وَ اَنۡذِرۡ بِہِ الَّذِیۡنَ یَخَافُوۡنَ اَنۡ یُّحۡشَرُوۡۤا اِلٰی رَبِّہِمۡ لَیۡسَ لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ وَلِیٌّ وَّ لَا شَفِیۡعٌ لَّعَلَّہُمۡ یَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾
وَأَنذِرۡ بِهِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَن يُحۡشَرُوٓاْ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمۡ لَيۡسَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِۦ وَلِيّٞ وَلَا شَفِيعٞ لَّعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَّقُونَ
A warning can benefit only those who believe in the danger they are warned against. If a people do not believe in the existence of that which they are asked to guard against, the exhortation will do no good. Hence, in this verse, where the warning relates to the dangers of the Day of Resurrection, the Holy Prophet is bidden to warn not all mankind but only those who believe in the Day of Resurrection that they will have no friend nor intercessor on that awful day. As for those who do not believe in Resurrection, the way of preaching will be different—they will be first convinced of Resurrection and then warned against its dangers. Thus, incidentally the verse also teaches us how to preach. We should always base our arguments on things which the persons addressed believe to be true, so that our preaching may have the desired effect. (close)
وَ لَا تَطۡرُدِ الَّذِیۡنَ یَدۡعُوۡنَ رَبَّہُمۡ بِالۡغَدٰوۃِ وَ الۡعَشِیِّ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ وَجۡہَہٗ ؕ مَا عَلَیۡکَ مِنۡ حِسَابِہِمۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ وَّ مَا مِنۡ حِسَابِکَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ فَتَطۡرُدَہُمۡ فَتَکُوۡنَ مِنَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾
وَلَا تَطۡرُدِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَدۡعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِٱلۡغَدَوٰةِ وَٱلۡعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجۡهَهُۥۖ مَا عَلَيۡكَ مِنۡ حِسَابِهِم مِّن شَيۡءٖ وَمَا مِنۡ حِسَابِكَ عَلَيۡهِم مِّن شَيۡءٖ فَتَطۡرُدَهُمۡ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
e. 11:30. (close)
f. 18:29. (close)
852. Wajh means, pleasure; countenance; the thing itself (2:113). (close)
a. 11:30. (close)
b. 18:29. (close)
798. Important Words:
الغداوة (morning), which is often written as غداة the letter (و) being silent, is derived from غدا which means, he went forth or went away in the early part of the morning, i.e. between daybreak and sunrise. So, غداوة or غداة or غدوة or غدیة means, early part of the morning; the period between daybreak and sunrise; morning; first part of the day; forenoon (Lane).
العشی (evening) is derived from عشا means, he ate the evening meal; he repaired to (him, etc.) at night. عشی means, the late part of the evening; evening; afternoon; time between sunset and nightfall. It also means the time between the declining of the sun and sunset; also the time from the declining of the sun to morning; night (Lane).
وجھه (His countenance). The word وجه also means نفس الشیء i.e. the thing itself (see 2:113).
The wordsبالغداوة والعشی (morning and evening) taken in their wider significance cover, as shown under Important Words, practically all the 24 hours, excluding only the time in which the offering of Prayers is prohibited. Thus, in one sense the two words taken together comprise both day and night, and in another they indicate only morning and evening.
The words یریدون وجھه (seeking His countenance) may also mean, "seeking God Himself," for the expression وجه also means, "the thing itself." In that case, the clause would mean "they seek nothing but God, i.e. they seek God alone."
The words, thou shouldst be of the unjust, hint that there are some men who look upon themselves as being too great and disdain to join a movement set on foot by a Prophet, because its adherents are mostly poor and do not belong to what is called higher society. They would join it only if the poorer adherents were expelled. So, in order to demolish such hopes on their part, God bids the Holy Prophet to declare that he would not drive away his poor followers so that the so-called great might join his fold. The prohibition does not mean that the Holy Prophet actually used to drive away his poorer followers. It is only meant as a reply and a rebuff to the desires of the proud and the haughty. They are told that the humble followers of the Holy Prophet, who remember God morning and evening or day and night, cannot be turned out for their sake. The Quran has already made the Holy Prophet say, I follow only that which is revealed to me (6:51). So now when the prohibition, drive not away those who call upon their Lord morning and evening, has so forcibly been revealed, the so-called rich should despair of the humble being driven away. So these words were revealed not as a reflection on the Holy Prophet, whose kindness to the poor is so well-known, but in order to shatter the hopes of the proud.
The words, Thou art not at all accountable for them nor are they at all accountable for thee, are also meant to point to the same great truth. Though the Prophet could not turn the poor out on account of the humbleness of their position, yet it might be thought that he might turn them out on account of some weakness on their part in respect of actions, but, besides the fact that in this respect the poor and the rich stand on the same footing, the Law does not hold the Prophet responsible for their actions, hence he cannot turn them out on this score either, unless of course when some serious offence is committed by them. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ فَتَنَّا بَعۡضَہُمۡ بِبَعۡضٍ لِّیَقُوۡلُوۡۤا اَہٰۤؤُلَآءِ مَنَّ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَیۡنِنَا ؕ اَلَیۡسَ اللّٰہُ بِاَعۡلَمَ بِالشّٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۵۴﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ فَتَنَّا بَعۡضَهُم بِبَعۡضٖ لِّيَقُولُوٓاْ أَهَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ مَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِم مِّنۢ بَيۡنِنَآۗ أَلَيۡسَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَعۡلَمَ بِٱلشَّـٰكِرِينَ
a. 11:28. (close)
853. Generally, presence of the poor in the community of believers proves a stumbling-block in the way of the rich to accept the new Message. (close)
a. 11:28. (close)
The words, We have tried some of them by others, refer to God’s trying the rich and the great by admitting the poor and the humble into the society of the followers of the Holy Prophet. The presence of the poor in the community of the believers served as a stumbling-block in the way of the rich and hindered the more haughty among them from entering into the fellowship of Islam.
The rich and the great ask whether God had chosen those poor men for His favours, as if saying, "We are wealthy and rich, but God has preferred the poor to us and has bestowed His favour upon them rather than upon us." God answers the question by saying, "I gave them little, but they have been thankful to Me even for that and have accepted My Messenger. I gave you much, but you have not been grateful and have rejected My Messenger. Do not the poor then deserve to be chosen for My favour in preference to you?" See also the preceding verse. (close)
وَ اِذَا جَآءَکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاٰیٰتِنَا فَقُلۡ سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ کَتَبَ رَبُّکُمۡ عَلٰی نَفۡسِہِ الرَّحۡمَۃَ ۙ اَنَّہٗ مَنۡ عَمِلَ مِنۡکُمۡ سُوۡٓءًۢ ابِجَہَالَۃٍ ثُمَّ تَابَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ وَ اَصۡلَحَ فَاَنَّہٗ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۵﴾
وَإِذَا جَآءَكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا فَقُلۡ سَلَٰمٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡۖ كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمۡ عَلَىٰ نَفۡسِهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَةَ أَنَّهُۥ مَنۡ عَمِلَ مِنكُمۡ سُوٓءَۢا بِجَهَٰلَةٖ ثُمَّ تَابَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ وَأَصۡلَحَ فَأَنَّهُۥ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
b. 6:13; 7:157. (close)
c. 4:18; 16:120. (close)
a. 6:13; 7:157. (close)
b. 4:18; 16:120. (close)
The message conveyed in the words, Peace be unto you, is the Message of God which the Holy Prophet is bidden to convey to believers; the "peace" spoken of is to come from God Himself. It is with reference to this "peace" promised to believers in the present verse that they are enjoined to greet one another with the words السلام علیکم i.e. "may the (promised) peace be on you." The reader will have noted that whereas the verse uses the word salam (peace), the word used in the formula of mutual greeting is as-salam (the peace). This is to point out that the greeting of peace offered is in conformity with the peace promised in the verse under comment. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ نُفَصِّلُ الۡاٰیٰتِ وَ لِتَسۡتَبِیۡنَ سَبِیۡلُ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۵۶﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ وَلِتَسۡتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ
There is an ellipsis here, the words لتستغفروا (that you may seek forgiveness) or the words لتؤمنوا (that you may believe) may be taken to be understood before the words ولتستبین (and may become manifest). (close)
قُلۡ اِنِّیۡ نُہِیۡتُ اَنۡ اَعۡبُدَ الَّذِیۡنَ تَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَتَّبِعُ اَہۡوَآءَکُمۡ ۙ قَدۡ ضَلَلۡتُ اِذًا وَّ مَاۤ اَنَا مِنَ الۡمُہۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾
قُلۡ إِنِّي نُهِيتُ أَنۡ أَعۡبُدَ ٱلَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۚ قُل لَّآ أَتَّبِعُ أَهۡوَآءَكُمۡ قَدۡ ضَلَلۡتُ إِذٗا وَمَآ أَنَا۠ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهۡتَدِينَ
d. 5:50; 42:16. (close)
b. 5:50; 42:16. (close)
This verse is connected with 6:53 above. The Holy Prophet is here bidden to say to disbelievers what may be described as follows: "I have nothing to do with your gods and I therefore cannot, for your sake, drive away my poor followers. They believe in the One God, while you are idolaters. How can I then drive away the believers in the One God for the sake of those who disbelieve! You say that if you join Islam, it will receive strength and support from you. But the truth is that if I follow your wishes, the result will be that I shall become lost and my movement will be ruined rather than strengthened. Again, my mission is that men may accept and follow guidance; but if I act upon your wishes, the result will be that I myself will go astray. Then there will be no Islam and no guidance. What then shall I gain from your support?" (close)
قُلۡ اِنِّیۡ عَلٰی بَیِّنَۃٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّیۡ وَ کَذَّبۡتُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ مَا عِنۡدِیۡ مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنَ بِہٖ ؕ اِنِ الۡحُکۡمُ اِلَّا لِلّٰہِ ؕ یَقُصُّ الۡحَقَّ وَ ہُوَ خَیۡرُ الۡفٰصِلِیۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾
قُلۡ إِنِّي عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٖ مِّن رَّبِّي وَكَذَّبۡتُم بِهِۦۚ مَا عِندِي مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَ بِهِۦٓۚ إِنِ ٱلۡحُكۡمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِۖ يَقُصُّ ٱلۡحَقَّۖ وَهُوَ خَيۡرُ ٱلۡفَٰصِلِينَ
a. 11:64; 12:109. (close)
b. 12:41, 68. (close)
b. 12:41, 68. (close)
The verse calls upon the Holy Prophet to say to disbelievers what may be expressed as follows: "You are perversely sticking to your errors while I have clear evidence with me. You say, 'If we are in error, why does not God visit us with punishment?’ You must remember that it does not lie in my power to bring down punishment. It is God alone Who sends down punishment on whomsoever and at whatever time He wills and He is the Best of judges. He will justly decide the matter between you and me." (close)
قُلۡ لَّوۡ اَنَّ عِنۡدِیۡ مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنَ بِہٖ لَقُضِیَ الۡاَمۡرُ بَیۡنِیۡ وَ بَیۡنَکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِالظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۹﴾
قُل لَّوۡ أَنَّ عِندِي مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَ بِهِۦ لَقُضِيَ ٱلۡأَمۡرُ بَيۡنِي وَبَيۡنَكُمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
c. 6:9; 10:12. (close)
This verse gives one of the reasons why it has not been placed in the power of Prophets to bring down punishment. The reason lies in the fact that God alone knows who are just and who are unjust. Therefore, if the work of punishment be entrusted to human beings, who do not know the inner secrets of the heart, they may punish many who are not really unjust. ‘Umar, for instance, was in the beginning bitterly opposed to the Holy Prophet. But God knew that he would one day become a zealous champion of Islam, so much so that he would finally become the Second Successor of the Holy Prophet. Now, if the work of punishment had been entrusted to the Holy Prophet, he might have selected ‘Umar for punishment during the period of his bitter opposition to the new Faith, to the great loss to Islam. So only a Being Who knows the hidden secrets of man’s heart can award punishment, for He alone knows who is really deserving of punishment and who not. There are many men who are outwardly very meek, but in their hearts they are not better than ravenous wolves. Similarly, there are many who are outwardly very harsh and stubborn, but they are good at heart. If it had been left to the Prophets to punish their enemies, they might have punished them much sooner than God punishes them. (close)
وَ عِنۡدَہٗ مَفَاتِحُ الۡغَیۡبِ لَا یَعۡلَمُہَاۤ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ وَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا فِی الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ ؕ وَ مَا تَسۡقُطُ مِنۡ وَّرَقَۃٍ اِلَّا یَعۡلَمُہَا وَ لَا حَبَّۃٍ فِیۡ ظُلُمٰتِ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَا رَطۡبٍ وَّ لَا یَابِسٍ اِلَّا فِیۡ کِتٰبٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۶۰﴾
۞وَعِندَهُۥ مَفَاتِحُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ لَا يَعۡلَمُهَآ إِلَّا هُوَۚ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا فِي ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِۚ وَمَا تَسۡقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعۡلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٖ فِي ظُلُمَٰتِ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا رَطۡبٖ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَٰبٖ مُّبِينٖ
854. This and the next verse lay down the guiding principle that it has not been left in the hands of the Holy Prophet to bring down punishment on disbelievers as demanded by them. If this had been the case, they would have since long met their deserved end, and then perhaps many erstwhile enemies of Islam like ‘Umar and Khalid who later on were destined to play a leading role in extending and consolidating the power of Islam, would have died in disbelief. But God being All-Powerful is slow to punish and, being fully conversant with the inner working of the human heart, knows when and whom to punish. He alone knows how far hardships or ease can influence the actions of a man and whether or not good works done by a man are rendered null and void through the operation of other causes. He alone has knowledge of the grains of virtue that lie embedded in the heart of man and knows whether or not these grains will sprout forth and grow and thrive and bring forth fruit. He alone can tell whether a person who, to all appearances, is "dry" and "devoid of all spiritual life," will turn "green" when supplied with heavenly water or whether he is "dead" and beyond revival. In short, God alone has full knowledge of all things and of all conditions and all possibilities and potentialities and therefore He alone can say who is to be punished and who not. (close)
This verse gives a further reason why the work of punishment must remain in the hands of God; it is God alone with Whom are the keys of the unseen, i.e. it is He alone Who knows the unseen. None but He knows the secrets of men’s hearts and, therefore, He alone is in a position to punish.
The expressions "land", "sea", "falling of a leaf", "grain in the darkness of the earth," and "green or dry" are all descriptive of the various conditions of man. The "sea", according to the Arab conception, is typical of hardships, whereas "land" symbolizes ease and comfort. Similarly, "the falling of a leaf" represents the actions of man that are rendered vain and fruitless; whereas the "grain in the darkness of the earth," if left unprotected, may become lost just as virtue, if left uncared for, may become lost. Again "the green or the dry" is also known to God. A tree appears to us to be dry, but when it is watered by rain, it becomes green.
Similarly, a man sometimes appears to us to be devoid of all spirituality, but when he is watered with the water of Divine mercy, he becomes full of spiritual life.
The word کتاب (Book) also signifies knowledge. Other instances of this use may be seen in 30:57 and 68:48 where the words کتاب (lit. book) and یکتبون (lit. they write) respectively mean "knowledge" and "they know". The Holy Prophet is also reported to have written to the people of Yemen, saying, قد بعثت الیکم کاتبا من اصحابی "I have sent to you a writer, i.e. a man of knowledge, from among my Companions" (Bihar, iii. 193). So the Arabic words rendered as "is recorded in a clear Book" may also be translated as "is preserved in sure divine knowledge."
Thus, as God alone possesses the keys of the unseen and as all the conditions and actions of man are known to Him alone, it is He only Who can punish him. No one who is devoid of perfect knowledge is qualified to punish. Again, God alone knows how far hardship or ease influences the actions of a man. He alone knows whether or not the good works done by a man have been rendered null and void through the operation of other causes. He alone knows the grains of virtue that lie embedded in the heart of man and whether or not these grains will sprout forth and grow and thrive and bring forth fruit. He alone can tell whether a person who, to all appearances, is "dry" and devoid of all spiritual life, will turn "green" when supplied with heavenly water or whether he is dead beyond revival. In short, God alone has true knowledge of all things and all conditions and all possibilities and all potentialities, and therefore, He alone can say whether a man deserves to be punished or not. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ یَتَوَفّٰٮکُمۡ بِالَّیۡلِ وَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا جَرَحۡتُمۡ بِالنَّہَارِ ثُمَّ یَبۡعَثُکُمۡ فِیۡہِ لِیُقۡضٰۤی اَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّی ۚ ثُمَّ اِلَیۡہِ مَرۡجِعُکُمۡ ثُمَّ یُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿٪۶۱﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِي يَتَوَفَّىٰكُم بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا جَرَحۡتُم بِٱلنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبۡعَثُكُمۡ فِيهِ لِيُقۡضَىٰٓ أَجَلٞ مُّسَمّٗىۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيۡهِ مَرۡجِعُكُمۡ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 39:43. (close)
855. God alone knows the condition of man by night and his actions by day, and all times are subject to His control, and therefore it is He alone Who knows the true character of the pious and the wicked, and consequently He alone is in a position to punish. (close)
856. The "term" spoken of here is determined by the faculties and powers with which man is endowed from the time of his birth, and is liable to be extended or curtailed according as right or wrong use is made of it. There is no reference here to the eternal knowledge of God. (close)
a. 39:43. (close)
806. Important Words:
یتوفاکم (who takes your souls). The learned author of the Al-Bahrul-Muhit says: "The word توفی (tawaffi), as is well-known, means, 'to cause to die,' but in this verse it has been metaphorically used in the sense of 'causing to sleep' on account of the close resemblance between sleep and death." See also 2:235 & 3:56.
جرحتم (you do) is derived from جرح They say جرحه i.e. he wounded him. جرح also means, he acquired, earned, worked or did (Lane).
The subject that none but God is entitled to punish is continued in this verse, which says that God alone knows the condition of man by night and his actions by day, and all times are subject to His control, and, therefore, it is He alone Who knows the true character of the pious and the wicked, and consequently none but He is in a position to punish. Again, it is He alone Who knows the time most suited for the death of a person and, therefore, He has not entrusted the work of punishment to others.
The words, that the appointed term may be completed, do not refer to any term arbitrarily fixed by God. The "term" spoken of here is determined by the faculties and powers with which man is endowed from the time of his birth, and is liable to be increased or decreased according as a right or wrong use is made of the faculties granted to him. There is no reference here to the eternal knowledge of God. (close)