وَ اِذَا جَآءَکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاٰیٰتِنَا فَقُلۡ سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ کَتَبَ رَبُّکُمۡ عَلٰی نَفۡسِہِ الرَّحۡمَۃَ ۙ اَنَّہٗ مَنۡ عَمِلَ مِنۡکُمۡ سُوۡٓءًۢ ابِجَہَالَۃٍ ثُمَّ تَابَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ وَ اَصۡلَحَ فَاَنَّہٗ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۵﴾
وَإِذَا جَآءَكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا فَقُلۡ سَلَٰمٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡۖ كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمۡ عَلَىٰ نَفۡسِهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَةَ أَنَّهُۥ مَنۡ عَمِلَ مِنكُمۡ سُوٓءَۢا بِجَهَٰلَةٖ ثُمَّ تَابَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ وَأَصۡلَحَ فَأَنَّهُۥ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
b. 6:13; 7:157. (close)
c. 4:18; 16:120. (close)
a. 6:13; 7:157. (close)
b. 4:18; 16:120. (close)
The message conveyed in the words, Peace be unto you, is the Message of God which the Holy Prophet is bidden to convey to believers; the "peace" spoken of is to come from God Himself. It is with reference to this "peace" promised to believers in the present verse that they are enjoined to greet one another with the words السلام علیکم i.e. "may the (promised) peace be on you." The reader will have noted that whereas the verse uses the word salam (peace), the word used in the formula of mutual greeting is as-salam (the peace). This is to point out that the greeting of peace offered is in conformity with the peace promised in the verse under comment. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ نُفَصِّلُ الۡاٰیٰتِ وَ لِتَسۡتَبِیۡنَ سَبِیۡلُ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۵۶﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ وَلِتَسۡتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ
There is an ellipsis here, the words لتستغفروا (that you may seek forgiveness) or the words لتؤمنوا (that you may believe) may be taken to be understood before the words ولتستبین (and may become manifest). (close)
قُلۡ اِنِّیۡ نُہِیۡتُ اَنۡ اَعۡبُدَ الَّذِیۡنَ تَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَتَّبِعُ اَہۡوَآءَکُمۡ ۙ قَدۡ ضَلَلۡتُ اِذًا وَّ مَاۤ اَنَا مِنَ الۡمُہۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾
قُلۡ إِنِّي نُهِيتُ أَنۡ أَعۡبُدَ ٱلَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۚ قُل لَّآ أَتَّبِعُ أَهۡوَآءَكُمۡ قَدۡ ضَلَلۡتُ إِذٗا وَمَآ أَنَا۠ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهۡتَدِينَ
d. 5:50; 42:16. (close)
b. 5:50; 42:16. (close)
This verse is connected with 6:53 above. The Holy Prophet is here bidden to say to disbelievers what may be described as follows: "I have nothing to do with your gods and I therefore cannot, for your sake, drive away my poor followers. They believe in the One God, while you are idolaters. How can I then drive away the believers in the One God for the sake of those who disbelieve! You say that if you join Islam, it will receive strength and support from you. But the truth is that if I follow your wishes, the result will be that I shall become lost and my movement will be ruined rather than strengthened. Again, my mission is that men may accept and follow guidance; but if I act upon your wishes, the result will be that I myself will go astray. Then there will be no Islam and no guidance. What then shall I gain from your support?" (close)
قُلۡ اِنِّیۡ عَلٰی بَیِّنَۃٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّیۡ وَ کَذَّبۡتُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ مَا عِنۡدِیۡ مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنَ بِہٖ ؕ اِنِ الۡحُکۡمُ اِلَّا لِلّٰہِ ؕ یَقُصُّ الۡحَقَّ وَ ہُوَ خَیۡرُ الۡفٰصِلِیۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾
قُلۡ إِنِّي عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٖ مِّن رَّبِّي وَكَذَّبۡتُم بِهِۦۚ مَا عِندِي مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَ بِهِۦٓۚ إِنِ ٱلۡحُكۡمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِۖ يَقُصُّ ٱلۡحَقَّۖ وَهُوَ خَيۡرُ ٱلۡفَٰصِلِينَ
a. 11:64; 12:109. (close)
b. 12:41, 68. (close)
b. 12:41, 68. (close)
The verse calls upon the Holy Prophet to say to disbelievers what may be expressed as follows: "You are perversely sticking to your errors while I have clear evidence with me. You say, 'If we are in error, why does not God visit us with punishment?’ You must remember that it does not lie in my power to bring down punishment. It is God alone Who sends down punishment on whomsoever and at whatever time He wills and He is the Best of judges. He will justly decide the matter between you and me." (close)
قُلۡ لَّوۡ اَنَّ عِنۡدِیۡ مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوۡنَ بِہٖ لَقُضِیَ الۡاَمۡرُ بَیۡنِیۡ وَ بَیۡنَکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِالظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۹﴾
قُل لَّوۡ أَنَّ عِندِي مَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَ بِهِۦ لَقُضِيَ ٱلۡأَمۡرُ بَيۡنِي وَبَيۡنَكُمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
c. 6:9; 10:12. (close)
This verse gives one of the reasons why it has not been placed in the power of Prophets to bring down punishment. The reason lies in the fact that God alone knows who are just and who are unjust. Therefore, if the work of punishment be entrusted to human beings, who do not know the inner secrets of the heart, they may punish many who are not really unjust. ‘Umar, for instance, was in the beginning bitterly opposed to the Holy Prophet. But God knew that he would one day become a zealous champion of Islam, so much so that he would finally become the Second Successor of the Holy Prophet. Now, if the work of punishment had been entrusted to the Holy Prophet, he might have selected ‘Umar for punishment during the period of his bitter opposition to the new Faith, to the great loss to Islam. So only a Being Who knows the hidden secrets of man’s heart can award punishment, for He alone knows who is really deserving of punishment and who not. There are many men who are outwardly very meek, but in their hearts they are not better than ravenous wolves. Similarly, there are many who are outwardly very harsh and stubborn, but they are good at heart. If it had been left to the Prophets to punish their enemies, they might have punished them much sooner than God punishes them. (close)
وَ عِنۡدَہٗ مَفَاتِحُ الۡغَیۡبِ لَا یَعۡلَمُہَاۤ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ وَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا فِی الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ ؕ وَ مَا تَسۡقُطُ مِنۡ وَّرَقَۃٍ اِلَّا یَعۡلَمُہَا وَ لَا حَبَّۃٍ فِیۡ ظُلُمٰتِ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَا رَطۡبٍ وَّ لَا یَابِسٍ اِلَّا فِیۡ کِتٰبٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۶۰﴾
۞وَعِندَهُۥ مَفَاتِحُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ لَا يَعۡلَمُهَآ إِلَّا هُوَۚ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا فِي ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِۚ وَمَا تَسۡقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعۡلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٖ فِي ظُلُمَٰتِ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا رَطۡبٖ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَٰبٖ مُّبِينٖ
854. This and the next verse lay down the guiding principle that it has not been left in the hands of the Holy Prophet to bring down punishment on disbelievers as demanded by them. If this had been the case, they would have since long met their deserved end, and then perhaps many erstwhile enemies of Islam like ‘Umar and Khalid who later on were destined to play a leading role in extending and consolidating the power of Islam, would have died in disbelief. But God being All-Powerful is slow to punish and, being fully conversant with the inner working of the human heart, knows when and whom to punish. He alone knows how far hardships or ease can influence the actions of a man and whether or not good works done by a man are rendered null and void through the operation of other causes. He alone has knowledge of the grains of virtue that lie embedded in the heart of man and knows whether or not these grains will sprout forth and grow and thrive and bring forth fruit. He alone can tell whether a person who, to all appearances, is "dry" and "devoid of all spiritual life," will turn "green" when supplied with heavenly water or whether he is "dead" and beyond revival. In short, God alone has full knowledge of all things and of all conditions and all possibilities and potentialities and therefore He alone can say who is to be punished and who not. (close)
This verse gives a further reason why the work of punishment must remain in the hands of God; it is God alone with Whom are the keys of the unseen, i.e. it is He alone Who knows the unseen. None but He knows the secrets of men’s hearts and, therefore, He alone is in a position to punish.
The expressions "land", "sea", "falling of a leaf", "grain in the darkness of the earth," and "green or dry" are all descriptive of the various conditions of man. The "sea", according to the Arab conception, is typical of hardships, whereas "land" symbolizes ease and comfort. Similarly, "the falling of a leaf" represents the actions of man that are rendered vain and fruitless; whereas the "grain in the darkness of the earth," if left unprotected, may become lost just as virtue, if left uncared for, may become lost. Again "the green or the dry" is also known to God. A tree appears to us to be dry, but when it is watered by rain, it becomes green.
Similarly, a man sometimes appears to us to be devoid of all spirituality, but when he is watered with the water of Divine mercy, he becomes full of spiritual life.
The word کتاب (Book) also signifies knowledge. Other instances of this use may be seen in 30:57 and 68:48 where the words کتاب (lit. book) and یکتبون (lit. they write) respectively mean "knowledge" and "they know". The Holy Prophet is also reported to have written to the people of Yemen, saying, قد بعثت الیکم کاتبا من اصحابی "I have sent to you a writer, i.e. a man of knowledge, from among my Companions" (Bihar, iii. 193). So the Arabic words rendered as "is recorded in a clear Book" may also be translated as "is preserved in sure divine knowledge."
Thus, as God alone possesses the keys of the unseen and as all the conditions and actions of man are known to Him alone, it is He only Who can punish him. No one who is devoid of perfect knowledge is qualified to punish. Again, God alone knows how far hardship or ease influences the actions of a man. He alone knows whether or not the good works done by a man have been rendered null and void through the operation of other causes. He alone knows the grains of virtue that lie embedded in the heart of man and whether or not these grains will sprout forth and grow and thrive and bring forth fruit. He alone can tell whether a person who, to all appearances, is "dry" and devoid of all spiritual life, will turn "green" when supplied with heavenly water or whether he is dead beyond revival. In short, God alone has true knowledge of all things and all conditions and all possibilities and all potentialities, and therefore, He alone can say whether a man deserves to be punished or not. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ یَتَوَفّٰٮکُمۡ بِالَّیۡلِ وَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا جَرَحۡتُمۡ بِالنَّہَارِ ثُمَّ یَبۡعَثُکُمۡ فِیۡہِ لِیُقۡضٰۤی اَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّی ۚ ثُمَّ اِلَیۡہِ مَرۡجِعُکُمۡ ثُمَّ یُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿٪۶۱﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِي يَتَوَفَّىٰكُم بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا جَرَحۡتُم بِٱلنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبۡعَثُكُمۡ فِيهِ لِيُقۡضَىٰٓ أَجَلٞ مُّسَمّٗىۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيۡهِ مَرۡجِعُكُمۡ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 39:43. (close)
855. God alone knows the condition of man by night and his actions by day, and all times are subject to His control, and therefore it is He alone Who knows the true character of the pious and the wicked, and consequently He alone is in a position to punish. (close)
856. The "term" spoken of here is determined by the faculties and powers with which man is endowed from the time of his birth, and is liable to be extended or curtailed according as right or wrong use is made of it. There is no reference here to the eternal knowledge of God. (close)
a. 39:43. (close)
806. Important Words:
یتوفاکم (who takes your souls). The learned author of the Al-Bahrul-Muhit says: "The word توفی (tawaffi), as is well-known, means, 'to cause to die,' but in this verse it has been metaphorically used in the sense of 'causing to sleep' on account of the close resemblance between sleep and death." See also 2:235 & 3:56.
جرحتم (you do) is derived from جرح They say جرحه i.e. he wounded him. جرح also means, he acquired, earned, worked or did (Lane).
The subject that none but God is entitled to punish is continued in this verse, which says that God alone knows the condition of man by night and his actions by day, and all times are subject to His control, and, therefore, it is He alone Who knows the true character of the pious and the wicked, and consequently none but He is in a position to punish. Again, it is He alone Who knows the time most suited for the death of a person and, therefore, He has not entrusted the work of punishment to others.
The words, that the appointed term may be completed, do not refer to any term arbitrarily fixed by God. The "term" spoken of here is determined by the faculties and powers with which man is endowed from the time of his birth, and is liable to be increased or decreased according as a right or wrong use is made of the faculties granted to him. There is no reference here to the eternal knowledge of God. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الۡقَاہِرُ فَوۡقَ عِبَادِہٖ وَ یُرۡسِلُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ حَفَظَۃً ؕ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا جَآءَ اَحَدَکُمُ الۡمَوۡتُ تَوَفَّتۡہُ رُسُلُنَا وَ ہُمۡ لَا یُفَرِّطُوۡنَ ﴿۶۲﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلۡقَاهِرُ فَوۡقَ عِبَادِهِۦۖ وَيُرۡسِلُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ حَفَظَةً حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءَ أَحَدَكُمُ ٱلۡمَوۡتُ تَوَفَّتۡهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمۡ لَا يُفَرِّطُونَ
b. 6:19; 13:17. (close)
857. This verse provides another reason why God alone is entitled to punish. He is Qahir, i.e. Powerful and Mighty over all, therefore He can punish any of His creatures in His infallible knowledge whenever He thinks proper. The powerful are never in a hurry to punish. (close)
c. 13:12; 82:11. (close)
a. 6:19; 13:17. (close)
b. 13:12; 82:11. (close)
This verse provides another reason why God alone is entitled to punish. He is قاھر (Supreme), i.e. Powerful and Mighty over all, therefore He can punish any of His creatures whenever He thinks it proper. The powerful are never in a hurry to punish, for they know that they can punish whenever they will. Again, it is God Himself Who guards His creatures and supports them, and it is through His grace that they enjoy security. So destruction can befall them only when He withdraws His grace, and He does so when He thinks it proper.
The words, they fail not, signify that when God finally issues a decree, nothing can delay it or set it aside. (close)
ثُمَّ رُدُّوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ مَوۡلٰٮہُمُ الۡحَقِّ ؕ اَلَا لَہُ الۡحُکۡمُ ۟ وَ ہُوَ اَسۡرَعُ الۡحٰسِبِیۡنَ ﴿۶۳﴾
ثُمَّ رُدُّوٓاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ مَوۡلَىٰهُمُ ٱلۡحَقِّۚ أَلَا لَهُ ٱلۡحُكۡمُ وَهُوَ أَسۡرَعُ ٱلۡحَٰسِبِينَ
The reader should note that when speaking of death, the Quran uses the expression "When death comes to anyone of you" (see the preceding verse which uses the singular number), while in the present verse it refers to the Resurrection of all men together by saying, "Then are they returned to Allah." This is because whereas death comes to men individually and not to all men together, the Resurrection of mankind will be simultaneous and universal. (close)
قُلۡ مَنۡ یُّنَجِّیۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ ظُلُمٰتِ الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ تَدۡعُوۡنَہٗ تَضَرُّعًا وَّ خُفۡیَۃً ۚ لَئِنۡ اَنۡجٰٮنَا مِنۡ ہٰذِہٖ لَنَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الشّٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾
قُلۡ مَن يُنَجِّيكُم مِّن ظُلُمَٰتِ ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِ تَدۡعُونَهُۥ تَضَرُّعٗا وَخُفۡيَةٗ لَّئِنۡ أَنجَىٰنَا مِنۡ هَٰذِهِۦ لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلشَّـٰكِرِينَ
a. 10:23; 17:68; 29:66; 31:33. (close)
858. Zulumat literally meaning "darknesses," here signifies afflictions, calamities and misfortunes; for, with the Arabs, darkness is a symbol of misfortune. (close)
a. 10:23; 17:68; 29:66; 31:33. (close)
تضرعا (in humility) is derived from ضرع which means, he was or became lowly, humble or submissive; or he lowered, humbled or abased himself and petitioned for a gift; or he was weak, slender or emaciated. ضرع also means, it (a kid, etc.) took with its mouth the teat or dug of its mother. تضرع means, he lowered, humbled or abased himself; or he addressed himself with earnest or energetic supplication. It also means, he writhed and called for aid (Lane).
خفیة (secretly) is derived from خفی which means, it was or became unperceived, concealed, hidden, low or faint. They say قتل خفیة i.e. he was slain secretly (Lane).
The word ظلمات (calamities), literally meaning "darkness", here signifies afflictions, calamities and misfortunes; for, with the Arabs, darkness is a symbol of misfortune. Thus, a day of great misfortune is called "a starry day", because it is considered so dark as to make even stars visible in the firmament. The reader should note that instead of saying "openly" and "secretly", the Quran here uses the words "humbly" and "secretly," substituting the word "humbly" for "openly", thus indicating that a prayer said openly is useful only when it is offered in humility. "Open" prayers may sometimes be offered from a motive of display and show. Such prayers are of no value. Prayers are efficacious only when offered with due humility. (close)