فَاِنۡ کَذَّبُوۡکَ فَقُلۡ رَّبُّکُمۡ ذُوۡ رَحۡمَۃٍ وَّاسِعَۃٍ ۚ وَ لَا یُرَدُّ بَاۡسُہٗ عَنِ الۡقَوۡمِ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۸﴾
فَإِن كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُل رَّبُّكُمۡ ذُو رَحۡمَةٖ وَٰسِعَةٖ وَلَا يُرَدُّ بَأۡسُهُۥ عَنِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ
b. 6:134; 7:157. (close)
a. 6:134; 7:157. (close)
The verse answers an implied objection of the Jews, viz. if God had forbidden them certain extra things, why was not the prohibition continued in Islam? The verse answers this objection by saying that whereas the divine law of punishment demanded that Jews should be punished, the law of mercy demanded that Muslims should be shown mercy. It was unfair to continue a special prohibition that had been imposed by way of punishment under a new dispensation. (close)
سَیَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ مَاۤ اَشۡرَکۡنَا وَ لَاۤ اٰبَآؤُنَا وَ لَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ کَذَّبَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ حَتّٰی ذَاقُوۡا بَاۡسَنَا ؕ قُلۡ ہَلۡ عِنۡدَکُمۡ مِّنۡ عِلۡمٍ فَتُخۡرِجُوۡہُ لَنَا ؕ اِنۡ تَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَ اِنۡ اَنۡتُمۡ اِلَّا تَخۡرُصُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۹﴾
سَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْ لَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَآ أَشۡرَكۡنَا وَلَآ ءَابَآؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِن شَيۡءٖۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُواْ بَأۡسَنَاۗ قُلۡ هَلۡ عِندَكُم مِّنۡ عِلۡمٖ فَتُخۡرِجُوهُ لَنَآۖ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَإِنۡ أَنتُمۡ إِلَّا تَخۡرُصُونَ
c. 16:36; 43:21. (close)
b. 16:36; 43:21 (close)
Being unable to answer the arguments given against idolatry and man-made laws in the foregoing passage, idolatrous Arabs had recourse to the trite plea in support of idol-worship: If Allah had pleased, we could not have joined gods with Him. From this they inferred that attributing co-partners to God was in accordance with God’s will. The Quran gives four answers to this plea, two in the present verse and two in the next. The first answer is contained in the words: In like manner did those who were before them accuse God’s Messengers of falsehood, until they tasted of Our wrath. These words signify that this plea of theirs is not a new one. The same plea was brought forward by those gone before. If this plea was true, and the act of setting up associate with God was in accordance with God’s will, why should He have punished the previous peoples? The very fact that God punished them for their associating gods with Him shows that this act of theirs was not in accordance with His will. The second answer is contained in the words: Have you any knowledge? Then produce it for us. You follow nothing but mere conjecture. And you do nothing but lie, i.e. you possess no argument based on true knowledge to support your assertion; what you say is mere conjecture. The remaining two answers are given in the next verse. (close)
قُلۡ فَلِلّٰہِ الۡحُجَّۃُ الۡبَالِغَۃُ ۚ فَلَوۡ شَآءَ لَہَدٰٮکُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿۱۵۰﴾
قُلۡ فَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡحُجَّةُ ٱلۡبَٰلِغَةُۖ فَلَوۡ شَآءَ لَهَدَىٰكُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ
a. 5:49; 11:119; 13:32; 16:10. (close)
927. If God had decided to force men to do His Will, He would certainly have made them do things which are right and not the things which are wrong. But in His infinite wisdom He has made man a free agent. He has explained to him what is right and what is wrong, and then has left him free to follow whichever course he may like to choose. (close)
a. 5:49; 11:119; 13:32; 16:10. (close)
The third answer to the objection mentioned in the preceding verse is given here. The words contained in the previous verse, i.e. If Allah had pleased, we could not have joined gods with Him (6:149), implied that it was under a sort of compulsion that they had set up associates with God; it was God’s own will and they could not go against His will; they were helpless against Him. So, in the present verse the Quran says that God has no need to resort to compulsion, for Allah’s is the argument that reaches home. He has arguments which reach the hearts of men. He can bring home to men the wisdom of His commandments; so He is not under the necessity of forcing men to do His will. The fourth answer is contained in the words, if He had enforced His will, He could have surely guided you all. The words mean that if God had resorted to compulsion and had decided to force men to do His will, He would certainly have made them do things that are right and not the things that are wrong. But in His infinite wisdom He has made man a free agent. He has explained to him what is right and what is wrong, and then has left him free to follow whichever course he may choose; and everyone will reap as he sows. (close)
قُلۡ ہَلُمَّ شُہَدَآءَکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ یَشۡہَدُوۡنَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ حَرَّمَ ہٰذَا ۚ فَاِنۡ شَہِدُوۡا فَلَا تَشۡہَدۡ مَعَہُمۡ ۚ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَہۡوَآءَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ وَ ہُمۡ بِرَبِّہِمۡ یَعۡدِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۱﴾٪
قُلۡ هَلُمَّ شُهَدَآءَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَشۡهَدُونَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ حَرَّمَ هَٰذَاۖ فَإِن شَهِدُواْ فَلَا تَشۡهَدۡ مَعَهُمۡۚ وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ أَهۡوَآءَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا وَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ وَهُم بِرَبِّهِمۡ يَعۡدِلُونَ
b. 5:49; 45:19. (close)
c. 6:2; 27:61. (close)
d. 4:37; 17:24. (close)
a. 5:49; 45:19. (close)
b. 6:2; 27:61. (close)
890. Important Words:
ھلم (bring forward) is both intransitive and transitive, meaning (1) come; or (2) cause to come, i.e. bring forth or produce (Lane). ھلم (halumma) is, according to the people of the Hijaz, one of the words known as اسماء الفعل and is thus used by them in the fixed form whether the number is singular or plural and whether the gender is masculine or feminine; but others differ from this view (Aqrab).
The Quran now returns to the subject of man-made laws about prohibitions. The verse signifies that disbelievers should declare that they do not agree with the Quran and find its teachings inferior to their own and then God Himself will decide between the two parties. Indirectly the words also hint that everybody should express his opinion freely when he disagrees with others and should refrain from dissimulation. (close)
قُلۡ تَعَالَوۡا اَتۡلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّکُمۡ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اَلَّا تُشۡرِکُوۡا بِہٖ شَیۡئًا وَّ بِالۡوَالِدَیۡنِ اِحۡسَانًا ۚ وَ لَا تَقۡتُلُوۡۤا اَوۡلَادَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اِمۡلَاقٍ ؕ نَحۡنُ نَرۡزُقُکُمۡ وَ اِیَّاہُمۡ ۚ وَ لَا تَقۡرَبُوا الۡفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَہَرَ مِنۡہَا وَ مَا بَطَنَ ۚ وَ لَا تَقۡتُلُوا النَّفۡسَ الَّتِیۡ حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ اِلَّا بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ وَصّٰکُمۡ بِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۲﴾
۞قُلۡ تَعَالَوۡاْ أَتۡلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمۡ عَلَيۡكُمۡۖ أَلَّا تُشۡرِكُواْ بِهِۦ شَيۡـٔٗاۖ وَبِٱلۡوَٰلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَٰنٗاۖ وَلَا تَقۡتُلُوٓاْ أَوۡلَٰدَكُم مِّنۡ إِمۡلَٰقٖ نَّحۡنُ نَرۡزُقُكُمۡ وَإِيَّاهُمۡۖ وَلَا تَقۡرَبُواْ ٱلۡفَوَٰحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡهَا وَمَا بَطَنَۖ وَلَا تَقۡتُلُواْ ٱلنَّفۡسَ ٱلَّتِي حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا بِٱلۡحَقِّۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَصَّىٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَعۡقِلُونَ
928. The injunctions which follow the word "forbidden" are what God commands us to carry out. The injunctions are expressly mentioned but the converse of them which is forbidden is implied. Thus, on the one hand, by using the word "forbidden" and, on the other, by following it up with positive commandments, the verse combines in itself both the direct injunctions and their converse. The verse may be construed in another way also. The first sentence should be taken as having ended with the words what your Lord has forbidden, and the next sentence as beginning with the word ‘Alaikum which would in this case mean, "It is enjoined on you." The verse will then read as follows: "Come, I will rehearse to you what your Lord has forbidden. It is enjoined on you that you associate not anything as partner with Him..." (close)
e. 17:32. (close)
a. 6:121; 7:34. (close)
a. 4:37; 17:24. (close)
b. 17:32. (close)
c. 6:121; 7:34. (close)
891. Important Words:
املاق (poverty) is derived from ملق. They say ملق الشیء i.e. he erased the thing. ملقه بالعصا means, he beat him with a stick. ملق الولد امه means, the child sucked from the breasts of his mother. املق الرجل means, the man spent all his money and became poor. املاق means, poverty or destitution (Aqrab).
The Quran has already given the commandments and prohibitions of the Islamic Law with regard to the fruits of the earth and the flesh of animals, in opposition to the laws devised by men. Now it gives general commandments and prohibitions.
It should be noted that the injunctions which follow the word "forbidden" are what God requires us to do, and not what He forbids us to do. Thus, it is the contrary of the injunctions given in the verse that is forbidden. The injunctions have been expressly mentioned and the converse of them which is forbidden is implied. Thus, on the one hand, by using the word "forbidden" and, on the other, by following it up with positive commandments, the verse combines in itself both the direct injunctions and their converse, and the attention of the reader has been drawn to both.
The verse may also be construed in another way. The first sentence should be taken as having finished with the words ما حرم ربکم i.e. what your Lord has forbidden, and the next sentence should be taken as beginning with the words علیکمwhich would in this case mean, "it is enjoined upon you or it is incumbent on you." The verse will then read as follows:"Come, I will rehearse to you what your Lord has forbidden. It is incumbent on you that you associate not anything as partner with Him…"
The order in which the injunctions are given in this verse is noteworthy. The injunctions begin with the words, Come, I will rehearse to you what your Lord has forbidden. The Arabic word for "Lord" is رب which means "Creator, Sustainer, and Nourisher" (see 1:2), and it is the very idea of "sustaining and nourishing" that governs the order of the injunctions here given. The first injunction, i.e. associate not anything as partner with Him, pertains to the Great Nourisher, Allah. The second injunction pertains to the lesser nourishers, viz. parents. The word احسان (doing good) expresses the idea that the service of the parents enjoined in the words, do good to parents, is to be performed in the best way possible, for احسان literally signifies "doing a thing very well." Next come those who are nourished and sustained by the "lesser nourishers", viz. children. Parents are bidden to nourish and bring up their children well, as implied in the words, kill not your children for fear of poverty. Indeed, he who neglects to bring up his children properly for fear of poverty virtually "kills" them. If it is the duty of the children to serve their parents well, it is equally the duty of the parents to bring up their children well.
The pronoun "you" in the clause, it is We Who provide for you and for them, refers to parents and the pronoun "them" refers to children, the former being put before the latter in order to draw our attention to the fact that God’s providing for the parents is a proof of the fact that He will also provide for the children.
The next injunction is contained in the words, approach not foul deeds. The word فواحش (foul deeds) is the plural of فاحشه one meaning of which is "fornication or adultery" (see 4:16), which is another form of killing one’s children; for the man who forms immoral connection with a woman other than his wife, not only destroys his seed but also neglects his own wife, which cannot but affect his begetting children in lawful wedlock. Similarly, illegitimate children born of a woman other than one’s wife are not one’s own children, nor are they properly looked after.
The words, whether open or secret, used in connection with فواحش (foul deeds) refer respectively to openly going in to prostitutes and to forming secret connections with women other than one’s wife.
Next to the relations between parents and children come brotherly and friendly relations which are referred to in the words, kill not the life which Allah has made sacred. This injunction requires us to treat our brethren and friends as well as members of our society with fairness and justice. The word "killing," it will be noted, pertains not only to actually killing but to an attempt at killing as well as causing serious injury and boycotting etc. (see meaning of قتل i.e. killing under 2:62; 3:155 & 4:158). The expression, save by right, used with regard to "killing" means "except when a man has made himself deserving of the treatment to be meted out to him." For instance, in case of murder a person will be put to death only by order of proper authority. Similarly, in case of "boycotting" a person will be boycotted only under the orders of the person or the body that possesses that power. It will not be right for any man to take the law in his own hands. (close)
وَ لَا تَقۡرَبُوۡا مَالَ الۡیَتِیۡمِ اِلَّا بِالَّتِیۡ ہِیَ اَحۡسَنُ حَتّٰی یَبۡلُغَ اَشُدَّہٗ ۚ وَ اَوۡفُوا الۡکَیۡلَ وَ الۡمِیۡزَانَ بِالۡقِسۡطِ ۚ لَا نُکَلِّفُ نَفۡسًا اِلَّا وُسۡعَہَا ۚ وَ اِذَا قُلۡتُمۡ فَاعۡدِلُوۡا وَ لَوۡ کَانَ ذَا قُرۡبٰی ۚ وَ بِعَہۡدِ اللّٰہِ اَوۡفُوۡا ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ وَصّٰکُمۡ بِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۳﴾ۙ
وَلَا تَقۡرَبُواْ مَالَ ٱلۡيَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِٱلَّتِي هِيَ أَحۡسَنُ حَتَّىٰ يَبۡلُغَ أَشُدَّهُۥۚ وَأَوۡفُواْ ٱلۡكَيۡلَ وَٱلۡمِيزَانَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۖ لَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا وُسۡعَهَاۖ وَإِذَا قُلۡتُمۡ فَٱعۡدِلُواْ وَلَوۡ كَانَ ذَا قُرۡبَىٰۖ وَبِعَهۡدِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡفُواْۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَصَّىٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ
b. 4:11; 17:35. (close)
c. 17:36; 26:182, 183; 55:10. (close)
929. Next to the injunctions about the protection of life is mentioned the commandment to protect property. (close)
d. 2:287; 7:43. (close)
e. 5:2; 16:92; 17:35. (close)
930. After the injunction to guard the tongue comes the injunction to guard the heart, implied in the words and fulfil the covenant of Allah; for whereas the previous injunctions pertained to the covenant with men, the present one relates to the covenant with God. (close)
a. 4:11; 17:35. (close)
b. 17:36; 26:182-183; 55:10. (close)
c. 2:287; 7:43. (close)
d. 5:2; 16:92; 17:35. (close)
Next to the injunction to protect the lives of our brethren (see preceding verse) comes the injunction to protect their property. Of those the Quran takes first those who cannot take care of their own property, viz. orphans. The verse says:And approach not the property of the orphan, except in a way which is best. In these words we are bidden to take due care of the property of those whose parents are dead and who are too young to take care of their property. We are to act as trustees for their property and we are strongly forbidden to misappropriate it. The injunction not to "approach" the property, however, does not mean that we should not even make such use of their property as may be to the advantage of the orphans themselves, e.g. investing it in some profitable business which may bring gain to our wards. The Quran allows such profitable investment by saying, except in a way which is best. Again by using the words, till he attains his maturity, the Quran reminds us that we are to be the custodians of the property of orphans not for a month or a year, but until the time when they are old enough to take charge of it and look after their own affairs.
Next to orphans come those of our brethren who, though able to take care of their property, may sometimes become the dupes of others. So the next injunction is of general application and is to the effect: And give full measure and weight with equity. In these words we are bidden not to cheat or defraud others of their property in any way, even if the other party is not intelligent or watchful enough to look after his or her interests.
After the injunctions pertaining to the protecting of property, comes the injunction to guard our tongues. Says the Quran: And when you speak, observe justice even if a relation be concerned. This signifies that when we are called upon to bear witness, we should speak the truth, even if our testimony may prove harmful to one near and dear to us. On the other hand, we should not unjustly harm our relations either. We must be true to them also, for they too are our brethren and come under the general injunction.
After the injunction to guard the tongue comes the injunction to guard the heart. Says the verse, and fulfil the covenant of Allah. Obviously this injunction pertains to the heart, for whereas the previous injunctions pertained to the covenant with men, the present one relates to the covenant with God.
It should also be noted that the injunctions contained in 6:152 pertained to outward evils, hence they were followed by the words, that you may understand, i.e. if you will act upon these injunctions, your power of understanding will be strengthened. But the injunction contained in the latter portion of the present verse pertains to the heart; it has, therefore, been aptly followed by the words, that you may remember. (close)
وَ اَنَّ ہٰذَا صِرَاطِیۡ مُسۡتَقِیۡمًا فَاتَّبِعُوۡہُ ۚ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِکُمۡ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِہٖ ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ وَصّٰکُمۡ بِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۴﴾
وَأَنَّ هَٰذَا صِرَٰطِي مُسۡتَقِيمٗا فَٱتَّبِعُوهُۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ ٱلسُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمۡ عَن سَبِيلِهِۦۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَصَّىٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَتَّقُونَ
f. 6:127. (close)
a. 6:127. (close)
All the above injunctions have been jointly referred to here and we are told that if we act upon these teachings, we shall come under the protection of God, Who will enable us to guard ourselves against all evil. (close)
ثُمَّ اٰتَیۡنَا مُوۡسَی الۡکِتٰبَ تَمَامًا عَلَی الَّذِیۡۤ اَحۡسَنَ وَ تَفۡصِیۡلًا لِّکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً لَّعَلَّہُمۡ بِلِقَآءِ رَبِّہِمۡ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۵﴾٪
ثُمَّ ءَاتَيۡنَا مُوسَى ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ تَمَامًا عَلَى ٱلَّذِيٓ أَحۡسَنَ وَتَفۡصِيلٗا لِّكُلِّ شَيۡءٖ وَهُدٗى وَرَحۡمَةٗ لَّعَلَّهُم بِلِقَآءِ رَبِّهِمۡ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
a. 2:54; 5:45. (close)
b. 7:146. (close)
931. The words "all things" signify all those things which satisfied the moral and spiritual needs of the Jews. The Torah fulfilled all those needs. (close)
b. 2:54; 5:45. (close)
c. 7:146. (close)
894. Important Words:
تماما (completing) is the noun-infinitive from تم. They say تم الشیء i.e. the thing was or became complete or entire or full or perfect or free from deficiency. تم الی کذا means, he reached or repaired to or came to such a thing. تم علیه means, he performed or executed it; or he accomplished it. اتم from which the infinitive is اتمام means, he made (a thing) complete or entire or full, etc. (Lane). For the sake of convenience the word تماما has been rendered in the verse as "completing".
In some of the previous verses the Quran referred to the diverse paths which, when followed, lead away from God’s way. Here we are told that when there come into existence diverse paths, then God sends a Messenger to remove differences and appoints one way for all. Then it becomes incumbent on all to follow that path. This is what is meant by the words, We gave Moses the Book.
The expression الذی احسن (him who did good) refers to Moses. Thus, the sentence means that the Book was revealed to Moses to complete divine favours upon him. The words احسن الذی (him who did good) may also be taken in the general sense, meaning "any person who did good." In that case the sentence would mean that the Book was revealed so that those who were righteous and did good, might have divine favours completed upon them.
The words کل شیء (all things) are not absolute but refer to the things the explanation of which was needed in the days of Moses, the words meaning that the Book given to Moses fulfilled all the needs of the time.
The verse mentions four things as the objects of a revealed Book: (1) That God desires to complete His favour by means of it. (2) That it embodies all the commandments that are needed for the period of time for which it is meant, (3) That it contains the means for guiding men to the right path. (4) That it is a mercy, i.e. those who follow it receive blessings from God. (close)
وَ ہٰذَا کِتٰبٌ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ مُبٰرَکٌ فَاتَّبِعُوۡہُ وَ اتَّقُوۡا لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُرۡحَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۶﴾ۙ
وَهَٰذَا كِتَٰبٌ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ مُبَارَكٞ فَٱتَّبِعُوهُ وَٱتَّقُواْ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُرۡحَمُونَ
c. 6:93; 21:51. (close)
932. The verse signifies that the Qur’an is a revealed Book which contains all the imperishable teachings and eternal truths which were contained in the former Scriptures, this being the meaning of the word Mubarak (Lane). Thus by following the Qur’an Muslims are relieved of the necessity of seeking guidance from them. (close)
a. 6:93; 21:51. (close)
The words, this is a Book, refer to the Quran. Before giving the command to follow the Quran, this verse gives the reasons thereof. The first reason is that it is a revealed Book, being sent down by God. The second reason is that it is مبارك(full of blessings) which, as the root meaning of the word implies, shows that it comprises in itself the blissful teachings of all the other Scriptures (for an explanation of the word مبارك see note on 6:93 above).
The verse purports to say (1) that as the Quran is a revealed Book, so you should accept it and thereby become recipients of all the favours attached to revealed Books; (2) that as it comprises in itself the teachings of all other revealed Scriptures, so you should leave all other Books and follow it alone. (close)
اَنۡ تَقُوۡلُوۡۤا اِنَّمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ الۡکِتٰبُ عَلٰی طَآئِفَتَیۡنِ مِنۡ قَبۡلِنَا ۪ وَ اِنۡ کُنَّا عَنۡ دِرَاسَتِہِمۡ لَغٰفِلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۵۷﴾ۙ
أَن تَقُولُوٓاْ إِنَّمَآ أُنزِلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبُ عَلَىٰ طَآئِفَتَيۡنِ مِن قَبۡلِنَا وَإِن كُنَّا عَن دِرَاسَتِهِمۡ لَغَٰفِلِينَ
933. The "two peoples" mentioned in the verse may be the Jews to whom was given the Torah and whose religion originated in the region in the north of Arabia, and the Zoroastrians to whom was given the Zend-Avesta and who lived on the east side of Arabia. Or the words may refer to Jews and Christians, the two peoples who lived in Arabia and with whom the Arabs had come into contact. (close)
896. Important Words:
غافلین (unaware) is the plural of غافل which also means wanting in requisite knowledge (Lane).
This and the succeeding verses are addressed to the pagan tribes of Arabia and give the reason why the Quran has been revealed to a Prophet of that country. If the Quran had not been sent down to the pagan Arabs, they might have justly offered the excuse that Books had been sent down to two other peoples (explained below) in tongues which the Arabs could not understand, and that if a Book had been sent down to them, they would have acted upon its teachings more faithfully. To meet this excuse the Quran has been revealed to a Prophet from among the Arabs in their own tongue; so now they cannot offer that excuse.
The "two peoples" mentioned in the verse are (1) the Jews to whom was given the Book of Moses and whose religion originated in the north of Arabia; and (2) the Zoroastrians to whom was given the Zend-Avesta and who lived on the east side of Arabia. The Christians were given no separate Law, for both Jesus and his disciples followed the Law of Moses; hence, so far as religious Laws are concerned, they do not form a separate people but must be classed with the Jews. (close)