وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ یَوۡمَ یَقُوۡلُ کُنۡ فَیَکُوۡنُ ۬ؕ قَوۡلُہُ الۡحَقُّ ؕ وَ لَہُ الۡمُلۡکُ یَوۡمَ یُنۡفَخُ فِی الصُّوۡرِ ؕ عٰلِمُ الۡغَیۡبِ وَ الشَّہَادَۃِ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡحَکِیۡمُ الۡخَبِیۡرُ ﴿۷۴﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِٱلۡحَقِّۖ وَيَوۡمَ يَقُولُ كُن فَيَكُونُۚ قَوۡلُهُ ٱلۡحَقُّۚ وَلَهُ ٱلۡمُلۡكُ يَوۡمَ يُنفَخُ فِي ٱلصُّورِۚ عَٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَٰدَةِۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ
c. 14:20; 16:4; 29:45. (close)
d. 27:88; 39:69. (close)
863. A Divine Prophet is indeed a trumpet through whom the Voice of God is heard, and the sounding of it is a symbol for the wide dissemination of his teachings and the great revolution to be brought about by him in the lives of his people. The verse means that when the teachings of the Holy Prophet are widely published and accepted in the world and when Islam triumphs and predominates, then the Kingdom of God will become demonstrably established in the earth and on that day will idols be broken to pieces. (close)
a. 9:94; 13:10; 23:93; 39:47; 59:23. (close)
b. 14:20; 16:4; 29:45. (close)
c. 27:88; 39:69. (close)
d. 9:94; 13:10; 23:93; 39:47; 59:23. (close)
The word کن (be) really denotes a simple command intended to bring about a change. When the word is used concerning a thing which does not exist, it naturally signifies the bringing into being something which God has willed. When, however, the word is used concerning a thing which already exists, then it generally means that the thing will come to nought when God so wills. Thus the sentence, He it is Who created…and the day He says, 'Be', it will be, signifies that everything is in the power of God; so when God issues a command concerning the breaking-up of the power of disbelievers, it will surely come to nought.
The expression, His word is the truth, means that the prophecy mentioned above is a true one and must come to pass and nothing can stop it. See the meaning of حق under 2:148 & 3:4.
The words, His will be the kingdom on the day when the trumpet will be blown, mean that the visible kingdom of God will be established when Islam triumphs and false and idolatrous beliefs and practices vanish. A Prophet of God is indeed a trumpet, through whom the voice of God is heard, and the sounding of the trumpet is a symbol for the wide publication and establishment of the teachings brought by him. Thus, the verse means that when the teachings of the Holy Prophet are widely published and accepted in the world and when Islam flourishes and triumphs, then the kingdom of God will be visibly established on the earth and on that day will idols be broken to pieces. (close)
وَ اِذۡ قَالَ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمُ لِاَبِیۡہِ اٰزَرَ اَتَتَّخِذُ اَصۡنَامًا اٰلِہَۃً ۚ اِنِّیۡۤ اَرٰٮکَ وَ قَوۡمَکَ فِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۷۵﴾
۞وَإِذۡ قَالَ إِبۡرَٰهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ ءَازَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصۡنَامًا ءَالِهَةً إِنِّيٓ أَرَىٰكَ وَقَوۡمَكَ فِي ضَلَٰلٖ مُّبِينٖ
b. 19:43. (close)
864. In the Old Testament the name of Abraham’s father is given as Terah (Gen.11:26) and in the New Testament (Luke, 3:34) it is Tharah. The Talmud agrees with Luke. Eusebius, the father of ecclesiastical history, gives Athar as the name of Abraham’s father (Sale). This shows that even among the Jews there existed no unanimity of opinion about the name of Abraham’s father. Eusebius must have strong reasons for differing from Genesis and Luke. The correct form appears to be Athar, which later became changed into Tharah or Terah. Athar closely resembles the name given in the Qur’an (Azar), only there is a slight difference of pronunciation, the two forms being almost identical. Christian writers, therefore, have no reason to quarrel with the Qur’an for calling Abraham’s father by the name Azar. Moreover, Abraham’s father is also called Zarah in the Talmud (Sale), and Zarah is approximately the same as Azar. This shows that the Quranic version is much more reliable. Besides, Azar has been called Abraham’s Ab) (26:87), a word applied both to father, uncle and grandfather, etc. In 2:133 Ishmael who was Jacob’s uncle has been called his Ab. It, however, appears from the Qur’an that Azar, though called the Ab of Abraham, was not really his father. Abraham had made a promise to Azar, his Ab, to pray to God to forgive him but when he came to know that he was an enemy of God, he abstained from praying for him; he was even actually forbidden to do so (9:114). But in 14:42 Abraham prays for his Walid which word is applied only to father. This shows that Azar who has been called the Ab of Abraham was a person different from his Walid. Most probably he was his uncle. Some passages of the Bible also support this inference. Abraham married Sarah the daughter of Terah (Gen. 20:12) which shows that Terah was not his father, because he could not marry his own sister. It appears that his father being dead, Abraham was brought up by his uncle, Azar or Athar, who gave him his daughter, Sarah, in marriage. As Azar brought up Abraham and was like a father to him, the latter seemed to have been called his son, and this led to the error of Azar or Athar being taken as the real father of Abraham. It also appears from the Talmud that Azar prosecuted Abraham and took him to the King for the offence of breaking the idols. If Azar had been the father of Abraham, he would not have taken such a drastic step against his own son. (close)
a. 19:43. (close)
820. Important Words:
اب (father) which is originally ابو gives the following meanings: a father; an ancestor; a paternal uncle. ابوالمرأة means, the woman’s husband. ابوالمثوی means, master or owner of the dwelling (Lane). See also 4:12.
آزر (Azar). For the discussion of the word and the relationship of Azar with Abraham see under Commentary below. The word is considered by some to be of non-Arabic origin, though in Arabic too it has a root. Thus آزر النبات means, the vegetation grew thick and strong. آزر فلانا means, he strengthened such and such a person. آزرہ means, he sympathized with and helped him (Aqrab). The name, which thus appears to be attributive, was given to Azar probably because he helped his people in establishing idol-worship. According to Mujahid, آزر was originally the name of an idol (Qadir).
With this verse the Quran turns to an account of Abraham, which is given here for two reasons: Firstly, because it is the idolatrous Quraish that are chiefly addressed in these verses and they revered Abraham as their progenitor and patriarch. Hence, by giving an account of Abraham, God wants to tell the Quraish that their great ancestor Abraham was also, like the Holy Prophet, opposed to idolatry, which shows that idol-worship is a later innovation. Secondly, by means of this account, God wants to impress upon idolaters the hollow and unsound foundation on which stands the belief and practice of idol-worship and the absurd ideas which give rise to idolatry.
In the present verse Abraham is represented as arguing with his اب (father) on the subject of idolatry. This اب (father) is here named Azar. Now we have to see in what relation this man stood to Abraham and what his true name was. Christian writers have criticized the Quran on the, ground that it calls Abraham’s father by the name Azar while his true name was Terah. It is true that in Gen. 11:26 Abraham’s father is named Terah. But it is equally true that in Luke 3:34 Abraham is called the son of Thara and not Terah. The reader should note the change not only in the first consonant but also in the vowel that follows. The Talmud also gives the name of Abraham’s father as Thara. Eusebius, the great Church historian, who has been rightly styled the Father of Ecclesiastical History, gives, in spite of Gen. 11:26 and Luke: 3:34, which could not be unknown to him, Athar as the name of Abraham’s father (Sale). This clearly shows that even among the Jews there existed no unanimity as to the name of Abraham’s father. The fact that Eusebius, followed neither Gen. 11:26, nor Luke 3:34 shows that he had strong reasons to differ from these two well-known sources. The correct form thus appears to be Athar, which later became changed into Thara or Terah. Now the form adopted by Eusebius is almost, if not exactly, the same as given by the Quran. If there is any difference, it is only that of pronunciation; otherwise both forms, i.e. Azar and Athar, are identical. Christians have, therefore, no reason to quarrel with the Quran for calling Abraham’s father by the name Azar. It may also be noted that Abraham’s father is also called Zarah in the Talmud (Sale) and Zarah is approximately the same as Azar. All this goes to prove not only that the Quran is not wrong on calling the father of Abraham by the name Azar, but also that the Quranic version is much more reliable than that of the Bible.
The next question we have to consider is that of the relationship in which Azar stood to Abraham. In the Quran, he has been called Abraham’s اب (ab), a word applied, as shown under Important Words, not only to father but also to uncle, grandfather, etc. who stand in the position of a father. From the Quran it appears that Azar, though called the (ab) of Abraham, was not really his father. In 9:114 we are told that Abraham had made a promise to Azar, his اب (ab), to pray to God for his forgiveness, but when he came to know that he was an enemy of God, he abstained from praying for him and was actually forbidden to do so (see also 26:87 where again Azar is spoken as the اب of Abraham). Elsewhere, however, the Quran itself records a prayer of Abraham which he offered in the last days of his life, after he had built the Ka‘bah in company with his son, Ishmael. In this prayer, Abraham prays for his father and is not forbidden to pray for him; but here Abraham does not use for him the word اب but والد (14:42). Now, as has already been stated, the word ابmay be applied to a person other than the real father, but the word والد (walid) which means "the begetter" is applied to none but the actual father. This clearly shows that Azar who has been called the اب (ab) of Abraham was a different person from the والد (walid) of Abraham. He was probably his uncle.
Some passages of the Bible also support this conclusion. We are told that Abraham married Sarah, the daughter of Terah (Gen. 20:12). This shows that Terah was not his real father, for in that case he could not marry Terah’s daughter, his own sister. It appears that his father being dead, he was brought up by his uncle, Azar or Athar, who gave him his daughter Sarah in marriage. As Azar brought up Abraham and was in the position of a father to him, the latter came to be ascribed to him as a son, and this led to the error of Azar or Athar being taken as the real father of Abraham. Again, from the Talmud it appears that Azar prosecuted Abraham and presented him before the king for the offence of breaking idols. If Azar had been the real father of Abraham, he would not have followed such a course against his own son. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ نُرِیۡۤ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ مَلَکُوۡتَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لِیَکُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُوۡقِنِیۡنَ ﴿۷۶﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُرِيٓ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُوقِنِينَ
865. The verse means that God granted Abraham the knowledge of, and an insight into, the natural laws that work in the universe, and of the all- pervading Divine power and control. (close)
821. Important Words:
ملکوت (kingdom) is derived from ملك i.e. he possessed complete ownership of, and power over. ملکوت means, sovereignty; dominion; great kingdom; power to deal with a thing as one like; the place of holy spirits in the heavens (Aqrab). The word ملکوت is specifically used about the kingdom or dominion of God (Mufradat). See also 1:4.
The word ملکوت (kingdom), as shown above, is peculiar to the dominion of God. Thus the words, And thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, mean, We showed Abraham the power and control which We exercise over every part of the universe. Shihabud-Din Suhrawardi, a great Muslim divine, says in his famous work, the ‘Awariful-Ma‘arif, that when a spiritual wayfarer reaches this stage, i.e. when he is made to witness the sovereignty of God, he is, as it were, spiritually reborn and that no person can be admitted into the presence of God until he has attained this stage. When, however, a man has attained this stage of certainty and conviction, doubt cannot enter his mind, for then he lives in the very presence of God. (close)
فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَیۡہِ الَّیۡلُ رَاٰ کَوۡکَبًا ۚ قَالَ ہٰذَا رَبِّیۡ ۚ فَلَمَّاۤ اَفَلَ قَالَ لَاۤ اُحِبُّ الۡاٰفِلِیۡنَ ﴿۷۷﴾
فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيۡهِ ٱلَّيۡلُ رَءَا كَوۡكَبٗاۖ قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّيۖ فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَ قَالَ لَآ أُحِبُّ ٱلۡأٓفِلِينَ
822. Important Words:
جن (darkened) means, it covered up. They say جن اللیل الشیء or جن اللیل علی الشیء i.e. the night covered the thing up; or the night threw its covering of darkness over the thing. جن اللیل means, the night grew dark. See also 2:26 & 6:129.
See collective note under 6:80 below. (close)
فَلَمَّا رَاَ الۡقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ ہٰذَا رَبِّیۡ ۚ فَلَمَّاۤ اَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِنۡ لَّمۡ یَہۡدِنِیۡ رَبِّیۡ لَاَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الۡقَوۡمِ الضَّآلِّیۡنَ ﴿۷۸﴾
فَلَمَّا رَءَا ٱلۡقَمَرَ بَازِغٗا قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّيۖ فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِن لَّمۡ يَهۡدِنِي رَبِّي لَأَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلضَّآلِّينَ
فَلَمَّا رَاَ الشَّمۡسَ بَازِغَۃً قَالَ ہٰذَا رَبِّیۡ ہٰذَاۤ اَکۡبَرُ ۚ فَلَمَّاۤ اَفَلَتۡ قَالَ یٰقَوۡمِ اِنِّیۡ بَرِیۡٓءٌ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۷۹﴾
فَلَمَّا رَءَا ٱلشَّمۡسَ بَازِغَةٗ قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي هَٰذَآ أَكۡبَرُۖ فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَتۡ قَالَ يَٰقَوۡمِ إِنِّي بَرِيٓءٞ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِكُونَ
866. Verses 77 to 79 contain an argument which Abraham employed to bring home to his idolatrous people the absurdity of their belief that the sun, the moon and the stars were so many gods which they worshipped (Jew. Enc.). It is wrong to infer from these verses that Abraham was himself groping in the dark and did not know Who his God was, and that he took the evening star, the moon, and the sun for God one after the other and, when each of them set in its turn, he gave up his belief in their divinity and turned to the One God, the Creator of heavens and earth. In fact, the passage contains several arguments to show that Abraham, far from taking these heavenly bodies for gods, sought to demonstrate to his people the vanity of their beliefs step by step. Verses 75, 76 show that Abraham was a firm believer in One God. He could not, therefore, be considered as groping in the dark and wandering from one deity to another. The words, "can this be my Lord" constituted an argument against star-worship. He said these words to expose his people’s belief that the star was their Lord. Moreover, he already knew that the star must set. So his argument contained in the words, "I like not those that set" must have been already present in his mind. In reality, he wanted to use his argument in a most effective manner. So he first assumed the star to be his Lord and, when it disappeared, he hastened to declare, I like not those that set. Similar was the case with the setting of the moon and the sun. Of the sun he used the word "greater" or "greatest" ironically in order to taunt his people for their folly. This clearly shows that by the line of arguments he adopted Abraham intended gradually to draw his people to God. A simple glance over vv. 80-82 makes it crystal clear that Abraham not only possessed firm faith in God but also had a deep knowledge of Divine attributes. (close)
اِنِّیۡ وَجَّہۡتُ وَجۡہِیَ لِلَّذِیۡ فَطَرَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ حَنِیۡفًا وَّ مَاۤ اَنَا مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۸۰﴾
إِنِّي وَجَّهۡتُ وَجۡهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ حَنِيفٗاۖ وَمَآ أَنَا۠ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
a. 3:21. (close)
a. 3:21. (close)
Verses 77 to 80 contain an argument which Abraham employed to bring home to his idolatrous people the absurdity of their belief in the godhead of the sun, the moon and the stars, which they worshipped (Jew. Enc.). It is an error to infer from these verses that Abraham was himself groping in the dark and did not know who his God was, that he took the evening star, the moon and the sun for God one after another and, when each of them set in its turn, he gave up his belief in their divinity and turned to the One God, the Creator of heavens and earth. The passage contains no less than eleven clear evidences to show that Abraham was not really taking these heavenly bodies for gods, but that his object was to demonstrate to his people the vanity of their beliefs, step by step. Some of these evidences may be summed up as below:
Firstly, the opening part of this passage, i.e. the first part of 6:77 is connected with the previous verses with the double particle فلما (and when) which denotes close sequence, i.e. that which has been said in this passage is connected with, and occurred immediately after, what is related in the preceding verses. Now the preceding verses, i.e. vv. 75 and 76, clearly show Abraham as having attained certainty and conviction of faith and as being a firm believer in one God and being advanced in spirituality. Thus placed and protected, he cannot be considered as groping in the dark like a blind man and wandering from one deity to another.
Secondly, there is no sense in supposing Abraham to have seen the star or the moon for the first time that night. He belonged to a community which used to worship stars and he must have seen the stars many times before. If he was really a star-worshipper, he ought to have first imbibed the idea from what he had heard from his father and others, and not by seeing a star himself and reflecting over it. Star-worship was not at all a new idea discovered by him by looking at a star. Thus, there is no doubt that Abraham’s words, This is my Lord, were not meant as an expression of faith, but simply as an argument against star-worship. He assumed the star he saw to be his Lord merely to expose its lordship afterwards on the basis of its setting and thereby to tell his people that they were wrong in taking the star for their Lord.
Thirdly, when the star disappeared, Abraham is reported to have said, I like not those that set. Now Abraham certainly knew already that the star must set; he must have already seen it disappear times without number. So the argument, I like not those that set, must have already been familiar to his mind and he could not take to worshipping the star in view of this argument. In fact, what he wanted was to use the argument against star-worshippers in a way that might prove effective. So he first assumed or supposed the star to be his Lord and, when it disappeared, he hastened to declare, I like not those that set. Similar was the case with the setting of the moon and the sun. Of the sun he spoke the word "greater" or "greatest" ironically in order, to taunt his people for their folly. It should be incidentally noted here that Abraham did not use the word اکبر (greater or greatest) for the moon which was also greater than the evening star. The omission is significant, as it clearly shows, that he was already intending to refer to the sun after disposing of the case of the moon.
Fourthly, if Abraham was really searching for God and had sincerely taken the star, the moon and the sun, in turn, for his Lord, then the conclusion at which he ought to have naturally arrived, after gradually rejecting the godhead of these three heavenly bodies, should have been that there was no God at all, but instead of declaring that there was no God, Abraham forthwith turned to his people saying: O my people, surely I am clear of that which you associate with God, I have turned my face toward Him Who created the heavens and the earth, being over inclined to God. This shows that Abraham already knew the true God and believed in Him and was simply trying gradually to draw his people towards Him. Let the reader only read the whole reply of Abraham (vv. 81-83) and it will become crystal clear to him that Abraham was not only familiar with the name of Allah and believed in Him, but also possessed a deep knowledge of His attributes. (close)
وَ حَآجَّہٗ قَوۡمُہٗ ؕ قَالَ اَتُحَآجُّوۡٓنِّیۡ فِی اللّٰہِ وَ قَدۡ ہَدٰٮنِ ؕ وَ لَاۤ اَخَافُ مَا تُشۡرِکُوۡنَ بِہٖۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یَّشَآءَ رَبِّیۡ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَسِعَ رَبِّیۡ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ عِلۡمًا ؕ اَفَلَا تَتَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۱﴾
وَحَآجَّهُۥ قَوۡمُهُۥۚ قَالَ أَتُحَـٰٓجُّوٓنِّي فِي ٱللَّهِ وَقَدۡ هَدَىٰنِۚ وَلَآ أَخَافُ مَا تُشۡرِكُونَ بِهِۦٓ إِلَّآ أَن يَشَآءَ رَبِّي شَيۡـٔٗاۚ وَسِعَ رَبِّي كُلَّ شَيۡءٍ عِلۡمًاۚ أَفَلَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ
b. 7:90. (close)
a. 7:90. (close)
This and the following two verses definitely show that the incident related in vv. 77-80 above was purposely used by Abraham by way of argument; otherwise he himself was a staunch monotheist and had dived deep into the depths of Divine love and knowledge. (close)
وَ کَیۡفَ اَخَافُ مَاۤ اَشۡرَکۡتُمۡ وَ لَا تَخَافُوۡنَ اَنَّکُمۡ اَشۡرَکۡتُمۡ بِاللّٰہِ مَا لَمۡ یُنَزِّلۡ بِہٖ عَلَیۡکُمۡ سُلۡطٰنًا ؕ فَاَیُّ الۡفَرِیۡقَیۡنِ اَحَقُّ بِالۡاَمۡنِ ۚ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿ۘ۸۲﴾
وَكَيۡفَ أَخَافُ مَآ أَشۡرَكۡتُمۡ وَلَا تَخَافُونَ أَنَّكُمۡ أَشۡرَكۡتُم بِٱللَّهِ مَا لَمۡ يُنَزِّلۡ بِهِۦ عَلَيۡكُمۡ سُلۡطَٰنٗاۚ فَأَيُّ ٱلۡفَرِيقَيۡنِ أَحَقُّ بِٱلۡأَمۡنِۖ إِن كُنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ
a. 7:34; 22:72. (close)
867. This and the preceding two verses definitely show that the incident related in vv. 77-79 was deliberately used by Abraham by way of argument; otherwise he himself was a staunch monotheist and had drunk deep at the fount of Divine love and knowledge. (close)
b. 7:34; 22:72. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ لَمۡ یَلۡبِسُوۡۤا اِیۡمَانَہُمۡ بِظُلۡمٍ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمُ الۡاَمۡنُ وَ ہُمۡ مُّہۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿٪۸۳﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَلَمۡ يَلۡبِسُوٓاْ إِيمَٰنَهُم بِظُلۡمٍ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمُ ٱلۡأَمۡنُ وَهُم مُّهۡتَدُونَ
b. 31:14. (close)
a. 31:14. (close)