وَ مِنَ الۡاِبِلِ اثۡنَیۡنِ وَ مِنَ الۡبَقَرِ اثۡنَیۡنِ ؕ قُلۡ ءٰٓالذَّکَرَیۡنِ حَرَّمَ اَمِ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ اَمَّا اشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَیۡہِ اَرۡحَامُ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ ؕ اَمۡ کُنۡتُمۡ شُہَدَآءَ اِذۡ وَصّٰکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِہٰذَا ۚ فَمَنۡ اَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ افۡتَرٰی عَلَی اللّٰہِ کَذِبًا لِّیُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۵﴾٪
وَمِنَ ٱلۡإِبِلِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ وَمِنَ ٱلۡبَقَرِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِۗ قُلۡ ءَآلذَّكَرَيۡنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۖ أَمۡ كُنتُمۡ شُهَدَآءَ إِذۡ وَصَّىٰكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِهَٰذَاۚ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبٗا لِّيُضِلَّ ٱلنَّاسَ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
923. The idolaters are asked whether they were present when Allah forbade the eating of oxen and camels. They are called upon to produce a Divine authority showing that the cow and the camel were really forbidden. This is so because eating of the flesh of cows and the camel is regarded as forbidden by some people on Scriptural authority—the cow by the Hindus and the camel by some Jews. (close)
a. 6:22; 7:38; 11:19. (close)
b. 6:22; 7:38; 11:19. (close)
Speaking of the laws devised by man, the Quran had referred to some pagan customs with regard to animals (6:140, 141). Now it gives its own laws with regard to them.
While speaking of sheep and goats in 6:144 above, the Holy Prophet is made here to ask the idolaters to inform him if these animals were unlawful, i.e. not fit for eating, and to bring forward (as hinted in the words نبٔونی بعلم i.e. inform me with knowledge) some rational argument or scientific reason to show that they should not be eaten. When, however, it speaks of oxen and camels in the present verse, the Quran asks idolaters whether they were witnesses when Allah forbade the eating of these animals. In other words, the verse here calls upon them to produce a religious authority showing that the cow and the camel were really forbidden. This is so because the cow and the camel are looked upon as forbidden by some on religious authority. For instance, the Hindus think it unlawful to eat beef for religious reasons and the Jews look upon the camel as forbidden by their scriptures.
This restriction is, however, unjustified; for, as regards beef, it is clearly allowed by the Vedas and was freely used in ancient India not only as ordinary food but also as an essential part of many religious ceremonies (Indo-Aryans by R. Mitra, LL.D., C.I.E.; The Review of Religions for 1923). As regards the camel, it is indeed forbidden by the Bible, but that prohibition is not meant for all time, for the Bible announces the advent of another Lawgiver whose Law was to abrogate the Law of the Bible (Deut. 18:18).
The words, Were you present when Allah enjoined, signify that when pagans do not believe in any revelation, they cannot possibly know that anything was forbidden by God. (close)
قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَجِدُ فِیۡ مَاۤ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلٰی طَاعِمٍ یَّطۡعَمُہٗۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ مَیۡتَۃً اَوۡ دَمًا مَّسۡفُوۡحًا اَوۡ لَحۡمَ خِنۡزِیۡرٍ فَاِنَّہٗ رِجۡسٌ اَوۡ فِسۡقًا اُہِلَّ لِغَیۡرِ اللّٰہِ بِہٖ ۚ فَمَنِ اضۡطُرَّ غَیۡرَ بَاغٍ وَّ لَا عَادٍ فَاِنَّ رَبَّکَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۴۶﴾
قُل لَّآ أَجِدُ فِي مَآ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٖ يَطۡعَمُهُۥٓ إِلَّآ أَن يَكُونَ مَيۡتَةً أَوۡ دَمٗا مَّسۡفُوحًا أَوۡ لَحۡمَ خِنزِيرٖ فَإِنَّهُۥ رِجۡسٌ أَوۡ فِسۡقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيۡرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِۦۚ فَمَنِ ٱضۡطُرَّ غَيۡرَ بَاغٖ وَلَا عَادٖ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
b. 2:174; 5:4; 16:116. (close)
c. 6:122. (close)
924. The verse points out that the laws made by pagan Arabs with regard to permissible and forbidden foods were arbitrary, without any wisdom underlying them; while the food-laws prescribed by Islam are based on reason and wisdom. Basically speaking, Islam forbids four things—three on the basis of their being Rijs, i.e. unclean and impure; and one on the basis of its being Fisq, i.e. profane and irreligious. The first-mentioned three things are carrion, the blood which pours out when an animal is slaughtered or wounded and the flesh of swine. All these are, as the verse says, Rijs (unclean and impure), i.e. they are harmful both to the physical and moral health of man. The word Rijs, it must be noted, is to be read with each of the three first-mentioned forbidden things. The fourth thing forbidden is that on which the name of anything other than Allah, is pronounced. It is Fisq (profane), i.e. a source of disobedience or rebellion against God. The eating of such food is calculated to injure the spiritual health of man and to kill his feelings of love and jealousy for Him. (close)
a. 2:174; 5:4; 16:116. (close)
b. 6:122. (close)
The verse points out that the laws made by pagan Arabs with regard to permissible and forbidden foods were arbitrary, without any wisdom underlying them; while the food-laws made by Islam were based on reason and deep wisdom. Fundamentally speaking, Islam forbids four things__ three on the basis of their being رجس i.e. unclean and impure, and one on the basis of its being فسق i.e. profane and irreligious. The three first-mentioned things are (1) carrion, (2) the blood which pours out when an animal is slaughtered or wounded and (3) the flesh of swine. All these are, as the verse says, رجسi.e. unclean and impure, i.e. they are harmful to the physical and moral health of man. The word رجس it must be noted, is to be read with each of the three first-mentioned forbidden things.
The fourth thing forbidden is that on which the name of one other than Allah is pronounced. The reason for the prohibition of this kind of food lies in the fact that such food is, as the verse calls it, فسق i.e. profane, viz. a source of disobedience or rebellion against God. The eating of such food will injure the spiritual health of man and will crush his feelings of love and jealousy for God. See also 2:174. (close)
وَ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ ہَادُوۡا حَرَّمۡنَا کُلَّ ذِیۡ ظُفُرٍ ۚ وَ مِنَ الۡبَقَرِ وَ الۡغَنَمِ حَرَّمۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ شُحُوۡمَہُمَاۤ اِلَّا مَا حَمَلَتۡ ظُہُوۡرُہُمَاۤ اَوِ الۡحَوَایَاۤ اَوۡ مَا اخۡتَلَطَ بِعَظۡمٍ ؕ ذٰلِکَ جَزَیۡنٰہُمۡ بِبَغۡیِہِمۡ ۫ۖ وَ اِنَّا لَصٰدِقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۷﴾
وَعَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمۡنَا كُلَّ ذِي ظُفُرٖۖ وَمِنَ ٱلۡبَقَرِ وَٱلۡغَنَمِ حَرَّمۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ شُحُومَهُمَآ إِلَّا مَا حَمَلَتۡ ظُهُورُهُمَآ أَوِ ٱلۡحَوَايَآ أَوۡ مَا ٱخۡتَلَطَ بِعَظۡمٖۚ ذَٰلِكَ جَزَيۡنَٰهُم بِبَغۡيِهِمۡۖ وَإِنَّا لَصَٰدِقُونَ
a. 16:119. (close)
925. See Lev. 3:17 and 7:23. In the Talmud, exception is made of the fat that sticks to the ribs. (close)
926. These things were forbidden to the Jews as a punishment for their transgression. (close)
a. 16:119. (close)
The reader is referred to the Bible (Lev. 3:17) where it is said, "Ye eat neither fat nor blood." Again, in Lev. 7:23 it is said "Ye shall eat no manner of fat of ox or of sheep or of goat." In the Talmud, exception is made of the fat that sticks to the ribs. Similarly, the Jews regard as lawful any fat that cannot be separated from the intestines and the flesh (Enc. Bib., cols. 1544-45). This corroborates the Quran which says, and of the oxen and the sheep and goats did We forbid them their fats, save that which their backs bear or the intestines, or that which is mixed with a bone.
It is declared in the previous verse that the only things forbidden in Islam are (1) carrion, (2) blood poured forth, (3) flesh of swine, and (4) the slaughtered animal on which the name of anyone other than God is pronounced. The Jews might, however, say that there are other things beside the above which are also forbidden them by God. The Quran, therefore, adds that it is true that there are other foods which are forbidden to Jews, but they have not been included in the prohibited things here enumerated; for, these things had been forbidden them not because they were unclean but as a punishment for their transgression. So the declaration of the previous verse still remains true. (close)
فَاِنۡ کَذَّبُوۡکَ فَقُلۡ رَّبُّکُمۡ ذُوۡ رَحۡمَۃٍ وَّاسِعَۃٍ ۚ وَ لَا یُرَدُّ بَاۡسُہٗ عَنِ الۡقَوۡمِ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۸﴾
فَإِن كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُل رَّبُّكُمۡ ذُو رَحۡمَةٖ وَٰسِعَةٖ وَلَا يُرَدُّ بَأۡسُهُۥ عَنِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ
b. 6:134; 7:157. (close)
a. 6:134; 7:157. (close)
The verse answers an implied objection of the Jews, viz. if God had forbidden them certain extra things, why was not the prohibition continued in Islam? The verse answers this objection by saying that whereas the divine law of punishment demanded that Jews should be punished, the law of mercy demanded that Muslims should be shown mercy. It was unfair to continue a special prohibition that had been imposed by way of punishment under a new dispensation. (close)
سَیَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ مَاۤ اَشۡرَکۡنَا وَ لَاۤ اٰبَآؤُنَا وَ لَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ کَذَّبَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ حَتّٰی ذَاقُوۡا بَاۡسَنَا ؕ قُلۡ ہَلۡ عِنۡدَکُمۡ مِّنۡ عِلۡمٍ فَتُخۡرِجُوۡہُ لَنَا ؕ اِنۡ تَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَ اِنۡ اَنۡتُمۡ اِلَّا تَخۡرُصُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۹﴾
سَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْ لَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَآ أَشۡرَكۡنَا وَلَآ ءَابَآؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِن شَيۡءٖۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُواْ بَأۡسَنَاۗ قُلۡ هَلۡ عِندَكُم مِّنۡ عِلۡمٖ فَتُخۡرِجُوهُ لَنَآۖ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَإِنۡ أَنتُمۡ إِلَّا تَخۡرُصُونَ
c. 16:36; 43:21. (close)
b. 16:36; 43:21 (close)
Being unable to answer the arguments given against idolatry and man-made laws in the foregoing passage, idolatrous Arabs had recourse to the trite plea in support of idol-worship: If Allah had pleased, we could not have joined gods with Him. From this they inferred that attributing co-partners to God was in accordance with God’s will. The Quran gives four answers to this plea, two in the present verse and two in the next. The first answer is contained in the words: In like manner did those who were before them accuse God’s Messengers of falsehood, until they tasted of Our wrath. These words signify that this plea of theirs is not a new one. The same plea was brought forward by those gone before. If this plea was true, and the act of setting up associate with God was in accordance with God’s will, why should He have punished the previous peoples? The very fact that God punished them for their associating gods with Him shows that this act of theirs was not in accordance with His will. The second answer is contained in the words: Have you any knowledge? Then produce it for us. You follow nothing but mere conjecture. And you do nothing but lie, i.e. you possess no argument based on true knowledge to support your assertion; what you say is mere conjecture. The remaining two answers are given in the next verse. (close)
قُلۡ فَلِلّٰہِ الۡحُجَّۃُ الۡبَالِغَۃُ ۚ فَلَوۡ شَآءَ لَہَدٰٮکُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿۱۵۰﴾
قُلۡ فَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡحُجَّةُ ٱلۡبَٰلِغَةُۖ فَلَوۡ شَآءَ لَهَدَىٰكُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ
a. 5:49; 11:119; 13:32; 16:10. (close)
927. If God had decided to force men to do His Will, He would certainly have made them do things which are right and not the things which are wrong. But in His infinite wisdom He has made man a free agent. He has explained to him what is right and what is wrong, and then has left him free to follow whichever course he may like to choose. (close)
a. 5:49; 11:119; 13:32; 16:10. (close)
The third answer to the objection mentioned in the preceding verse is given here. The words contained in the previous verse, i.e. If Allah had pleased, we could not have joined gods with Him (6:149), implied that it was under a sort of compulsion that they had set up associates with God; it was God’s own will and they could not go against His will; they were helpless against Him. So, in the present verse the Quran says that God has no need to resort to compulsion, for Allah’s is the argument that reaches home. He has arguments which reach the hearts of men. He can bring home to men the wisdom of His commandments; so He is not under the necessity of forcing men to do His will. The fourth answer is contained in the words, if He had enforced His will, He could have surely guided you all. The words mean that if God had resorted to compulsion and had decided to force men to do His will, He would certainly have made them do things that are right and not the things that are wrong. But in His infinite wisdom He has made man a free agent. He has explained to him what is right and what is wrong, and then has left him free to follow whichever course he may choose; and everyone will reap as he sows. (close)
قُلۡ ہَلُمَّ شُہَدَآءَکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ یَشۡہَدُوۡنَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ حَرَّمَ ہٰذَا ۚ فَاِنۡ شَہِدُوۡا فَلَا تَشۡہَدۡ مَعَہُمۡ ۚ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَہۡوَآءَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ وَ ہُمۡ بِرَبِّہِمۡ یَعۡدِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۱﴾٪
قُلۡ هَلُمَّ شُهَدَآءَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَشۡهَدُونَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ حَرَّمَ هَٰذَاۖ فَإِن شَهِدُواْ فَلَا تَشۡهَدۡ مَعَهُمۡۚ وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ أَهۡوَآءَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا وَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ وَهُم بِرَبِّهِمۡ يَعۡدِلُونَ
b. 5:49; 45:19. (close)
c. 6:2; 27:61. (close)
d. 4:37; 17:24. (close)
a. 5:49; 45:19. (close)
b. 6:2; 27:61. (close)
890. Important Words:
ھلم (bring forward) is both intransitive and transitive, meaning (1) come; or (2) cause to come, i.e. bring forth or produce (Lane). ھلم (halumma) is, according to the people of the Hijaz, one of the words known as اسماء الفعل and is thus used by them in the fixed form whether the number is singular or plural and whether the gender is masculine or feminine; but others differ from this view (Aqrab).
The Quran now returns to the subject of man-made laws about prohibitions. The verse signifies that disbelievers should declare that they do not agree with the Quran and find its teachings inferior to their own and then God Himself will decide between the two parties. Indirectly the words also hint that everybody should express his opinion freely when he disagrees with others and should refrain from dissimulation. (close)
قُلۡ تَعَالَوۡا اَتۡلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّکُمۡ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اَلَّا تُشۡرِکُوۡا بِہٖ شَیۡئًا وَّ بِالۡوَالِدَیۡنِ اِحۡسَانًا ۚ وَ لَا تَقۡتُلُوۡۤا اَوۡلَادَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اِمۡلَاقٍ ؕ نَحۡنُ نَرۡزُقُکُمۡ وَ اِیَّاہُمۡ ۚ وَ لَا تَقۡرَبُوا الۡفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَہَرَ مِنۡہَا وَ مَا بَطَنَ ۚ وَ لَا تَقۡتُلُوا النَّفۡسَ الَّتِیۡ حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ اِلَّا بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ وَصّٰکُمۡ بِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۲﴾
۞قُلۡ تَعَالَوۡاْ أَتۡلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمۡ عَلَيۡكُمۡۖ أَلَّا تُشۡرِكُواْ بِهِۦ شَيۡـٔٗاۖ وَبِٱلۡوَٰلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَٰنٗاۖ وَلَا تَقۡتُلُوٓاْ أَوۡلَٰدَكُم مِّنۡ إِمۡلَٰقٖ نَّحۡنُ نَرۡزُقُكُمۡ وَإِيَّاهُمۡۖ وَلَا تَقۡرَبُواْ ٱلۡفَوَٰحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡهَا وَمَا بَطَنَۖ وَلَا تَقۡتُلُواْ ٱلنَّفۡسَ ٱلَّتِي حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا بِٱلۡحَقِّۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَصَّىٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَعۡقِلُونَ
928. The injunctions which follow the word "forbidden" are what God commands us to carry out. The injunctions are expressly mentioned but the converse of them which is forbidden is implied. Thus, on the one hand, by using the word "forbidden" and, on the other, by following it up with positive commandments, the verse combines in itself both the direct injunctions and their converse. The verse may be construed in another way also. The first sentence should be taken as having ended with the words what your Lord has forbidden, and the next sentence as beginning with the word ‘Alaikum which would in this case mean, "It is enjoined on you." The verse will then read as follows: "Come, I will rehearse to you what your Lord has forbidden. It is enjoined on you that you associate not anything as partner with Him..." (close)
e. 17:32. (close)
a. 6:121; 7:34. (close)
a. 4:37; 17:24. (close)
b. 17:32. (close)
c. 6:121; 7:34. (close)
891. Important Words:
املاق (poverty) is derived from ملق. They say ملق الشیء i.e. he erased the thing. ملقه بالعصا means, he beat him with a stick. ملق الولد امه means, the child sucked from the breasts of his mother. املق الرجل means, the man spent all his money and became poor. املاق means, poverty or destitution (Aqrab).
The Quran has already given the commandments and prohibitions of the Islamic Law with regard to the fruits of the earth and the flesh of animals, in opposition to the laws devised by men. Now it gives general commandments and prohibitions.
It should be noted that the injunctions which follow the word "forbidden" are what God requires us to do, and not what He forbids us to do. Thus, it is the contrary of the injunctions given in the verse that is forbidden. The injunctions have been expressly mentioned and the converse of them which is forbidden is implied. Thus, on the one hand, by using the word "forbidden" and, on the other, by following it up with positive commandments, the verse combines in itself both the direct injunctions and their converse, and the attention of the reader has been drawn to both.
The verse may also be construed in another way. The first sentence should be taken as having finished with the words ما حرم ربکم i.e. what your Lord has forbidden, and the next sentence should be taken as beginning with the words علیکمwhich would in this case mean, "it is enjoined upon you or it is incumbent on you." The verse will then read as follows:"Come, I will rehearse to you what your Lord has forbidden. It is incumbent on you that you associate not anything as partner with Him…"
The order in which the injunctions are given in this verse is noteworthy. The injunctions begin with the words, Come, I will rehearse to you what your Lord has forbidden. The Arabic word for "Lord" is رب which means "Creator, Sustainer, and Nourisher" (see 1:2), and it is the very idea of "sustaining and nourishing" that governs the order of the injunctions here given. The first injunction, i.e. associate not anything as partner with Him, pertains to the Great Nourisher, Allah. The second injunction pertains to the lesser nourishers, viz. parents. The word احسان (doing good) expresses the idea that the service of the parents enjoined in the words, do good to parents, is to be performed in the best way possible, for احسان literally signifies "doing a thing very well." Next come those who are nourished and sustained by the "lesser nourishers", viz. children. Parents are bidden to nourish and bring up their children well, as implied in the words, kill not your children for fear of poverty. Indeed, he who neglects to bring up his children properly for fear of poverty virtually "kills" them. If it is the duty of the children to serve their parents well, it is equally the duty of the parents to bring up their children well.
The pronoun "you" in the clause, it is We Who provide for you and for them, refers to parents and the pronoun "them" refers to children, the former being put before the latter in order to draw our attention to the fact that God’s providing for the parents is a proof of the fact that He will also provide for the children.
The next injunction is contained in the words, approach not foul deeds. The word فواحش (foul deeds) is the plural of فاحشه one meaning of which is "fornication or adultery" (see 4:16), which is another form of killing one’s children; for the man who forms immoral connection with a woman other than his wife, not only destroys his seed but also neglects his own wife, which cannot but affect his begetting children in lawful wedlock. Similarly, illegitimate children born of a woman other than one’s wife are not one’s own children, nor are they properly looked after.
The words, whether open or secret, used in connection with فواحش (foul deeds) refer respectively to openly going in to prostitutes and to forming secret connections with women other than one’s wife.
Next to the relations between parents and children come brotherly and friendly relations which are referred to in the words, kill not the life which Allah has made sacred. This injunction requires us to treat our brethren and friends as well as members of our society with fairness and justice. The word "killing," it will be noted, pertains not only to actually killing but to an attempt at killing as well as causing serious injury and boycotting etc. (see meaning of قتل i.e. killing under 2:62; 3:155 & 4:158). The expression, save by right, used with regard to "killing" means "except when a man has made himself deserving of the treatment to be meted out to him." For instance, in case of murder a person will be put to death only by order of proper authority. Similarly, in case of "boycotting" a person will be boycotted only under the orders of the person or the body that possesses that power. It will not be right for any man to take the law in his own hands. (close)
وَ لَا تَقۡرَبُوۡا مَالَ الۡیَتِیۡمِ اِلَّا بِالَّتِیۡ ہِیَ اَحۡسَنُ حَتّٰی یَبۡلُغَ اَشُدَّہٗ ۚ وَ اَوۡفُوا الۡکَیۡلَ وَ الۡمِیۡزَانَ بِالۡقِسۡطِ ۚ لَا نُکَلِّفُ نَفۡسًا اِلَّا وُسۡعَہَا ۚ وَ اِذَا قُلۡتُمۡ فَاعۡدِلُوۡا وَ لَوۡ کَانَ ذَا قُرۡبٰی ۚ وَ بِعَہۡدِ اللّٰہِ اَوۡفُوۡا ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ وَصّٰکُمۡ بِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۳﴾ۙ
وَلَا تَقۡرَبُواْ مَالَ ٱلۡيَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِٱلَّتِي هِيَ أَحۡسَنُ حَتَّىٰ يَبۡلُغَ أَشُدَّهُۥۚ وَأَوۡفُواْ ٱلۡكَيۡلَ وَٱلۡمِيزَانَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۖ لَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا وُسۡعَهَاۖ وَإِذَا قُلۡتُمۡ فَٱعۡدِلُواْ وَلَوۡ كَانَ ذَا قُرۡبَىٰۖ وَبِعَهۡدِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡفُواْۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَصَّىٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ
b. 4:11; 17:35. (close)
c. 17:36; 26:182, 183; 55:10. (close)
929. Next to the injunctions about the protection of life is mentioned the commandment to protect property. (close)
d. 2:287; 7:43. (close)
e. 5:2; 16:92; 17:35. (close)
930. After the injunction to guard the tongue comes the injunction to guard the heart, implied in the words and fulfil the covenant of Allah; for whereas the previous injunctions pertained to the covenant with men, the present one relates to the covenant with God. (close)
a. 4:11; 17:35. (close)
b. 17:36; 26:182-183; 55:10. (close)
c. 2:287; 7:43. (close)
d. 5:2; 16:92; 17:35. (close)
Next to the injunction to protect the lives of our brethren (see preceding verse) comes the injunction to protect their property. Of those the Quran takes first those who cannot take care of their own property, viz. orphans. The verse says:And approach not the property of the orphan, except in a way which is best. In these words we are bidden to take due care of the property of those whose parents are dead and who are too young to take care of their property. We are to act as trustees for their property and we are strongly forbidden to misappropriate it. The injunction not to "approach" the property, however, does not mean that we should not even make such use of their property as may be to the advantage of the orphans themselves, e.g. investing it in some profitable business which may bring gain to our wards. The Quran allows such profitable investment by saying, except in a way which is best. Again by using the words, till he attains his maturity, the Quran reminds us that we are to be the custodians of the property of orphans not for a month or a year, but until the time when they are old enough to take charge of it and look after their own affairs.
Next to orphans come those of our brethren who, though able to take care of their property, may sometimes become the dupes of others. So the next injunction is of general application and is to the effect: And give full measure and weight with equity. In these words we are bidden not to cheat or defraud others of their property in any way, even if the other party is not intelligent or watchful enough to look after his or her interests.
After the injunctions pertaining to the protecting of property, comes the injunction to guard our tongues. Says the Quran: And when you speak, observe justice even if a relation be concerned. This signifies that when we are called upon to bear witness, we should speak the truth, even if our testimony may prove harmful to one near and dear to us. On the other hand, we should not unjustly harm our relations either. We must be true to them also, for they too are our brethren and come under the general injunction.
After the injunction to guard the tongue comes the injunction to guard the heart. Says the verse, and fulfil the covenant of Allah. Obviously this injunction pertains to the heart, for whereas the previous injunctions pertained to the covenant with men, the present one relates to the covenant with God.
It should also be noted that the injunctions contained in 6:152 pertained to outward evils, hence they were followed by the words, that you may understand, i.e. if you will act upon these injunctions, your power of understanding will be strengthened. But the injunction contained in the latter portion of the present verse pertains to the heart; it has, therefore, been aptly followed by the words, that you may remember. (close)
وَ اَنَّ ہٰذَا صِرَاطِیۡ مُسۡتَقِیۡمًا فَاتَّبِعُوۡہُ ۚ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِکُمۡ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِہٖ ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ وَصّٰکُمۡ بِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۴﴾
وَأَنَّ هَٰذَا صِرَٰطِي مُسۡتَقِيمٗا فَٱتَّبِعُوهُۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ ٱلسُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمۡ عَن سَبِيلِهِۦۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَصَّىٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَتَّقُونَ
f. 6:127. (close)
a. 6:127. (close)
All the above injunctions have been jointly referred to here and we are told that if we act upon these teachings, we shall come under the protection of God, Who will enable us to guard ourselves against all evil. (close)