَنَّ مَعَ اللّٰہِ اٰلِہَۃً اُخۡرٰی ؕ قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَشۡہَدُ ۚ قُلۡ اِنَّمَا ہُوَ اِلٰہٌ وَّاحِدٌ وَّ اِنَّنِیۡ بَرِیۡٓءٌ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿ۘ۲۰﴾
قُلۡ أَيُّ شَيۡءٍ أَكۡبَرُ شَهَٰدَةٗۖ قُلِ ٱللَّهُۖ شَهِيدُۢ بَيۡنِي وَبَيۡنَكُمۡۚ وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِۦ وَمَنۢ بَلَغَۚ أَئِنَّكُمۡ لَتَشۡهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ ءَالِهَةً أُخۡرَىٰۚ قُل لَّآ أَشۡهَدُۚ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٞ وَٰحِدٞ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيٓءٞ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِكُونَ
d. 4:167; 13:44; 29:53. (close)
833. God bears witness in three different ways,—by the revelation of the Qur’an. This is the first witness. The second and the third witnesses are mentioned in the following verses. (close)
a. 4:167; 13:44; 29:53. (close)
God Himself answers the question which He has put in the beginning of the verse; for the disbelievers did not know how to answer. They could not think that God also could bear witness. The answer has been given by God in order to instruct and teach believers.
Now the question is, how does God bear witness? This verse and the next two mention three ways by which God bears witness to the truth of the Holy Prophet. The first is by means of the Quran. This Quran has been revealed to me, the verse calls upon the Holy Prophet to say, so that with it I may warn you and whomsoever it reaches. These words signify that whosoever opposes the Quran and obstructs it will be visited by Divine punishment. This punishment will constitute God’s testimony to the truth of the Holy Prophet. The second and the third ways by which God bears witness are mentioned in the verses that follow. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ یَعۡرِفُوۡنَہٗ کَمَا یَعۡرِفُوۡنَ اَبۡنَآءَہُمۡ ۘ اَلَّذِیۡنَ خَسِرُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿٪۲۱﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيۡنَٰهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ يَعۡرِفُونَهُۥ كَمَا يَعۡرِفُونَ أَبۡنَآءَهُمُۘ ٱلَّذِينَ خَسِرُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
a. 2:147. (close)
834. A Prophet (or for that matter anything pertaining to faith) is not recognized in the beginning. He is recognized only as a father recognizes his son, more as a matter of probability than of dead certainty. Faith must always begin in the region of the unseen. (close)
a. 2:147. (close)
This verse describes the second way by which God bears testimony to the truth of the Holy Prophet, i.e. through the previous Scriptures. The previous Books contain prophecies which clearly apply to the Holy Prophet and definitely point him out as the Promised One, and it is by means of these prophecies that God bears witness to the truth of the Holy Prophet. It may be asked, if the People of the Book recognize the Holy Prophet as having come in fulfilment of the prophecies contained in their scriptures, why do they not accept him? This question the Quran answers in the words, But those who ruin their souls will not believe, meaning that the People of the Book will not believe because their souls are lost and they have no sense of honesty and faith left in them.
The words, Those to whom We gave the Book recognize him as they recognize their sons, are based on a very deep spiritual truth. A Prophet, or for that matter any object of faith, is not recognized in the beginning, as one recognizes the sun or the moon. He is recognized only as a father recognizes his son with great probability but not with dead certainty. Faith must always begin in the region of the unseen. (close)
وَ مَنۡ اَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ افۡتَرٰی عَلَی اللّٰہِ کَذِبًا اَوۡ کَذَّبَ بِاٰیٰتِہٖ ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَا یُفۡلِحُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۲﴾
وَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوۡ كَذَّبَ بِـَٔايَٰتِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُفۡلِحُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ
b. 6:94; 7:38; 10:18; 11:19; 61:8. (close)
835. The third kind of testimony is based on human reason. Every sane man will admit that if a person claims to speak in the name of God and forges lies against Him, he would but end his life in utter failure and destruction. On the other hand, those who oppose a Divine Messenger are never allowed to prosper and their efforts to arrest or retard the progress of the new Faith end in complete frustration. (close)
b. 6:94; 7:38; 10:18; 11:19; 61:8. (close)
This verse mentions the third way by means of which God bears witness. This kind of testimony is based on human reason. Every sane man will testify that if a person claims to speak in the name of God while God has not spoken to him, and he forges lies against Him, such a person is one of the greatest culprits and God must bring him to naught; for if impostors are allowed to prosper like true Prophets, there will remain no criterion to distinguish the true from the false, and the truth will be lost. So, in order to distinguish between the true and the false, God must bring to naught the false claimant. Thus the hard fact that God is helping the Prophet of Islam and causing him to prosper in the teeth of all opposition and against heavy odds is a clear testimony from God to his being a true Prophet.
On the other hand, those who reject true Prophets and treat them as impostors are also among the greatest culprits who, by reason of their opposing God’s Messengers and leaving no stone unturned to bring to naught the movement set on foot by them, must incur God’s anger; and, instead of being permitted to destroy the heavenly movement, must themselves be destroyed. Thus, not only by granting success to the Holy Prophet but also by bringing about the destruction of his enemies God is bearing witness to his truth. (close)