یٰمَعۡشَرَ الۡجِنِّ وَ الۡاِنۡسِ اَلَمۡ یَاۡتِکُمۡ رُسُلٌ مِّنۡکُمۡ یَقُصُّوۡنَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اٰیٰتِیۡ وَ یُنۡذِرُوۡنَکُمۡ لِقَآءَ یَوۡمِکُمۡ ہٰذَا ؕ قَالُوۡا شَہِدۡنَا عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِنَا وَ غَرَّتۡہُمُ الۡحَیٰوۃُ الدُّنۡیَا وَ شَہِدُوۡا عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ اَنَّہُمۡ کَانُوۡا کٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۱﴾
يَٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ أَلَمۡ يَأۡتِكُمۡ رُسُلٞ مِّنكُمۡ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ ءَايَٰتِي وَيُنذِرُونَكُمۡ لِقَآءَ يَوۡمِكُمۡ هَٰذَاۚ قَالُواْ شَهِدۡنَا عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِنَاۖ وَغَرَّتۡهُمُ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَشَهِدُواْ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ أَنَّهُمۡ كَانُواْ كَٰفِرِينَ
a. 39:72; 40:51; 67:9, 10. (close)
b. 7:38. (close)
a. 39:72; 40:51; 67:9-10. (close)
The words, Messengers from among yourselves, supply further evidence of the fact that the word jinn does not here refer to a separate creation but to only a section of human beings. We learn from the Quran that Moses and the Holy Prophet were sent as Messengers to jinn also (46:30-33; 72:2-16) and we find no trace of any separate Messengers having ever been raised from among jinn, which shows that the word jinn here refers only to a special class of men. It may also be noted here that this word when applied to the great and powerful persons from among men is generally used in a bad sense, being applied to the wicked among them. (close)
ذٰلِکَ اَنۡ لَّمۡ یَکُنۡ رَّبُّکَ مُہۡلِکَ الۡقُرٰی بِظُلۡمٍ وَّ اَہۡلُہَا غٰفِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۲﴾
ذَٰلِكَ أَن لَّمۡ يَكُن رَّبُّكَ مُهۡلِكَ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ بِظُلۡمٖ وَأَهۡلُهَا غَٰفِلُونَ
c. 11:118; 20:135; 26:209; 28:60. (close)
911. As the Holy Prophet was raised for all mankind, the word al-Qura would in his case apply to the whole world. (close)
912. God never sends down general calamities unless He first warns people of the impending visitation by raising a Warner. Calamities referred to here are general calamities such as earthquakes, devastating wars, epidemics, etc. which smite a whole people. (close)
b. 11:118; 20:135; 26:209; 28:60. (close)
The word القری (towns) refers to all those cities, towns and villages to which a Prophet of God is sent. As the Holy Prophet was raised for all mankind, the word would, in his case, apply to the whole world.
The expression بظلم (unjustly) also means, "by reason of their iniquity." The verse would then be translated: "That is because thy Lord would not destroy the towns on account of their iniquity, while their people were unwarned."
The verse gives an important law of God—that He never sends general calamities upon cities on account of their iniquities, unless He first warns them of the impending punishment by sending a warner.
If God had destroyed cities without first raising a Messenger, the people might have excused themselves by saying that, being unwarned, they were following their own reason. After receiving a warner, however, they have no excuse left to them. The world has been visited with widespread calamities in the present age, and in accordance with the law enunciated in the verse under comment, there must have appeared a warner in this age too. There has indeed come a great warner in the person of Ahmad of Qadian, the Promised Messiah, Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, who has warned the world of impending disasters and called it to repentance. Let the God-fearing ponder over it.
The verse also shows that the calamities here referred to are not calamities which overtake individuals only, but general calamities which smite whole peoples and nations, as has been the case in the present age. (close)
وَ لِکُلٍّ دَرَجٰتٌ مِّمَّا عَمِلُوۡا ؕ وَ مَا رَبُّکَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۳﴾
وَلِكُلّٖ دَرَجَٰتٞ مِّمَّا عَمِلُواْۚ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا يَعۡمَلُونَ
وَ رَبُّکَ الۡغَنِیُّ ذُو الرَّحۡمَۃِ ؕ اِنۡ یَّشَاۡ یُذۡہِبۡکُمۡ وَ یَسۡتَخۡلِفۡ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِکُمۡ مَّا یَشَآءُ کَمَاۤ اَنۡشَاَکُمۡ مِّنۡ ذُرِّیَّۃِ قَوۡمٍ اٰخَرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۴﴾ؕ
وَرَبُّكَ ٱلۡغَنِيُّ ذُو ٱلرَّحۡمَةِۚ إِن يَشَأۡ يُذۡهِبۡكُمۡ وَيَسۡتَخۡلِفۡ مِنۢ بَعۡدِكُم مَّا يَشَآءُ كَمَآ أَنشَأَكُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوۡمٍ ءَاخَرِينَ
d. 6:148; 18:59. (close)
a. 4:134; 14:20; 35:17. (close)
a. 6:148; 18:59. (close)
b. 4:134; 14:20; 35:17. (close)
The Divine attribute of الغنی (Self-Sufficient) means, "one able to do without others" (see 2:264). As God is Self-Sufficient, He can punish rejecters as and when He desires; but He is also full of mercy; therefore, He delays the hour of punishment.
The words مایشاء (what He pleases) have been used in preference to من یشاء (whom He pleases) in order to combine the idea of "any other people" with that of "in any other state or condition." (close)
اِنَّ مَا تُوۡعَدُوۡنَ لَاٰتٍ ۙ وَّ مَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ بِمُعۡجِزِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۵﴾
إِنَّ مَا تُوعَدُونَ لَأٓتٖۖ وَمَآ أَنتُم بِمُعۡجِزِينَ
b. 11:34; 42:32. (close)
c. 11:34; 42:32. (close)
874. Important Words:
معجزین (frustrate) is derived from اعجز which again is derived from عجز which means, he lacked strength, power or ability; he was or became powerless. اعجزہ means, he found him to be without strength, power or ability; or he made him to be without strength, power or ability; or he disabled or incapacitated him; or he rendered him unable to accomplish or attain his object; or he frustrated his endeavours; or he escaped him (Lane).
The words, that which you are promised, refer to the promise of destruction contained in the previous verse. The chapter was revealed at Mecca, when Muslims were few and weak while their enemies were strong and numerous and were subjecting them to bitter persecution with a view to annihilating Islam. In these circumstances, the prophecy relating to the destruction of the enemy in such forceful words and in such tones of certainty could not be made by the helpless man that the Holy Prophet at that time was. It could proceed from none but God the Almighty, Who alone could bring about its fulfilment; and it is writ large on the pages of history how the prophecy was fulfilled. The same prophecy or challenge is continued in the next verse in equally forceful words. (close)
قُلۡ یٰقَوۡمِ اعۡمَلُوۡا عَلٰی مَکَانَتِکُمۡ اِنِّیۡ عَامِلٌ ۚ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ۙ مَنۡ تَکُوۡنُ لَہٗ عَاقِبَۃُ الدَّارِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَا یُفۡلِحُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۶﴾
قُلۡ يَٰقَوۡمِ ٱعۡمَلُواْ عَلَىٰ مَكَانَتِكُمۡ إِنِّي عَامِلٞۖ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُونَ مَن تَكُونُ لَهُۥ عَٰقِبَةُ ٱلدَّارِۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُفۡلِحُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ
c. 11:94, 122; 39:40, 41. (close)
913. The words also mean, (1) act according to your way; (2) do your worst. The verse holds out a challenge to the idolatrous Meccans to do their worst and exert themselves to the utmost of their power and resources to extirpate Islam and destroy the small Muslim Community, but they will utterly fail in their nefarious designs and endeavours. (close)
a. 11:94,122; 39:40-41. (close)
875. Important Words:
مکانتکم (as best you can). The word مکان is considered by some to have been derived from کان which means, he or it was, or he or it came into existence. مکان means, place of being or existence. مکانة means, place of being or existence; state or condition. The Arabs say مکانك و زیدا i.e. keep where thou art and approach not Zaid (Lane & Aqrab). The expression اعملوا علی مکانتکم means, do what you can; or act as best you can; or remain where you are and do your worst (Kashshaf). Some authorities, however, consider the word to have been derived from مکن in which case it signifies greatness; or high rank or standing; or honourable a place or position, especially with a king or potentate (Aqrab & Lane). In this sense the expression would mean, "You look upon yourselves to be great or high in rank. Now come and exert your full power against Islam and then see what the result will be."
As explained under Important Words, the expression اعملوا علی مکانتکم means, you may do your worst and exert yourselves to the utmost of your power and resources to extirpate Islam and destroy the small Muslim community but you will never succeed.
The words, Soon will you know whose will be the ultimate reward, signify, "you will soon see which of the two parties will succeed in the end." The word الدار (abode) may refer either to this world or to the next. In both cases the ultimate reward is reserved for the truthful. (close)
وَ جَعَلُوۡا لِلّٰہِ مِمَّا ذَرَاَ مِنَ الۡحَرۡثِ وَ الۡاَنۡعَامِ نَصِیۡبًا فَقَالُوۡا ہٰذَا لِلّٰہِ بِزَعۡمِہِمۡ وَ ہٰذَا لِشُرَکَآئِنَا ۚ فَمَا کَانَ لِشُرَکَآئِہِمۡ فَلَا یَصِلُ اِلَی اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ مَا کَانَ لِلّٰہِ فَہُوَ یَصِلُ اِلٰی شُرَکَآئِہِمۡ ؕ سَآءَ مَا یَحۡکُمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۷﴾
وَجَعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ مِمَّا ذَرَأَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَرۡثِ وَٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ نَصِيبٗا فَقَالُواْ هَٰذَا لِلَّهِ بِزَعۡمِهِمۡ وَهَٰذَا لِشُرَكَآئِنَاۖ فَمَا كَانَ لِشُرَكَآئِهِمۡ فَلَا يَصِلُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ فَهُوَ يَصِلُ إِلَىٰ شُرَكَآئِهِمۡۗ سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ
d. 16:57. (close)
914. The reference is to an idolatrous custom of the Arabs. They would divide the produce of their lands between God and their deities. If the portion which they set apart for their deities was spent for other purposes, then the portion which they had reserved for God was given away as charity in the name of their deities, but if the portion set apart for God was spent for other ends, then the portion set aside for the deities was not transferred to God. (close)
a. 16:57. (close)
Note the point and the force in the words, He has produced. By using these words, the Quran exposes the folly of disbelievers who are presumptuous enough to divide the produce of the earth and cattle between their deities and God, as if they were the owners; while the fact is that God is the owner of all these things and it is He Who has brought them into existence. They are God’s things, and it is strange that disbelievers should presume to divide God’s things according to their own choice, setting apart only a portion for God, the True Owner, and allotting the rest to their false deities.
Disbelievers gave two kinds of alms; firstly, in the name of God, and secondly, in the name of their deities. If the portion which they set apart for their deities was spent for other purposes, then the portion which they had reserved for God was also given away as charity in the name of their deities, but if the portion set apart for God was spent for other ends, then the portion set aside for the deities was not transferred to God. That is what is meant by the words, that which is for their idols reaches not Allah, while that which is for Allah reaches their idols. This is another instance of how men blunder, making laws with the sole aid of reason.
The expression, as they imagine, signifies that God does not accept a charity which false gods are made to share with Him. Disbelievers suppose that they have set apart a portion for God, but that is not really the portion of God, for the jealous God disdainfully rejects such allotment. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ زَیَّنَ لِکَثِیۡرٍ مِّنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ قَتۡلَ اَوۡلَادِہِمۡ شُرَکَآؤُہُمۡ لِیُرۡدُوۡہُمۡ وَ لِیَلۡبِسُوۡا عَلَیۡہِمۡ دِیۡنَہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ مَا فَعَلُوۡہُ فَذَرۡہُمۡ وَ مَا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۸﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ قَتۡلَ أَوۡلَٰدِهِمۡ شُرَكَآؤُهُمۡ لِيُرۡدُوهُمۡ وَلِيَلۡبِسُواْ عَلَيۡهِمۡ دِينَهُمۡۖ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَا فَعَلُوهُۖ فَذَرۡهُمۡ وَمَا يَفۡتَرُونَ
915. The "associate-gods" here referred to are divines, soothsayers and astrologers, etc. (close)
916. The reference is to the most atrocious practice among some Arab tribes of slaying or burying alive their female children or offering them as sacrifice at the altar of their deities to avert natural calamities. Or it may be to their superstitious vow that if they had a certain number of children they would offer one of them as sacrifice. (close)
The "associate-gods" here referred to are divines, soothsayers and others. The "killing of children" happened in three ways: (1) some of the Arabs killed their female children and preserved the male ones; (2) some took the vow that if they had a certain number of children, whether male or female, one of them would be slaughtered in the name of God or in the name of one of their deities; and (3) sometimes they sacrificed their children to avert a calamity.
The word کثیر (many) in the expression, to many of the idolaters, shows that all Arabs did not indulge in this practice, nor even most of them, but only a considerable number. But, whatever the number, the practice provides one more instance of how men go astray when they begin to make laws for themselves with the sole aid of reason.
The particle ل (that) in لیـردوھم (that they may ruin them) is here used to express عاقبة (the result) and not the cause or motive. Thus, the sentence would mean that the result of the action of the associate-gods was that men who followed them were spiritually ruined. When a man goes so far as even to sacrifice his son in obedience to another person’s bidding, then he is entirely under the latter’s control, and is thus completely ruined in respect of religion. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا ہٰذِہٖۤ اَنۡعَامٌ وَّ حَرۡثٌ حِجۡرٌ ٭ۖ لَّا یَطۡعَمُہَاۤ اِلَّا مَنۡ نَّشَآءُ بِزَعۡمِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡعَامٌ حُرِّمَتۡ ظُہُوۡرُہَا وَ اَنۡعَامٌ لَّا یَذۡکُرُوۡنَ اسۡمَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡہَا افۡتِرَآءً عَلَیۡہِ ؕ سَیَجۡزِیۡہِمۡ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۹﴾
وَقَالُواْ هَٰذِهِۦٓ أَنۡعَٰمٞ وَحَرۡثٌ حِجۡرٞ لَّا يَطۡعَمُهَآ إِلَّا مَن نَّشَآءُ بِزَعۡمِهِمۡ وَأَنۡعَٰمٌ حُرِّمَتۡ ظُهُورُهَا وَأَنۡعَٰمٞ لَّا يَذۡكُرُونَ ٱسۡمَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡهَا ٱفۡتِرَآءً عَلَيۡهِۚ سَيَجۡزِيهِم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ
917. By "forbidden crops" are meant such cultivated fields as were dedicated to the idols. These could be used only by the priests that attended upon them. (close)
918. The cattle mentioned in 5:104. They were not used for riding or as beasts of burden. (close)
919. Cattle dedicated to the associate-gods of Meccan idolaters. There is no reference here to the mentioning of God’s name at the time of slaughtering. (close)
878. Important Words:
حجر (forbidden). حجرہ (hajara-hu) means, he prevented or prohibited or forbade or interdicted him; or tie deprived him. حجر (hijr) means, forbidden or prohibited or unlawful; the faculty of reason or understanding because it prevents one from doing improper acts. The word also means custody or guardianship (Aqrab).
This verse gives another instance of the absurdity of man-made laws.
By "forbidden crops" are meant such cultivated fields as were dedicated to idols. These could be used only by the priests that attended upon the idols. The cattle might eat of all crops except those that were dedicated to idols.
The cattle whose backs were forbidden are those mentioned in 5:104. Nobody was allowed to ride them or use them as beasts of burden.
The cattle over which they pronounce not the name of Allah are the cattle which they dedicated to their associate-gods. There is no reference here to the mentioning of God’s name at the time of slaughtering. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا مَا فِیۡ بُطُوۡنِ ہٰذِہِ الۡاَنۡعَامِ خَالِصَۃٌ لِّذُکُوۡرِنَا وَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلٰۤی اَزۡوَاجِنَا ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّکُنۡ مَّیۡتَۃً فَہُمۡ فِیۡہِ شُرَکَآءُ ؕ سَیَجۡزِیۡہِمۡ وَصۡفَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّہٗ حَکِیۡمٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۴۰﴾
وَقَالُواْ مَا فِي بُطُونِ هَٰذِهِ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ خَالِصَةٞ لِّذُكُورِنَا وَمُحَرَّمٌ عَلَىٰٓ أَزۡوَٰجِنَاۖ وَإِن يَكُن مَّيۡتَةٗ فَهُمۡ فِيهِ شُرَكَآءُۚ سَيَجۡزِيهِمۡ وَصۡفَهُمۡۚ إِنَّهُۥ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٞ
920. Another absurd custom of the Arabs. (close)
The verse refers to another absurd custom of the Arabs. The Divine attributes "Wise" and "All-Knowing" have been mentioned here to point out that the people got entangled in these foolish beliefs and practices because they turned away from the Wise and Knowing God and followed false deities and their foolish devotees. (close)