وَ جَعَلُوۡا لِلّٰہِ مِمَّا ذَرَاَ مِنَ الۡحَرۡثِ وَ الۡاَنۡعَامِ نَصِیۡبًا فَقَالُوۡا ہٰذَا لِلّٰہِ بِزَعۡمِہِمۡ وَ ہٰذَا لِشُرَکَآئِنَا ۚ فَمَا کَانَ لِشُرَکَآئِہِمۡ فَلَا یَصِلُ اِلَی اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ مَا کَانَ لِلّٰہِ فَہُوَ یَصِلُ اِلٰی شُرَکَآئِہِمۡ ؕ سَآءَ مَا یَحۡکُمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۷﴾
وَجَعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ مِمَّا ذَرَأَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَرۡثِ وَٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ نَصِيبٗا فَقَالُواْ هَٰذَا لِلَّهِ بِزَعۡمِهِمۡ وَهَٰذَا لِشُرَكَآئِنَاۖ فَمَا كَانَ لِشُرَكَآئِهِمۡ فَلَا يَصِلُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ فَهُوَ يَصِلُ إِلَىٰ شُرَكَآئِهِمۡۗ سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ
d. 16:57. (close)
914. The reference is to an idolatrous custom of the Arabs. They would divide the produce of their lands between God and their deities. If the portion which they set apart for their deities was spent for other purposes, then the portion which they had reserved for God was given away as charity in the name of their deities, but if the portion set apart for God was spent for other ends, then the portion set aside for the deities was not transferred to God. (close)
a. 16:57. (close)
Note the point and the force in the words, He has produced. By using these words, the Quran exposes the folly of disbelievers who are presumptuous enough to divide the produce of the earth and cattle between their deities and God, as if they were the owners; while the fact is that God is the owner of all these things and it is He Who has brought them into existence. They are God’s things, and it is strange that disbelievers should presume to divide God’s things according to their own choice, setting apart only a portion for God, the True Owner, and allotting the rest to their false deities.
Disbelievers gave two kinds of alms; firstly, in the name of God, and secondly, in the name of their deities. If the portion which they set apart for their deities was spent for other purposes, then the portion which they had reserved for God was also given away as charity in the name of their deities, but if the portion set apart for God was spent for other ends, then the portion set aside for the deities was not transferred to God. That is what is meant by the words, that which is for their idols reaches not Allah, while that which is for Allah reaches their idols. This is another instance of how men blunder, making laws with the sole aid of reason.
The expression, as they imagine, signifies that God does not accept a charity which false gods are made to share with Him. Disbelievers suppose that they have set apart a portion for God, but that is not really the portion of God, for the jealous God disdainfully rejects such allotment. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ زَیَّنَ لِکَثِیۡرٍ مِّنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ قَتۡلَ اَوۡلَادِہِمۡ شُرَکَآؤُہُمۡ لِیُرۡدُوۡہُمۡ وَ لِیَلۡبِسُوۡا عَلَیۡہِمۡ دِیۡنَہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ مَا فَعَلُوۡہُ فَذَرۡہُمۡ وَ مَا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۸﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ قَتۡلَ أَوۡلَٰدِهِمۡ شُرَكَآؤُهُمۡ لِيُرۡدُوهُمۡ وَلِيَلۡبِسُواْ عَلَيۡهِمۡ دِينَهُمۡۖ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَا فَعَلُوهُۖ فَذَرۡهُمۡ وَمَا يَفۡتَرُونَ
915. The "associate-gods" here referred to are divines, soothsayers and astrologers, etc. (close)
916. The reference is to the most atrocious practice among some Arab tribes of slaying or burying alive their female children or offering them as sacrifice at the altar of their deities to avert natural calamities. Or it may be to their superstitious vow that if they had a certain number of children they would offer one of them as sacrifice. (close)
The "associate-gods" here referred to are divines, soothsayers and others. The "killing of children" happened in three ways: (1) some of the Arabs killed their female children and preserved the male ones; (2) some took the vow that if they had a certain number of children, whether male or female, one of them would be slaughtered in the name of God or in the name of one of their deities; and (3) sometimes they sacrificed their children to avert a calamity.
The word کثیر (many) in the expression, to many of the idolaters, shows that all Arabs did not indulge in this practice, nor even most of them, but only a considerable number. But, whatever the number, the practice provides one more instance of how men go astray when they begin to make laws for themselves with the sole aid of reason.
The particle ل (that) in لیـردوھم (that they may ruin them) is here used to express عاقبة (the result) and not the cause or motive. Thus, the sentence would mean that the result of the action of the associate-gods was that men who followed them were spiritually ruined. When a man goes so far as even to sacrifice his son in obedience to another person’s bidding, then he is entirely under the latter’s control, and is thus completely ruined in respect of religion. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا ہٰذِہٖۤ اَنۡعَامٌ وَّ حَرۡثٌ حِجۡرٌ ٭ۖ لَّا یَطۡعَمُہَاۤ اِلَّا مَنۡ نَّشَآءُ بِزَعۡمِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡعَامٌ حُرِّمَتۡ ظُہُوۡرُہَا وَ اَنۡعَامٌ لَّا یَذۡکُرُوۡنَ اسۡمَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡہَا افۡتِرَآءً عَلَیۡہِ ؕ سَیَجۡزِیۡہِمۡ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۹﴾
وَقَالُواْ هَٰذِهِۦٓ أَنۡعَٰمٞ وَحَرۡثٌ حِجۡرٞ لَّا يَطۡعَمُهَآ إِلَّا مَن نَّشَآءُ بِزَعۡمِهِمۡ وَأَنۡعَٰمٌ حُرِّمَتۡ ظُهُورُهَا وَأَنۡعَٰمٞ لَّا يَذۡكُرُونَ ٱسۡمَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡهَا ٱفۡتِرَآءً عَلَيۡهِۚ سَيَجۡزِيهِم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ
917. By "forbidden crops" are meant such cultivated fields as were dedicated to the idols. These could be used only by the priests that attended upon them. (close)
918. The cattle mentioned in 5:104. They were not used for riding or as beasts of burden. (close)
919. Cattle dedicated to the associate-gods of Meccan idolaters. There is no reference here to the mentioning of God’s name at the time of slaughtering. (close)
878. Important Words:
حجر (forbidden). حجرہ (hajara-hu) means, he prevented or prohibited or forbade or interdicted him; or tie deprived him. حجر (hijr) means, forbidden or prohibited or unlawful; the faculty of reason or understanding because it prevents one from doing improper acts. The word also means custody or guardianship (Aqrab).
This verse gives another instance of the absurdity of man-made laws.
By "forbidden crops" are meant such cultivated fields as were dedicated to idols. These could be used only by the priests that attended upon the idols. The cattle might eat of all crops except those that were dedicated to idols.
The cattle whose backs were forbidden are those mentioned in 5:104. Nobody was allowed to ride them or use them as beasts of burden.
The cattle over which they pronounce not the name of Allah are the cattle which they dedicated to their associate-gods. There is no reference here to the mentioning of God’s name at the time of slaughtering. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا مَا فِیۡ بُطُوۡنِ ہٰذِہِ الۡاَنۡعَامِ خَالِصَۃٌ لِّذُکُوۡرِنَا وَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلٰۤی اَزۡوَاجِنَا ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّکُنۡ مَّیۡتَۃً فَہُمۡ فِیۡہِ شُرَکَآءُ ؕ سَیَجۡزِیۡہِمۡ وَصۡفَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّہٗ حَکِیۡمٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۴۰﴾
وَقَالُواْ مَا فِي بُطُونِ هَٰذِهِ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ خَالِصَةٞ لِّذُكُورِنَا وَمُحَرَّمٌ عَلَىٰٓ أَزۡوَٰجِنَاۖ وَإِن يَكُن مَّيۡتَةٗ فَهُمۡ فِيهِ شُرَكَآءُۚ سَيَجۡزِيهِمۡ وَصۡفَهُمۡۚ إِنَّهُۥ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٞ
920. Another absurd custom of the Arabs. (close)
The verse refers to another absurd custom of the Arabs. The Divine attributes "Wise" and "All-Knowing" have been mentioned here to point out that the people got entangled in these foolish beliefs and practices because they turned away from the Wise and Knowing God and followed false deities and their foolish devotees. (close)
قَدۡ خَسِرَ الَّذِیۡنَ قَتَلُوۡۤا اَوۡلَادَہُمۡ سَفَہًۢا بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَّ حَرَّمُوۡا مَا رَزَقَہُمُ اللّٰہُ افۡتِرَآءً عَلَی اللّٰہِ ؕ قَدۡ ضَلُّوۡا وَ مَا کَانُوۡا مُہۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۱﴾٪
قَدۡ خَسِرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَتَلُوٓاْ أَوۡلَٰدَهُمۡ سَفَهَۢا بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٖ وَحَرَّمُواْ مَا رَزَقَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ ٱفۡتِرَآءً عَلَى ٱللَّهِۚ قَدۡ ضَلُّواْ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُهۡتَدِينَ
This verse recapitulates what has been said above about man-made laws. For the killing of children, see 6:138 above. The words, for lack of knowledge, signify that they do so because they do not possess revealed knowledge, which is the only source of true guidance. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡشَاَ جَنّٰتٍ مَّعۡرُوۡشٰتٍ وَّ غَیۡرَ مَعۡرُوۡشٰتٍ وَّ النَّخۡلَ وَ الزَّرۡعَ مُخۡتَلِفًا اُکُلُہٗ وَ الزَّیۡتُوۡنَ وَ الرُّمَّانَ مُتَشَابِہًا وَّ غَیۡرَ مُتَشَابِہٍ ؕ کُلُوۡا مِنۡ ثَمَرِہٖۤ اِذَاۤ اَثۡمَرَ وَ اٰتُوۡا حَقَّہٗ یَوۡمَ حَصَادِہٖ ۫ۖ وَ لَا تُسۡرِفُوۡا ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَا یُحِبُّ الۡمُسۡرِفِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۲﴾ۙ
۞وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَنشَأَ جَنَّـٰتٖ مَّعۡرُوشَٰتٖ وَغَيۡرَ مَعۡرُوشَٰتٖ وَٱلنَّخۡلَ وَٱلزَّرۡعَ مُخۡتَلِفًا أُكُلُهُۥ وَٱلزَّيۡتُونَ وَٱلرُّمَّانَ مُتَشَٰبِهٗا وَغَيۡرَ مُتَشَٰبِهٖۚ كُلُواْ مِن ثَمَرِهِۦٓ إِذَآ أَثۡمَرَ وَءَاتُواْ حَقَّهُۥ يَوۡمَ حَصَادِهِۦۖ وَلَا تُسۡرِفُوٓاْۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُسۡرِفِينَ
a. 6:100; 13:5; 16:12; 35:28; 36:35, 36. (close)
921. In the foregoing verses reference was made to some of the idolatrous customs or foolish practices and laws which the pagan Arabs had devised for themselves. With this verse the Surah proceeds to give some of the Divine laws. (close)
a. 6:100; 13:5; 16:12; 35:28; 36:35-36. (close)
881. Important Words:
معروشات (trellised) is the plural of معروشة and is derived from عرش which means, he built or constructed a frame work or a trellis for supporting grapevines; or he built a shed or an enclosure, etc. So معروشة means, furnished with or trained on trellises. They say کروم معروشات i.e. grapevines furnished with or trained on trellises which are a framework for supporting the vines. عریش means, structure or trellis made for supporting grapevines; an enclosure made for beasts to protect them from cold. عرش means, a shed or booth, etc. constructed for shade; a hut; a house or a dwelling; the roof of a house; a throne (Lane).
حصاد (harvest) is derived from حصد i.e. he reaped or cut a seed-produce or herbage, etc. حصید means, reaped produce; حصادmeans time or season of reaping; also fruit or produce (Lane).
In the foregoing verses the Quran referred to some of the laws which pagan Arabs, unaided by Divine revelation, haddevised for themselves. Now, the Quran proceeds to give some of its own laws, so that the reader may contrast them with the man-made laws alluded to above. One of the man-made laws pertained to the fruits of the earth (6:141 above). Therefore, the Quran gives here its laws about these. It declares them to be lawful and pure, subject only to the condition that in eating them we should "not exceed the bounds", i.e. we should only eat as much of them as is not injurious to our health and morals.
The pronoun in the words حقه (His due) may either refer to God, or to ثـمر (fruit). In the former case, the sentence would mean that on the day of reaping we should give what is due to God as alms. In the latter case, it would mean that on the day of reaping we should give as charity a portion of the fruit which is in the nature of something due against it in order to make it pure.
It may be noted here that there are two kinds of charity in Islam–– obligatory and optional. But as, according to the practice and sayings of the Holy Prophet, زکاة i.e. obligatory charity or legal alms, is not due from all the fruits named in the verse but only from the fruit of the palm tree, so if it is the obligatory charity that is meant here, then the commandment to "pay His due" will apply only to the fruit of palm trees. It is, however, better to take the verse as referring to optional charity which may be given from all kinds of fruits. The use of the imperative mood in the words "pay His due" does not necessarily make it an obligatory command, for this form of the verb is also freely used in the Quran for the purpose of exhortation. This interpretation is in keeping with the practice of the Holy Prophet’s Companions who were in the habit of setting apart a portion of their produce for the poor, and such is also the practice of pious Muslims today. (close)
وَ مِنَ الۡاَنۡعَامِ حَمُوۡلَۃً وَّ فَرۡشًا ؕ کُلُوۡا مِمَّا رَزَقَکُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعُوۡا خُطُوٰتِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَکُمۡ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۴۳﴾ۙ
وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ حَمُولَةٗ وَفَرۡشٗاۚ كُلُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَٰتِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَكُمۡ عَدُوّٞ مُّبِينٞ
a. See 2:209. (close)
922. Apart from its primary meaning the verse also hints that the eating of lawful things is a means of safeguarding one against the attacks of Satan. (close)
882. Important Words:
فرشا (for slaughter) is derived from فرش. They say فرشه i.e. he spread it or expanded it; or he prostrated it; or he threw it down (for slaughter). فرش means, what is spread on the ground, etc.; a plain tract of land; a depressed tract of land; shrubs or small trees; such animals as are fit for slaughter, or such as are thrown down for slaughter (Lane).
Apart from its primary meaning the verse also hints that the eating of lawful things is a means of ensuring one against the attacks of Satan. (close)
ثَمٰنِیَۃَ اَزۡوَاجٍ ۚ مِنَ الضَّاۡنِ اثۡنَیۡنِ وَ مِنَ الۡمَعۡزِ اثۡنَیۡنِ ؕ قُلۡ ءٰٓالذَّکَرَیۡنِ حَرَّمَ اَمِ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ اَمَّا اشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَیۡہِ اَرۡحَامُ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ ؕ نَبِّـُٔوۡنِیۡ بِعِلۡمٍ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۴﴾ۙ
ثَمَٰنِيَةَ أَزۡوَٰجٖۖ مِّنَ ٱلضَّأۡنِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ وَمِنَ ٱلۡمَعۡزِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِۗ قُلۡ ءَآلذَّكَرَيۡنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۖ نَبِّـُٔونِي بِعِلۡمٍ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَٰدِقِينَ
b. 39:7. (close)
883. Important Words:
ازواج (mates) is the plural of زوج (a mate). The word is used to signify, one of the pair, whether male or female and whether among human beings or among animals, or whether among plants or among any class of things.
الضأن (sheep is the plural of الضائن (one sheep). The word is applied to all animals of the class of غنم (which cover both sheep and goats) having wool (Aqrab & Lane).
المعز (goats) is he generic plural of الماعز (one goat). The word is applied to all animals of the class of غنم (for which see above) having hair (not wool) and small tails (Aqrab & Lane).
See note under the following verse. (close)
وَ مِنَ الۡاِبِلِ اثۡنَیۡنِ وَ مِنَ الۡبَقَرِ اثۡنَیۡنِ ؕ قُلۡ ءٰٓالذَّکَرَیۡنِ حَرَّمَ اَمِ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ اَمَّا اشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَیۡہِ اَرۡحَامُ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ ؕ اَمۡ کُنۡتُمۡ شُہَدَآءَ اِذۡ وَصّٰکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِہٰذَا ۚ فَمَنۡ اَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ افۡتَرٰی عَلَی اللّٰہِ کَذِبًا لِّیُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۵﴾٪
وَمِنَ ٱلۡإِبِلِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ وَمِنَ ٱلۡبَقَرِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِۗ قُلۡ ءَآلذَّكَرَيۡنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۖ أَمۡ كُنتُمۡ شُهَدَآءَ إِذۡ وَصَّىٰكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِهَٰذَاۚ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبٗا لِّيُضِلَّ ٱلنَّاسَ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
923. The idolaters are asked whether they were present when Allah forbade the eating of oxen and camels. They are called upon to produce a Divine authority showing that the cow and the camel were really forbidden. This is so because eating of the flesh of cows and the camel is regarded as forbidden by some people on Scriptural authority—the cow by the Hindus and the camel by some Jews. (close)
a. 6:22; 7:38; 11:19. (close)
b. 6:22; 7:38; 11:19. (close)
Speaking of the laws devised by man, the Quran had referred to some pagan customs with regard to animals (6:140, 141). Now it gives its own laws with regard to them.
While speaking of sheep and goats in 6:144 above, the Holy Prophet is made here to ask the idolaters to inform him if these animals were unlawful, i.e. not fit for eating, and to bring forward (as hinted in the words نبٔونی بعلم i.e. inform me with knowledge) some rational argument or scientific reason to show that they should not be eaten. When, however, it speaks of oxen and camels in the present verse, the Quran asks idolaters whether they were witnesses when Allah forbade the eating of these animals. In other words, the verse here calls upon them to produce a religious authority showing that the cow and the camel were really forbidden. This is so because the cow and the camel are looked upon as forbidden by some on religious authority. For instance, the Hindus think it unlawful to eat beef for religious reasons and the Jews look upon the camel as forbidden by their scriptures.
This restriction is, however, unjustified; for, as regards beef, it is clearly allowed by the Vedas and was freely used in ancient India not only as ordinary food but also as an essential part of many religious ceremonies (Indo-Aryans by R. Mitra, LL.D., C.I.E.; The Review of Religions for 1923). As regards the camel, it is indeed forbidden by the Bible, but that prohibition is not meant for all time, for the Bible announces the advent of another Lawgiver whose Law was to abrogate the Law of the Bible (Deut. 18:18).
The words, Were you present when Allah enjoined, signify that when pagans do not believe in any revelation, they cannot possibly know that anything was forbidden by God. (close)
قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَجِدُ فِیۡ مَاۤ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلٰی طَاعِمٍ یَّطۡعَمُہٗۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ مَیۡتَۃً اَوۡ دَمًا مَّسۡفُوۡحًا اَوۡ لَحۡمَ خِنۡزِیۡرٍ فَاِنَّہٗ رِجۡسٌ اَوۡ فِسۡقًا اُہِلَّ لِغَیۡرِ اللّٰہِ بِہٖ ۚ فَمَنِ اضۡطُرَّ غَیۡرَ بَاغٍ وَّ لَا عَادٍ فَاِنَّ رَبَّکَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۴۶﴾
قُل لَّآ أَجِدُ فِي مَآ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٖ يَطۡعَمُهُۥٓ إِلَّآ أَن يَكُونَ مَيۡتَةً أَوۡ دَمٗا مَّسۡفُوحًا أَوۡ لَحۡمَ خِنزِيرٖ فَإِنَّهُۥ رِجۡسٌ أَوۡ فِسۡقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيۡرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِۦۚ فَمَنِ ٱضۡطُرَّ غَيۡرَ بَاغٖ وَلَا عَادٖ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
b. 2:174; 5:4; 16:116. (close)
c. 6:122. (close)
924. The verse points out that the laws made by pagan Arabs with regard to permissible and forbidden foods were arbitrary, without any wisdom underlying them; while the food-laws prescribed by Islam are based on reason and wisdom. Basically speaking, Islam forbids four things—three on the basis of their being Rijs, i.e. unclean and impure; and one on the basis of its being Fisq, i.e. profane and irreligious. The first-mentioned three things are carrion, the blood which pours out when an animal is slaughtered or wounded and the flesh of swine. All these are, as the verse says, Rijs (unclean and impure), i.e. they are harmful both to the physical and moral health of man. The word Rijs, it must be noted, is to be read with each of the three first-mentioned forbidden things. The fourth thing forbidden is that on which the name of anything other than Allah, is pronounced. It is Fisq (profane), i.e. a source of disobedience or rebellion against God. The eating of such food is calculated to injure the spiritual health of man and to kill his feelings of love and jealousy for Him. (close)
a. 2:174; 5:4; 16:116. (close)
b. 6:122. (close)
The verse points out that the laws made by pagan Arabs with regard to permissible and forbidden foods were arbitrary, without any wisdom underlying them; while the food-laws made by Islam were based on reason and deep wisdom. Fundamentally speaking, Islam forbids four things__ three on the basis of their being رجس i.e. unclean and impure, and one on the basis of its being فسق i.e. profane and irreligious. The three first-mentioned things are (1) carrion, (2) the blood which pours out when an animal is slaughtered or wounded and (3) the flesh of swine. All these are, as the verse says, رجسi.e. unclean and impure, i.e. they are harmful to the physical and moral health of man. The word رجس it must be noted, is to be read with each of the three first-mentioned forbidden things.
The fourth thing forbidden is that on which the name of one other than Allah is pronounced. The reason for the prohibition of this kind of food lies in the fact that such food is, as the verse calls it, فسق i.e. profane, viz. a source of disobedience or rebellion against God. The eating of such food will injure the spiritual health of man and will crush his feelings of love and jealousy for God. See also 2:174. (close)