وَ مَا مِنۡ دَآبَّۃٍ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَا طٰٓئِرٍ یَّطِیۡرُ بِجَنَاحَیۡہِ اِلَّاۤ اُمَمٌ اَمۡثَالُکُمۡ ؕ مَا فَرَّطۡنَا فِی الۡکِتٰبِ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ثُمَّ اِلٰی رَبِّہِمۡ یُحۡشَرُوۡنَ ﴿۳۹﴾
وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٖ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا طَـٰٓئِرٖ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيۡهِ إِلَّآ أُمَمٌ أَمۡثَالُكُمۚ مَّا فَرَّطۡنَا فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ مِن شَيۡءٖۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمۡ يُحۡشَرُونَ
b. 11:7, 57. (close)
846. The verse points out that even birds and insects, like ants, can understand from atmospheric change that a storm is imminent, and animals like dogs understand the orders of their masters but the foolish disbelievers do not see the writing on the wall and do not realize that by rejecting the Holy Prophet they are incurring the displeasure of God. They are warned that all their actions have been recorded and they will have to answer for them. The verse further seems to point to two classes of men: (a) Those who like the beasts are wholly bent upon the earth and their entire life is confined to satisfying their physical desires. (b) Those who like birds soar high into spiritual regions—highly spiritual persons having been likened to birds in the Qur’an (3:50). (close)
c. 16:90. (close)
b. 11:7, 57. (close)
c. 16:90. (close)
786. Important Words:
امم (communities), which is derived from ام i.e. he betook himself to or aimed at or sought, is the plural of امة which means, a way, course or manner of acting or of conduct or of life; religion, which is a course that men follow; the followers of a religion; or a people to whom a Prophet is sent, whether unbelievers or believers; a generation; a nation, a people, a race, a tribe or a family; a collective body of men or of other living beings; a kind, genus or generical class; creatures of God. It also means, a righteous man who is an object of imitation, being a model for others; or one who follows the true religion; or a learned man who has no equal in his time (Lane).
امثال (like) is the plural مثل (mathal) and مثل (mithl), both being derived from the verb مثل for which see 2:107. مثل (mathal) means, description, condition, state or case; a description by way of comparison; similitude; argument or sign, etc. The word is also used in the sense of مثل (mithl) which means, a like; one similar to; the thing itself, i.e. the same as (Aqrab Lane).
The Quran draws the attention of disbelievers to the animals that move on the earth and to the birds that fly in the air. Even animals and birds can understand by means of signs that a change has taken place in the season, but disbelievers are worse than these; for they do not see the signs which indicate that Islam is triumphing while disbelief is beating a retreat. Even a dog can see whether its master is angry or pleased; but disbelievers cannot see whether their Lord is displeased with them. Thus, both the birds that fly in the air and the animals that move on the earth are, in this respect, better than disbelievers.
Incidentally, the verse also hints that even birds and animals will be resurrected and requited for their actions like men. The resemblance between the requital of men and animals may not be perfect, but it is still there. Some of the sayings of the Holy Prophet also lend support to this conclusion; for it is said in a hadith that the horned goat shall be made to pay penalty to the goat without horns which it kills or injures (Muslim, ch. on Tahrimuz-Zulm).
The last words of the verse, i.e. We have left out nothing in the Book. Then to their Lord shall they be gathered together, may also refer to disbelievers. In that case, this part of the verse would mean that all the works of disbelievers will be preserved and nothing will be left out, and that they will finally be requited for their actions on the Day of Resurrection. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا صُمٌّ وَّ بُکۡمٌ فِی الظُّلُمٰتِ ؕ مَنۡ یَّشَاِ اللّٰہُ یُضۡلِلۡہُ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّشَاۡ یَجۡعَلۡہُ عَلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۴۰﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا صُمّٞ وَبُكۡمٞ فِي ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِۗ مَن يَشَإِ ٱللَّهُ يُضۡلِلۡهُ وَمَن يَشَأۡ يَجۡعَلۡهُ عَلَىٰ صِرَٰطٖ مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
d. 2:19, 172; 27:81, 82; 30:53, 54. (close)
a. 2:19,172; 27:81-82; 30:53-54. (close)
قُلۡ اَرَءَیۡتَکُمۡ اِنۡ اَتٰٮکُمۡ عَذَابُ اللّٰہِ اَوۡ اَتَتۡکُمُ السَّاعَۃُ اَغَیۡرَ اللّٰہِ تَدۡعُوۡنَ ۚ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۴۱﴾
قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتَكُمۡ إِنۡ أَتَىٰكُمۡ عَذَابُ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡ أَتَتۡكُمُ ٱلسَّاعَةُ أَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ تَدۡعُونَ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَٰدِقِينَ
e. 6:48; 12:108; 43:67. (close)
847. "Hour" refers to the hour of the decisive victory of Islam, or, to the Fall of Mecca. (close)
b. 6:48; 12:108; 43:67. (close)
The word "Hour" refers to the Hour of the decisive victory of Islam, or, in other words, the Fall of Mecca. Thus, whereas "punishment" refers to ordinary afflictions, "Hour" refers to the final and decisive event of the struggle. The question put in this verse is answered in the next. (close)
بَلۡ اِیَّاہُ تَدۡعُوۡنَ فَیَکۡشِفُ مَا تَدۡعُوۡنَ اِلَیۡہِ اِنۡ شَآءَ وَ تَنۡسَوۡنَ مَا تُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿٪۴۲﴾
بَلۡ إِيَّاهُ تَدۡعُونَ فَيَكۡشِفُ مَا تَدۡعُونَ إِلَيۡهِ إِن شَآءَ وَتَنسَوۡنَ مَا تُشۡرِكُونَ
a. 10:23, 24. (close)
848. The words, you will forget what you associate with Him, were literally fulfilled on the day of the Fall of Mecca. On that day the Meccans lost all faith in their gods, as Abu Sufyan and his wife, Hindah and others had frankly admitted in the presence of the Holy Prophet. Ultimately, idolatry completely disappeared from Arabia. (close)
a. 10:23-24. (close)
The opening words of the verse contain the answer to the question put in the previous verse. The words, then will He remove that which you call on Him to remove, were fulfilled by the general pardon which the Holy Prophet granted to disbelievers at the Fall of Mecca. The memorable words spoken by him on that occasion were: "Go, I forgive you all. Go, you are free" (Zurqani, ii. 328).
The words, you will forget what you associate with Him, were also signally fulfilled on that day. At the Fall of Mecca, the Meccans lost all faith in their gods, as Abu Sufyan and his wife, Hind, and others frankly admitted in the presence of the Holy Prophet. Ultimately, idolatry disappeared from Arabia. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اُمَمٍ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِکَ فَاَخَذۡنٰہُمۡ بِالۡبَاۡسَآءِ وَ الضَّرَّآءِ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَتَضَرَّعُوۡنَ ﴿۴۳﴾
وَلَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أُمَمٖ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ فَأَخَذۡنَٰهُم بِٱلۡبَأۡسَآءِ وَٱلضَّرَّآءِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَضَرَّعُونَ
b. 7:95. (close)
849. The preceding verses referred to Divine punishment in general. In this verse its various forms have been mentioned. (close)
The previous verses referred to Divine punishment in general. In this verse its various forms have been mentioned. Many have an erroneous idea of Divine punishment, which not unoften comes veiled in the form of ordinary afflictions. In fact, all financial and bodily misfortunes, e.g. poverty, disease, etc. are in one sense or another, punishments from God. They are not generally meant to destroy men but to make them reform themselves and turn to God. (close)
فَلَوۡلَاۤ اِذۡ جَآءَہُمۡ بَاۡسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوۡا وَ لٰکِنۡ قَسَتۡ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ وَ زَیَّنَ لَہُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾
فَلَوۡلَآ إِذۡ جَآءَهُم بَأۡسُنَا تَضَرَّعُواْ وَلَٰكِن قَسَتۡ قُلُوبُهُمۡ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
850. The words lau la are not here used to express mere interrogation but also a feeling of pity. Thus the verse signifies: "They ought to have humbled themselves before God; but it is a pity that they did not." (close)
c. 2:75; 57:17. (close)
d. 6:123; 8:49; 16:64; 29:39. (close)
a. 2:75; 57:17. (close)
b. 6:123; 8:49; 16:64; 29:39. (close)
The words لولا (why not) are here used not to express mere interrogation, but also to express feelings of pity. Thus the verse signifies, "They ought to have humbled themselves before God; but it is a pity that they did not."
The afflictions were really a mercy from God, but, instead of turning to God, the people became hard-hearted. When misfortunes befell them, they ascribed them not to their own iniquities but to the Prophets.
The words, all that they did, refer to the hostile activities of disbelievers. (close)
فَلَمَّا نَسُوۡا مَا ذُکِّرُوۡا بِہٖ فَتَحۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ اَبۡوَابَ کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ ؕ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا فَرِحُوۡا بِمَاۤ اُوۡتُوۡۤا اَخَذۡنٰہُمۡ بَغۡتَۃً فَاِذَا ہُمۡ مُّبۡلِسُوۡنَ ﴿۴۵﴾
فَلَمَّا نَسُواْ مَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِۦ فَتَحۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ أَبۡوَٰبَ كُلِّ شَيۡءٍ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا فَرِحُواْ بِمَآ أُوتُوٓاْ أَخَذۡنَٰهُم بَغۡتَةٗ فَإِذَا هُم مُّبۡلِسُونَ
e. 5:14; 7:166. (close)
a. 7:96; 39:56. (close)
c. 5:14; 7:166. (close)
d. 7:96; 39:56. (close)
When disbelievers became hardened and treated Divine admonition as a thing forgotten, God let them wander in their blind transgression. The words, We opened unto them the gates of all things, signify that God let them stray away and advance further and further into the evil deeds in which they were engaged. Sometimes the afflictions were removed from them for a time and they rejoiced to think that they were right in thinking that the afflictions were not due to their sins. Then the punishment of God suddenly seized them, and they gave themselves up to despair. Thus, there are two kinds of afflictions that visit disbelieving people in the days of Divine Messengers: (1) temporary afflictions that come as warnings and then pass away; (2) general disaster which finally overtakes and destroys the wicked. (close)
فَقُطِعَ دَابِرُ الۡقَوۡمِ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡا ؕ وَ الۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ رَبِّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۴۶﴾
فَقُطِعَ دَابِرُ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْۚ وَٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
b. 7:73; 15:67. (close)
851. Dabir means, last remains of a people; the roots, stock, race, or the like. The words Quti‘a Dabirul-Qaum mean: (1) The people were cut off to the last man. (2) The leaders of the people were cut off just as a tree is cut down to its roots. (3) The leaders’ followers were cut off, i.e. the leaders were deprived of their political power, for it is on the strength of their followers that the political power of their leaders depends. (close)
a. 7:73; 15:67. (close)
792. Important Words:
دابر (last remnant) is derived from دبر. They say دبرہ i.e. he followed behind his back; or he followed him with respect to place, time or rank. ادبر means, he went turning his back, or he turned back. دبر means, the back or the hinder part; latter or the last part. دابر means, person or thing following behind the back; last remains of a people; the root, stock, race, or the like (Lane).
The words قطع دابر القوم (the last remnant of the people was cut off) mean: (1) the people were cut off to the last man, i.e.the whole people were cut off; (2) the leaders of the people were cut off just as a tree is cut down to its roots, the leaders occupying the position of the roots; (3) the leaders’ followers were cut off, i.e. the leaders were deprived of their political power, for it is on the strength of their followers that the political power of the leaders depends.
Apparently, there is no occasion here for saying, All praise belongs to Allah, for these words are spoken on an occasion when one receives a favour from God and is thankful to Him. When, however, one is afflicted with a misfortune, then the words which suit the occasion and which Muslims are bidden to recite are إنا لله و إنا إلیه راجعون i.e. Surely to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return (2:157). The apparent incongruity is, however, easily explained. The words الحمد لله (all praise belongs to Allah) have been used here in order to point out that the cutting-off of what is injurious is in fact a thing to feel grateful for, and not a matter of regret. When a limb becomes diseased and is incurable, we get it amputated and cheerfully pay the fee to the surgeon for the operation, and also express our thanks to him. Just as a diseased limb is amputated to save the rest of the body, it sometimes becomes necessary to cut off that section of mankind which has become corrupt, so that the infection may not spoil all of humanity. (close)
قُلۡ اَرَءَیۡتُمۡ اِنۡ اَخَذَ اللّٰہُ سَمۡعَکُمۡ وَ اَبۡصَارَکُمۡ وَ خَتَمَ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِکُمۡ مَّنۡ اِلٰہٌ غَیۡرُ اللّٰہِ یَاۡتِیۡکُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ نُصَرِّفُ الۡاٰیٰتِ ثُمَّ ہُمۡ یَصۡدِفُوۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾
قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتُمۡ إِنۡ أَخَذَ ٱللَّهُ سَمۡعَكُمۡ وَأَبۡصَٰرَكُمۡ وَخَتَمَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُم مَّنۡ إِلَٰهٌ غَيۡرُ ٱللَّهِ يَأۡتِيكُم بِهِۗ ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ نُصَرِّفُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ ثُمَّ هُمۡ يَصۡدِفُونَ
c. 2:8; 16:109; 45:24. (close)
b. 2:8; 16:109; 45:24. (close)
The preceding verse spoke of the punishment that cuts at the root. But there is a stage when only a part is affected, or even if the whole body is affected the disease is not deep-rooted and there is yet time to prevent the total loss of the body. In its early stages, a disease is generally curable; but if it is not attended to in time, it may be aggravated and become incurable. It is against such negligence that men are warned in the present verse. Some men delay acceptance of Divine Messengers. They wait for more and more signs, and go on postponing the tendering of allegiance to the heavenly Messengers until it is too late. The punishment of God descends on the enemies of the Prophets; and those who do not make use of their inward light and prefer to wait for more and more evidence of the truth of the Divine Messengers also perish with their enemies. So this verse warns those who are in the habit of delaying and postponing, and exhorts them to use their inward light for the recognition of the Divine Messenger, and expedite their acceptance of him, lest delay should result in the total extinction of their God-given faculties and they should perish with the rest. They should be prompt to make use of their hearing, and their eyes, and their hearts; for if they fail to make use of these faculties in time, they will gradually become impaired and will finally be lost; then no power will be able to restore these faculties to them after they have been completely lost.
The words, how We vary the Signs, signify that in order to make things perfectly clear, God brings the different aspects of signs before the people, sometimes showing one kind of sign and sometimes another, so that all kinds of people may be satisfied. (close)
قُلۡ اَرَءَیۡتَکُمۡ اِنۡ اَتٰٮکُمۡ عَذَابُ اللّٰہِ بَغۡتَۃً اَوۡ جَہۡرَۃً ہَلۡ یُہۡلَکُ اِلَّا الۡقَوۡمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾
قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتَكُمۡ إِنۡ أَتَىٰكُمۡ عَذَابُ ٱللَّهِ بَغۡتَةً أَوۡ جَهۡرَةً هَلۡ يُهۡلَكُ إِلَّا ٱلۡقَوۡمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ
d. 6:41; 10:51; 12:108; 43:67. (close)
a. 6:41; 10:51; 12:108; 43:67. (close)
The word "suddenly" signifies the coming of the Divine punishment without warning or previous indication. The Fall of Mecca belonged to this class of signs.
The word "openly" implies giving a warning beforehand so that such people as still retain inward light and have a desire to follow the guidance may become warned and may accept the truth without further delay, lest they should also perish along with the wrongdoers. (close)