قَدۡ خَسِرَ الَّذِیۡنَ قَتَلُوۡۤا اَوۡلَادَہُمۡ سَفَہًۢا بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَّ حَرَّمُوۡا مَا رَزَقَہُمُ اللّٰہُ افۡتِرَآءً عَلَی اللّٰہِ ؕ قَدۡ ضَلُّوۡا وَ مَا کَانُوۡا مُہۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۱﴾٪
قَدۡ خَسِرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَتَلُوٓاْ أَوۡلَٰدَهُمۡ سَفَهَۢا بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٖ وَحَرَّمُواْ مَا رَزَقَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ ٱفۡتِرَآءً عَلَى ٱللَّهِۚ قَدۡ ضَلُّواْ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُهۡتَدِينَ
This verse recapitulates what has been said above about man-made laws. For the killing of children, see 6:138 above. The words, for lack of knowledge, signify that they do so because they do not possess revealed knowledge, which is the only source of true guidance. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡشَاَ جَنّٰتٍ مَّعۡرُوۡشٰتٍ وَّ غَیۡرَ مَعۡرُوۡشٰتٍ وَّ النَّخۡلَ وَ الزَّرۡعَ مُخۡتَلِفًا اُکُلُہٗ وَ الزَّیۡتُوۡنَ وَ الرُّمَّانَ مُتَشَابِہًا وَّ غَیۡرَ مُتَشَابِہٍ ؕ کُلُوۡا مِنۡ ثَمَرِہٖۤ اِذَاۤ اَثۡمَرَ وَ اٰتُوۡا حَقَّہٗ یَوۡمَ حَصَادِہٖ ۫ۖ وَ لَا تُسۡرِفُوۡا ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَا یُحِبُّ الۡمُسۡرِفِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۲﴾ۙ
۞وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَنشَأَ جَنَّـٰتٖ مَّعۡرُوشَٰتٖ وَغَيۡرَ مَعۡرُوشَٰتٖ وَٱلنَّخۡلَ وَٱلزَّرۡعَ مُخۡتَلِفًا أُكُلُهُۥ وَٱلزَّيۡتُونَ وَٱلرُّمَّانَ مُتَشَٰبِهٗا وَغَيۡرَ مُتَشَٰبِهٖۚ كُلُواْ مِن ثَمَرِهِۦٓ إِذَآ أَثۡمَرَ وَءَاتُواْ حَقَّهُۥ يَوۡمَ حَصَادِهِۦۖ وَلَا تُسۡرِفُوٓاْۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُسۡرِفِينَ
a. 6:100; 13:5; 16:12; 35:28; 36:35, 36. (close)
921. In the foregoing verses reference was made to some of the idolatrous customs or foolish practices and laws which the pagan Arabs had devised for themselves. With this verse the Surah proceeds to give some of the Divine laws. (close)
a. 6:100; 13:5; 16:12; 35:28; 36:35-36. (close)
881. Important Words:
معروشات (trellised) is the plural of معروشة and is derived from عرش which means, he built or constructed a frame work or a trellis for supporting grapevines; or he built a shed or an enclosure, etc. So معروشة means, furnished with or trained on trellises. They say کروم معروشات i.e. grapevines furnished with or trained on trellises which are a framework for supporting the vines. عریش means, structure or trellis made for supporting grapevines; an enclosure made for beasts to protect them from cold. عرش means, a shed or booth, etc. constructed for shade; a hut; a house or a dwelling; the roof of a house; a throne (Lane).
حصاد (harvest) is derived from حصد i.e. he reaped or cut a seed-produce or herbage, etc. حصید means, reaped produce; حصادmeans time or season of reaping; also fruit or produce (Lane).
In the foregoing verses the Quran referred to some of the laws which pagan Arabs, unaided by Divine revelation, haddevised for themselves. Now, the Quran proceeds to give some of its own laws, so that the reader may contrast them with the man-made laws alluded to above. One of the man-made laws pertained to the fruits of the earth (6:141 above). Therefore, the Quran gives here its laws about these. It declares them to be lawful and pure, subject only to the condition that in eating them we should "not exceed the bounds", i.e. we should only eat as much of them as is not injurious to our health and morals.
The pronoun in the words حقه (His due) may either refer to God, or to ثـمر (fruit). In the former case, the sentence would mean that on the day of reaping we should give what is due to God as alms. In the latter case, it would mean that on the day of reaping we should give as charity a portion of the fruit which is in the nature of something due against it in order to make it pure.
It may be noted here that there are two kinds of charity in Islam–– obligatory and optional. But as, according to the practice and sayings of the Holy Prophet, زکاة i.e. obligatory charity or legal alms, is not due from all the fruits named in the verse but only from the fruit of the palm tree, so if it is the obligatory charity that is meant here, then the commandment to "pay His due" will apply only to the fruit of palm trees. It is, however, better to take the verse as referring to optional charity which may be given from all kinds of fruits. The use of the imperative mood in the words "pay His due" does not necessarily make it an obligatory command, for this form of the verb is also freely used in the Quran for the purpose of exhortation. This interpretation is in keeping with the practice of the Holy Prophet’s Companions who were in the habit of setting apart a portion of their produce for the poor, and such is also the practice of pious Muslims today. (close)
وَ مِنَ الۡاَنۡعَامِ حَمُوۡلَۃً وَّ فَرۡشًا ؕ کُلُوۡا مِمَّا رَزَقَکُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعُوۡا خُطُوٰتِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَکُمۡ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۴۳﴾ۙ
وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ حَمُولَةٗ وَفَرۡشٗاۚ كُلُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَٰتِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَكُمۡ عَدُوّٞ مُّبِينٞ
a. See 2:209. (close)
922. Apart from its primary meaning the verse also hints that the eating of lawful things is a means of safeguarding one against the attacks of Satan. (close)
882. Important Words:
فرشا (for slaughter) is derived from فرش. They say فرشه i.e. he spread it or expanded it; or he prostrated it; or he threw it down (for slaughter). فرش means, what is spread on the ground, etc.; a plain tract of land; a depressed tract of land; shrubs or small trees; such animals as are fit for slaughter, or such as are thrown down for slaughter (Lane).
Apart from its primary meaning the verse also hints that the eating of lawful things is a means of ensuring one against the attacks of Satan. (close)
ثَمٰنِیَۃَ اَزۡوَاجٍ ۚ مِنَ الضَّاۡنِ اثۡنَیۡنِ وَ مِنَ الۡمَعۡزِ اثۡنَیۡنِ ؕ قُلۡ ءٰٓالذَّکَرَیۡنِ حَرَّمَ اَمِ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ اَمَّا اشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَیۡہِ اَرۡحَامُ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ ؕ نَبِّـُٔوۡنِیۡ بِعِلۡمٍ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۴﴾ۙ
ثَمَٰنِيَةَ أَزۡوَٰجٖۖ مِّنَ ٱلضَّأۡنِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ وَمِنَ ٱلۡمَعۡزِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِۗ قُلۡ ءَآلذَّكَرَيۡنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۖ نَبِّـُٔونِي بِعِلۡمٍ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَٰدِقِينَ
b. 39:7. (close)
883. Important Words:
ازواج (mates) is the plural of زوج (a mate). The word is used to signify, one of the pair, whether male or female and whether among human beings or among animals, or whether among plants or among any class of things.
الضأن (sheep is the plural of الضائن (one sheep). The word is applied to all animals of the class of غنم (which cover both sheep and goats) having wool (Aqrab & Lane).
المعز (goats) is he generic plural of الماعز (one goat). The word is applied to all animals of the class of غنم (for which see above) having hair (not wool) and small tails (Aqrab & Lane).
See note under the following verse. (close)
وَ مِنَ الۡاِبِلِ اثۡنَیۡنِ وَ مِنَ الۡبَقَرِ اثۡنَیۡنِ ؕ قُلۡ ءٰٓالذَّکَرَیۡنِ حَرَّمَ اَمِ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ اَمَّا اشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَیۡہِ اَرۡحَامُ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ ؕ اَمۡ کُنۡتُمۡ شُہَدَآءَ اِذۡ وَصّٰکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِہٰذَا ۚ فَمَنۡ اَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ افۡتَرٰی عَلَی اللّٰہِ کَذِبًا لِّیُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۵﴾٪
وَمِنَ ٱلۡإِبِلِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ وَمِنَ ٱلۡبَقَرِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِۗ قُلۡ ءَآلذَّكَرَيۡنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۖ أَمۡ كُنتُمۡ شُهَدَآءَ إِذۡ وَصَّىٰكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِهَٰذَاۚ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبٗا لِّيُضِلَّ ٱلنَّاسَ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
923. The idolaters are asked whether they were present when Allah forbade the eating of oxen and camels. They are called upon to produce a Divine authority showing that the cow and the camel were really forbidden. This is so because eating of the flesh of cows and the camel is regarded as forbidden by some people on Scriptural authority—the cow by the Hindus and the camel by some Jews. (close)
a. 6:22; 7:38; 11:19. (close)
b. 6:22; 7:38; 11:19. (close)
Speaking of the laws devised by man, the Quran had referred to some pagan customs with regard to animals (6:140, 141). Now it gives its own laws with regard to them.
While speaking of sheep and goats in 6:144 above, the Holy Prophet is made here to ask the idolaters to inform him if these animals were unlawful, i.e. not fit for eating, and to bring forward (as hinted in the words نبٔونی بعلم i.e. inform me with knowledge) some rational argument or scientific reason to show that they should not be eaten. When, however, it speaks of oxen and camels in the present verse, the Quran asks idolaters whether they were witnesses when Allah forbade the eating of these animals. In other words, the verse here calls upon them to produce a religious authority showing that the cow and the camel were really forbidden. This is so because the cow and the camel are looked upon as forbidden by some on religious authority. For instance, the Hindus think it unlawful to eat beef for religious reasons and the Jews look upon the camel as forbidden by their scriptures.
This restriction is, however, unjustified; for, as regards beef, it is clearly allowed by the Vedas and was freely used in ancient India not only as ordinary food but also as an essential part of many religious ceremonies (Indo-Aryans by R. Mitra, LL.D., C.I.E.; The Review of Religions for 1923). As regards the camel, it is indeed forbidden by the Bible, but that prohibition is not meant for all time, for the Bible announces the advent of another Lawgiver whose Law was to abrogate the Law of the Bible (Deut. 18:18).
The words, Were you present when Allah enjoined, signify that when pagans do not believe in any revelation, they cannot possibly know that anything was forbidden by God. (close)
قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَجِدُ فِیۡ مَاۤ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلٰی طَاعِمٍ یَّطۡعَمُہٗۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ مَیۡتَۃً اَوۡ دَمًا مَّسۡفُوۡحًا اَوۡ لَحۡمَ خِنۡزِیۡرٍ فَاِنَّہٗ رِجۡسٌ اَوۡ فِسۡقًا اُہِلَّ لِغَیۡرِ اللّٰہِ بِہٖ ۚ فَمَنِ اضۡطُرَّ غَیۡرَ بَاغٍ وَّ لَا عَادٍ فَاِنَّ رَبَّکَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۴۶﴾
قُل لَّآ أَجِدُ فِي مَآ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٖ يَطۡعَمُهُۥٓ إِلَّآ أَن يَكُونَ مَيۡتَةً أَوۡ دَمٗا مَّسۡفُوحًا أَوۡ لَحۡمَ خِنزِيرٖ فَإِنَّهُۥ رِجۡسٌ أَوۡ فِسۡقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيۡرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِۦۚ فَمَنِ ٱضۡطُرَّ غَيۡرَ بَاغٖ وَلَا عَادٖ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
b. 2:174; 5:4; 16:116. (close)
c. 6:122. (close)
924. The verse points out that the laws made by pagan Arabs with regard to permissible and forbidden foods were arbitrary, without any wisdom underlying them; while the food-laws prescribed by Islam are based on reason and wisdom. Basically speaking, Islam forbids four things—three on the basis of their being Rijs, i.e. unclean and impure; and one on the basis of its being Fisq, i.e. profane and irreligious. The first-mentioned three things are carrion, the blood which pours out when an animal is slaughtered or wounded and the flesh of swine. All these are, as the verse says, Rijs (unclean and impure), i.e. they are harmful both to the physical and moral health of man. The word Rijs, it must be noted, is to be read with each of the three first-mentioned forbidden things. The fourth thing forbidden is that on which the name of anything other than Allah, is pronounced. It is Fisq (profane), i.e. a source of disobedience or rebellion against God. The eating of such food is calculated to injure the spiritual health of man and to kill his feelings of love and jealousy for Him. (close)
a. 2:174; 5:4; 16:116. (close)
b. 6:122. (close)
The verse points out that the laws made by pagan Arabs with regard to permissible and forbidden foods were arbitrary, without any wisdom underlying them; while the food-laws made by Islam were based on reason and deep wisdom. Fundamentally speaking, Islam forbids four things__ three on the basis of their being رجس i.e. unclean and impure, and one on the basis of its being فسق i.e. profane and irreligious. The three first-mentioned things are (1) carrion, (2) the blood which pours out when an animal is slaughtered or wounded and (3) the flesh of swine. All these are, as the verse says, رجسi.e. unclean and impure, i.e. they are harmful to the physical and moral health of man. The word رجس it must be noted, is to be read with each of the three first-mentioned forbidden things.
The fourth thing forbidden is that on which the name of one other than Allah is pronounced. The reason for the prohibition of this kind of food lies in the fact that such food is, as the verse calls it, فسق i.e. profane, viz. a source of disobedience or rebellion against God. The eating of such food will injure the spiritual health of man and will crush his feelings of love and jealousy for God. See also 2:174. (close)
وَ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ ہَادُوۡا حَرَّمۡنَا کُلَّ ذِیۡ ظُفُرٍ ۚ وَ مِنَ الۡبَقَرِ وَ الۡغَنَمِ حَرَّمۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ شُحُوۡمَہُمَاۤ اِلَّا مَا حَمَلَتۡ ظُہُوۡرُہُمَاۤ اَوِ الۡحَوَایَاۤ اَوۡ مَا اخۡتَلَطَ بِعَظۡمٍ ؕ ذٰلِکَ جَزَیۡنٰہُمۡ بِبَغۡیِہِمۡ ۫ۖ وَ اِنَّا لَصٰدِقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۷﴾
وَعَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمۡنَا كُلَّ ذِي ظُفُرٖۖ وَمِنَ ٱلۡبَقَرِ وَٱلۡغَنَمِ حَرَّمۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ شُحُومَهُمَآ إِلَّا مَا حَمَلَتۡ ظُهُورُهُمَآ أَوِ ٱلۡحَوَايَآ أَوۡ مَا ٱخۡتَلَطَ بِعَظۡمٖۚ ذَٰلِكَ جَزَيۡنَٰهُم بِبَغۡيِهِمۡۖ وَإِنَّا لَصَٰدِقُونَ
a. 16:119. (close)
925. See Lev. 3:17 and 7:23. In the Talmud, exception is made of the fat that sticks to the ribs. (close)
926. These things were forbidden to the Jews as a punishment for their transgression. (close)
a. 16:119. (close)
The reader is referred to the Bible (Lev. 3:17) where it is said, "Ye eat neither fat nor blood." Again, in Lev. 7:23 it is said "Ye shall eat no manner of fat of ox or of sheep or of goat." In the Talmud, exception is made of the fat that sticks to the ribs. Similarly, the Jews regard as lawful any fat that cannot be separated from the intestines and the flesh (Enc. Bib., cols. 1544-45). This corroborates the Quran which says, and of the oxen and the sheep and goats did We forbid them their fats, save that which their backs bear or the intestines, or that which is mixed with a bone.
It is declared in the previous verse that the only things forbidden in Islam are (1) carrion, (2) blood poured forth, (3) flesh of swine, and (4) the slaughtered animal on which the name of anyone other than God is pronounced. The Jews might, however, say that there are other things beside the above which are also forbidden them by God. The Quran, therefore, adds that it is true that there are other foods which are forbidden to Jews, but they have not been included in the prohibited things here enumerated; for, these things had been forbidden them not because they were unclean but as a punishment for their transgression. So the declaration of the previous verse still remains true. (close)
فَاِنۡ کَذَّبُوۡکَ فَقُلۡ رَّبُّکُمۡ ذُوۡ رَحۡمَۃٍ وَّاسِعَۃٍ ۚ وَ لَا یُرَدُّ بَاۡسُہٗ عَنِ الۡقَوۡمِ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۸﴾
فَإِن كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُل رَّبُّكُمۡ ذُو رَحۡمَةٖ وَٰسِعَةٖ وَلَا يُرَدُّ بَأۡسُهُۥ عَنِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ
b. 6:134; 7:157. (close)
a. 6:134; 7:157. (close)
The verse answers an implied objection of the Jews, viz. if God had forbidden them certain extra things, why was not the prohibition continued in Islam? The verse answers this objection by saying that whereas the divine law of punishment demanded that Jews should be punished, the law of mercy demanded that Muslims should be shown mercy. It was unfair to continue a special prohibition that had been imposed by way of punishment under a new dispensation. (close)
سَیَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ مَاۤ اَشۡرَکۡنَا وَ لَاۤ اٰبَآؤُنَا وَ لَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ کَذَّبَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ حَتّٰی ذَاقُوۡا بَاۡسَنَا ؕ قُلۡ ہَلۡ عِنۡدَکُمۡ مِّنۡ عِلۡمٍ فَتُخۡرِجُوۡہُ لَنَا ؕ اِنۡ تَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَ اِنۡ اَنۡتُمۡ اِلَّا تَخۡرُصُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۹﴾
سَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْ لَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَآ أَشۡرَكۡنَا وَلَآ ءَابَآؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِن شَيۡءٖۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُواْ بَأۡسَنَاۗ قُلۡ هَلۡ عِندَكُم مِّنۡ عِلۡمٖ فَتُخۡرِجُوهُ لَنَآۖ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَإِنۡ أَنتُمۡ إِلَّا تَخۡرُصُونَ
c. 16:36; 43:21. (close)
b. 16:36; 43:21 (close)
Being unable to answer the arguments given against idolatry and man-made laws in the foregoing passage, idolatrous Arabs had recourse to the trite plea in support of idol-worship: If Allah had pleased, we could not have joined gods with Him. From this they inferred that attributing co-partners to God was in accordance with God’s will. The Quran gives four answers to this plea, two in the present verse and two in the next. The first answer is contained in the words: In like manner did those who were before them accuse God’s Messengers of falsehood, until they tasted of Our wrath. These words signify that this plea of theirs is not a new one. The same plea was brought forward by those gone before. If this plea was true, and the act of setting up associate with God was in accordance with God’s will, why should He have punished the previous peoples? The very fact that God punished them for their associating gods with Him shows that this act of theirs was not in accordance with His will. The second answer is contained in the words: Have you any knowledge? Then produce it for us. You follow nothing but mere conjecture. And you do nothing but lie, i.e. you possess no argument based on true knowledge to support your assertion; what you say is mere conjecture. The remaining two answers are given in the next verse. (close)
قُلۡ فَلِلّٰہِ الۡحُجَّۃُ الۡبَالِغَۃُ ۚ فَلَوۡ شَآءَ لَہَدٰٮکُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿۱۵۰﴾
قُلۡ فَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡحُجَّةُ ٱلۡبَٰلِغَةُۖ فَلَوۡ شَآءَ لَهَدَىٰكُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ
a. 5:49; 11:119; 13:32; 16:10. (close)
927. If God had decided to force men to do His Will, He would certainly have made them do things which are right and not the things which are wrong. But in His infinite wisdom He has made man a free agent. He has explained to him what is right and what is wrong, and then has left him free to follow whichever course he may like to choose. (close)
a. 5:49; 11:119; 13:32; 16:10. (close)
The third answer to the objection mentioned in the preceding verse is given here. The words contained in the previous verse, i.e. If Allah had pleased, we could not have joined gods with Him (6:149), implied that it was under a sort of compulsion that they had set up associates with God; it was God’s own will and they could not go against His will; they were helpless against Him. So, in the present verse the Quran says that God has no need to resort to compulsion, for Allah’s is the argument that reaches home. He has arguments which reach the hearts of men. He can bring home to men the wisdom of His commandments; so He is not under the necessity of forcing men to do His will. The fourth answer is contained in the words, if He had enforced His will, He could have surely guided you all. The words mean that if God had resorted to compulsion and had decided to force men to do His will, He would certainly have made them do things that are right and not the things that are wrong. But in His infinite wisdom He has made man a free agent. He has explained to him what is right and what is wrong, and then has left him free to follow whichever course he may choose; and everyone will reap as he sows. (close)