وَ تِلۡکَ حُجَّتُنَاۤ اٰتَیۡنٰہَاۤ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ عَلٰی قَوۡمِہٖ ؕ نَرۡفَعُ دَرَجٰتٍ مَّنۡ نَّشَآءُ ؕ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ حَکِیۡمٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۸۴﴾
وَتِلۡكَ حُجَّتُنَآ ءَاتَيۡنَٰهَآ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ عَلَىٰ قَوۡمِهِۦۚ نَرۡفَعُ دَرَجَٰتٖ مَّن نَّشَآءُۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٞ
868. This verse definitely settles the question whether Abraham gradually came to have faith in God by taking one heavenly body after another for his Lord or whether it was a skilfully graduated argument by means of which he sought to demonstrate the error of his people in worshipping these heavenly bodies as gods. The verse shows that Abraham had, from the beginning, been clear and firm in his faith in the Unity of God and that what he said concerning the sun and the moon, etc. was part of the argument which God had taught him. (close)
c. 12:77. (close)
b. 12:77. (close)
This verse forms the concluding portion of the passage (beginning with 6:77 above) containing Abraham’s argument with his people. It definitely settles the question whether Abraham gradually came to have faith in God by taking one heavenly body after another for his Lord or whether it was a skilfully graduated argument by means of which he sought to demonstrate the error of his people in worshipping these heavenly bodies as gods. Says God, That is our argument which We gave to Abraham against his people. Thus, the Quran refers to what has gone above as an "argument" which God Himself taught Abraham and which Abraham used with such great effect against his people. This declaration by the Quran leaves not the slightest doubt that Abraham was not wandering about after false gods, but was trying to convince his people of their error by means of a very effective process of reasoning. This is why it is referred to in the present verse in the light of a favour by the Wise and All-Knowing God.
This verse, though put in Ruku‘ 10, really forms part of the preceding passage. It must be remembered that the division of the Quran into 30 Paras (parts) and the division of the Surahs (chapters) into Ruku‘s (sections) was not made by the Holy Prophet nor by his Companions, but was effected long afterwards by Muslim scribes for providing facility in reading, and for the convenience of reference. In the time of the Holy Prophet there were only Surahs and verses and nothing else. (close)
وَ وَہَبۡنَا لَہٗۤ اِسۡحٰقَ وَ یَعۡقُوۡبَ ؕ کُلًّا ہَدَیۡنَا ۚ وَ نُوۡحًا ہَدَیۡنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ مِنۡ ذُرِّیَّتِہٖ دَاوٗدَ وَ سُلَیۡمٰنَ وَ اَیُّوۡبَ وَ یُوۡسُفَ وَ مُوۡسٰی وَ ہٰرُوۡنَ ؕ وَ کَذٰلِکَ نَجۡزِی الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۵﴾
وَوَهَبۡنَا لَهُۥٓ إِسۡحَٰقَ وَيَعۡقُوبَۚ كُلًّا هَدَيۡنَاۚ وَنُوحًا هَدَيۡنَا مِن قَبۡلُۖ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِۦ دَاوُۥدَ وَسُلَيۡمَٰنَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَٰرُونَۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجۡزِي ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ
a. 29:28. (close)
869. Ayyub or Job is the hero of the Book of Job. He is mentioned in the Bible as living in the land of Uz. Some authorities say that this is Idumea or Arabia Deserta; others fix Mesopotamia as his native place. It appears that Uz was somewhere in the north of Arabia. It is said that Job lived there before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. He thus lived before Moses or, as some say, he was a compatriot of Moses, having received his prophetic mission about 20 years before him. He was not an Israelite, having descended from Esau, the elder brother of Israel. He had a very chequered career, being "tried" by God in diverse ways; but he proved most faithful and righteous and was patient and steadfast in extreme adversity. He still lives in the memory of mankind as a paragon of patience (Jewish Enc. & Enc. of Islam). (close)
a. 29:28. (close)
828. Important Words:
ایوب (Ayyub or Job), who is the hero of the Book of Job, is mentioned in the Bible as living in the land of Uz. Some authorities say that this is Idumea or Arabia Deserta; others fix Mesopotamia as his country. It appears that Uz was somewhere in the north of Arabia. It is said that Job lived there before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. He thus lived before Moses or, as some say, he was a compatriot of Moses, having received his prophetic mission about 20 years before him. Job was not an Israelite, having been descended from Esau, the elder brother of Israel. He had a very chequered career, being "tried" by God in diverse ways; but he proved most faithful and righteous and was patient and steadfast in the extreme. He still lives in the memory of mankind as a paragon of patience (Jew. Enc. & Encyclopaedia of Islam).
داود (David or Dawud) has been taken to mean (1) beloved or friend; or (2) paternal uncle; or (3) best of all. King of Judah and Israel, David, who was of Israelite origin being from the tribe of Judah, was founder of the Judean dynasty at Jerusalem. The date of his reign is generally fixed at about 1010-970 B.C. He was a great warrior and a great statesman. His importance as the real builder of the Hebrew Kingdom can hardly be overestimated. Through him all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beersheba became united and organized into a powerful nation whose kingdom extended from the Euphrates to the Nile. Towards the end of his life David had to suffer much at the hands of scheming slanderers, which deeply grieved him. He has poured out his grief in his celebrated Psalms (Enc. Brit. & Enc. Bib.). The Quran, however, absolves him from the charges imputed to him in the Bible (38:19-26).
سلیمان (Solomon) was the second son of David & Bath-Sheba and the third king of Israel. He reigned from about 971 to 931 B.C. He was called Jedidiah (beloved of Yehovah) by Nathan, the Prophet. But David was told by Yehovah that his son’s name should be Solomon (peaceful). These two names are predictive of the character of his reign, which was both highly prosperous and peaceful. Besides his principal names, Jedidiah and Solomon, various others are assigned to him such as Agur (he who girt his loins), Bin (he who built the temple), Jakeh (he who reigned over the world), Ithiel(he who understood the signs of God), and Ucal (he who could withstand them). The word سلیمان may have been derived from the root سلم. which means, he was or became safe, secure or in peace, or free from evils of any kind. The fact that he ruled for the long period of forty years shows that he must have consolidated firmly the kingdom he inherited from his father. He was a great monarch and a wise judge. He greatly extended and developed the trade and commerce of his country and contracted friendly alliances with foreign rulers. He was the master-builder among the Israelite kings and is best known for his building of the Temple at Jerusalem, which is known as the Temple of Solomon and which became the Qiblah of the Israelites for all time. In spite of the prosperity of his kingdom, Solomon’s reign was not altogether happy. Plots were hatched against him by secret societies to bring about his downfall. The Society of the Freemasons is also believed to have dated from his reign. He was followed by a worthless son (Enc. Bri., Enc. Bib. & Jew. Enc.). Like his father, David, Solomon was the victim of much calumny and slander from which the Quran has exonerated him (2:103).
ھارون (Aaron), who belonged to the tribe of Levi, was the son of Amran and the elder brother of Moses who was three years younger than him, their sister Miriam being the eldest of the three. Aaron was the traditional founder and head of the Jewish priesthood and, in company with Moses, led the Israelites out of Egypt. Aaron and Moses were jointly commissioned to deliver the Israelites from the clutches of Pharaoh and to preach to them the message of the Oneness of God, though Moses was the senior Prophet and Aaron subordinate to him. While Moses was both the religious and secular head, Aaron represented only the priestly functions of his tribe. His duties were generally ministerial and not directive. Aaron was known for his eloquence and persuasive speech and was of a mild amiable disposition (Enc. Bib., Enc. Bri. & Jew. Enc.).
This and the succeeding verses tell us that not only Abraham but other Prophets also preached against شرك i.e. setting up associates with God.
The present verse mentions the descendants of Abraham to the second generation, naming a son (Isaac) and a grandson (Jacob or Israel). The name of Ishmael, the eldest son of Abraham, has been included in a separate group (6:87 below), and not in a subordinate position under Abraham.
The reader should note that the Prophets descended from Noah have been divided in the present and the succeeding two verses into three different groups and to each group has been added a separate description. The first group referred to in the present verse comprises David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron—Prophets who were given power and prosperity, and who consequently were able to do good to human beings. Hence, members of this group have been designated as المحسنین or doers of good, for through their temporal power and prosperity they were able to do material good to humanity. David and Solomon were kings; Joseph and Job were blessed with prosperity after they had been tried with afflictions which they both bore with extraordinary patience. Moses and Aaron enjoyed supreme authority among their people.
The second group (for which see 6:86) consists of Zachariah, John, Jesus and Elias. None of these possessed temporal power or worldly goods; each lived a humble and lowly life, so much so that of Elias it is said that he was rarely seen and generally lived in the woods. Hence they have been differentiated in 6:86, as الصالحین i.e. virtuous. The first three comprising the second group were contemporaries; while Elias, though not a contemporary, bore a striking resemblance to John, who came in his spirit and power; so he also has been classed with this group.
The third group (mentioned in 6:87) consists of Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah and Lot. They had no worldly power, but God granted them grace and excellence. It has been alleged about them that they coveted power and riches. Of Ishmael, we read in the Bible: "He will be a wild man: his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him" (Gen. 16:12). In the Talmud, Ishmael is represented as having followed his father Abraham when the latter took Isaac out for sacrifice, rejoicing at the thought that he would inherit all the lands and herds. Of Elisha it is said that he caused a king, who did not obey him, to be slain so that he might thus gain political power. Jonah was displeased with God, because he was disgraced by the non-fulfilment of his prophecy, which, it is alleged, showed that he sought power for himself. Of Lot it is alleged that he coveted fertile pasture-lands and was always quarrelling with his kinsman, Abraham. Thus all these Prophets have been accused of coveting wealth and power. But the Quran declares all these charges to be false. These Prophets were a group of heavenly people enjoying spiritual communion with God. They had no need to be covetous or seekers of power; for, as stated in 6:87, God had "exalted" them above the people. (close)
وَ زَکَرِیَّا وَ یَحۡیٰی وَ عِیۡسٰی وَ اِلۡیَاسَ ؕ کُلٌّ مِّنَ الصّٰلِحِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۶﴾
وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحۡيَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَإِلۡيَاسَۖ كُلّٞ مِّنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ
829. Important Words:
الیاس (Elias or Elijah) who lived about 900 B.C. was a native of Gilead, a country on the eastern bank of the Jordan. According to the Bible, he was carried to heaven (II Kings 2). We read in Malachi: "Behold, I will send you Elijah, the Prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord" (4:5). This prophecy, as interpreted by Jesus (Matt. 11:14), was fulfilled in the person of John the Baptist, who was his forerunner and who came "in the spirit and power of Elijah." Similarly, the prophecy about the second advent of Jesus himself has been fulfilled in the person of Ahmad of Qadian, the Promised Messiah, who came in the spirit and power of Jesus.
See 6:85 above. (close)
وَ اِسۡمٰعِیۡلَ وَ الۡیَسَعَ وَ یُوۡنُسَ وَ لُوۡطًا ؕ وَ کُلًّا فَضَّلۡنَا عَلَی الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۸۷﴾
وَإِسۡمَٰعِيلَ وَٱلۡيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطٗاۚ وَكُلّٗا فَضَّلۡنَا عَلَى ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
b. 2:48; 3:34, 35; 45:17. (close)
870. The prophets descending from Noah have been divided in the present and the preceding two verses into three different groups and to each group has been added a distinctive adjective. The first group comprises David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron—Prophets who were given power and prosperity, and who consequently were able to do good to their fellow human beings. Hence members of this group have been designated as "doers of good," for, through their temporal power and prosperity they were able to do material good to their people. David and Solomon were kings; Joseph and Job were blessed with prosperity after they had been tried with afflictions which they both bore with extraordinary patience. Moses and Aaron enjoyed supreme authority over their people. The second group includes Zachariah, John, Jesus and Elias. None of these Prophets possessed temporal power or worldly goods; each lived a humble and lowly life, so much so that of Elias it is said that he was rarely seen and generally lived in the woods. The Prophets of this group have been described as "righteous." The third group consists of Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah and Lot. They had no worldly power, but God granted them grace and excellence. They were alleged to have coveted power and riches. Of Ishmael, we read in the Bible: "He will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him" (Gen. 16:12). Of Elisha it is said that he caused a king who did not obey him to be slain so that he might thus gain political power. Jonah is supposed to have become displeased with God, because, as he thought, he was disgraced by the non-fulfilment of his prophecy, which, it is alleged, showed that he sought power for himself. Of Lot it is alleged that he coveted fertile pasture-lands and was always quarrelling with his kinsman, Abraham. Thus all these Prophets have been accused of coveting wealth and power. But Qur’an declares all these charges to be false. They were a group of heavenly people whom God had exalted. (close)
a. 2:48; 3:34-35; 45:17. (close)
830. Important Words:
الیسع (Elisha) was the son of Shaphat, the disciple and successor of Elijah. He was a native of Abelmeholah, a village in Galilee. He was taken from the plough and anointed by Elijah to be his successor. Directed by God, Elijah found him in the field and threw his mantle over him. Many miracles are attributed to Elisha. But neither the sanctity of his life nor the miracles he wrought had the effect of reforming the nation at large. At length, worn out by his public and private labour, he breathed his last at the age of ninety in 838 B.C.
یونس (Jonah), son of Amittai, was born in Gath-hepher, in the tribe of Zebulun. He lived either before or during the reign of Jeroboam II or in the reign of Jehoahaz about 850 B.C. He was an Israelite Prophet with a mission to the people of Nineveh. Jonah prophesied the destruction of his people within 40 days. But they repented and turned to God with humble supplication, whereupon they were saved. This, however, upset Jonah who, being ashamed to face his people, ran away and, while crossing a sea, was thrown into the water and swallowed by a fish (Jonah, 1:17). Jonah remained in the belly of the fish for three days and was then disgorged by it and saved. It is to this incident that Jesus referred when he said that no miracle would be shown to his people except that of Jonah (Matt. 16:4), meaning that he would be put on the cross but would be taken down alive and would then be placed in the womb of the earth for three days after which he would escape therefrom, just as Jonah had escaped from the belly of the fish.
See 6:85 above. The verse speaks of Lot as being "exalted above the people." Now if the word العالمین (lit. the people) be taken to signify "all the peoples," it would be evidently wrong; for Lot lived in the time of Abraham and was admittedly not superior to the Patriarch. Thus the word العالمین cannot here signify even "the people of the age" as it has been rendered elsewhere but simply "the people," i.e. a section thereof. In fact, the exaltation spoken of here refers only to the people to whom the Prophets, mentioned in the verse, were sent. (close)
وَ مِنۡ اٰبَآئِہِمۡ وَ ذُرِّیّٰتِہِمۡ وَ اِخۡوَانِہِمۡ ۚ وَ اجۡتَبَیۡنٰہُمۡ وَ ہَدَیۡنٰہُمۡ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۸۸﴾
وَمِنۡ ءَابَآئِهِمۡ وَذُرِّيَّـٰتِهِمۡ وَإِخۡوَٰنِهِمۡۖ وَٱجۡتَبَيۡنَٰهُمۡ وَهَدَيۡنَٰهُمۡ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٖ مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
ذٰلِکَ ہُدَی اللّٰہِ یَہۡدِیۡ بِہٖ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِہٖ ؕ وَ لَوۡ اَشۡرَکُوۡا لَحَبِطَ عَنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾
ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى ٱللَّهِ يَهۡدِي بِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِۦۚ وَلَوۡ أَشۡرَكُواْ لَحَبِطَ عَنۡهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 39:66. (close)
a. 39:66. (close)
The verse signifies that real and true guidance is that which was given to the Prophets named in the above verses; they all preached against شرك (idol-worship). The latter part of the verse hints that these Prophets did not associate anything with God even before they were sent as Prophets; otherwise they would not have been raised to that high spiritual rank. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡحُکۡمَ وَ النُّبُوَّۃَ ۚ فَاِنۡ یَّکۡفُرۡ بِہَا ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ فَقَدۡ وَکَّلۡنَا بِہَا قَوۡمًا لَّیۡسُوۡا بِہَا بِکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۹۰﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيۡنَٰهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَٱلۡحُكۡمَ وَٱلنُّبُوَّةَۚ فَإِن يَكۡفُرۡ بِهَا هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ فَقَدۡ وَكَّلۡنَا بِهَا قَوۡمٗا لَّيۡسُواْ بِهَا بِكَٰفِرِينَ
b. 45:17. (close)
871. The verse does not mean that every Prophet was given a separate Book. "Giving of the Book" is an expression used in the Qur’an generally in the sense of giving it through a Law-bearing Prophet. Elsewhere in the Qur’an (45:17) it is stated that three things, viz. Book, dominion and Prophethood were given to all the Children of Israel. In 5:45 we read that a galaxy of Prophets appeared after Moses who were given no new Law but followed the Law as given in the Torah and judged by it. In fact, Prophets are of two categories—Law-bearing Prophets to whom a Book (Law or the Shari‘ah) is given and Prophets, who are given no Book or Shari‘ah, and who follow the Shari‘ah of the Law-bearing Prophet. In their case the expression "We gave them the Book" means that they were given the knowledge of the Book or they inherited the Book or the Shari‘ah from their Law-bearing predecessor. (close)
The giving of a Book by God generally occurs in two ways: Firstly, directly, as in the case of Moses and the Holy Prophet of Islam. Secondly, indirectly, as in the case of those Prophets to whom no new Book was revealed and who only followed a Book that had been revealed to a previous Prophet. Thus of the Torah we are told in the Quran, Surely, We sent down the Torah wherein was guidance and light. By it did the Prophets who were obedient to Us judge for the Jews(5:45). The above quoted verse proves that there appeared many Prophets among the Israelites to whom no new Book was revealed and who only followed the Torah. This statement of the Quran is also borne out by history, which tells us that there were many Prophets among the Israelites to whom no Book was revealed. Hence, when the verse under comment says: It is these to whom We gave the Book, it does not mean that a Book was given to every Prophet separately but only that every Prophet received knowledge of the Divine Book. Another consideration which lends support to the above conclusion is that the word "these" put in the beginning of the verse not only refers to the Prophets named in the foregoing verses, but also to some of their fathers and their children and their brethren (6:88), and it is evident that the latter did not receive any new Book.
There are also other verses of the Quran in which the expression, "We gave the Book" has been used in the sense of giving the Book indirectly. Among others the reader is referred to 2:122; 2:147; 29:48 & 45:17. It is of interest that in the last-mentioned verse, i.e. 45:17, not only the Book but all the three things mentioned in the verse under comment have been spoken of as having been given to the Children of Israel. The verse runs thus: And We gave the Children of Israel the Book, and sovereignty, and prophethood, and We provided them with good things, and exalted them over the people of the time (45:17).
In short, when on the one hand we learn not only from the Quran but also from history that there have been many Prophets who did not receive any new Book directly, and on the other hand, we see that the expression, "We gave the Book" has also been used in the Quran in the sense of giving a Book indirectly, the verse under comment cannot be interpreted to mean that every Prophet was given a Book directly from God. Muslim commentators are agreed in holding that every Prophet was not given a Book directly by God, and that in the case of those Prophets to whom no Book was given directly, the words, "We gave the Book", simply mean, "We gave them knowledge or understanding of the Book", or "We made them inherit the Book."
The word "people" in the latter portion of the verse refers to Muslims; and the pronoun "them" at the end refers to the Book, dominion and prophethood mentioned in the opening clause of the verse. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ ہَدَی اللّٰہُ فَبِہُدٰٮہُمُ اقۡتَدِہۡ ؕ قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَسۡـَٔلُکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ اَجۡرًا ؕ اِنۡ ہُوَ اِلَّا ذِکۡرٰی لِلۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۹۱﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ هَدَى ٱللَّهُۖ فَبِهُدَىٰهُمُ ٱقۡتَدِهۡۗ قُل لَّآ أَسۡـَٔلُكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَجۡرًاۖ إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكۡرَىٰ لِلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
872. The words may be taken to have been addressed either to the Holy Prophet or to every Muslim, because the fundamental teaching of all Prophets is the same. Or they may signify that the spiritual self or nature of the Holy Prophet was such that it was, as if, commanded to combine in itself all the excellent qualities that were to be found individually in all other Divine Prophets. The command expressed by the words "follow them" is in spiritual terminology called Amre Kauni or Khalqi signifying a wish or quality inherent in a thing or person. For instances of such a command see 3:60 and 21:70. (close)
The words, so follow thou their guidance, may be taken to be addressed either to the Holy Prophet or to every Muslim. The fundamental teaching of all Prophets is the same. (close)
وَ مَا قَدَرُوا اللّٰہَ حَقَّ قَدۡرِہٖۤ اِذۡ قَالُوۡا مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی بَشَرٍ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ قُلۡ مَنۡ اَنۡزَلَ الۡکِتٰبَ الَّذِیۡ جَآءَ بِہٖ مُوۡسٰی نُوۡرًا وَّ ہُدًی لِّلنَّاسِ تَجۡعَلُوۡنَہٗ قَرَاطِیۡسَ تُبۡدُوۡنَہَا وَ تُخۡفُوۡنَ کَثِیۡرًا ۚ وَ عُلِّمۡتُمۡ مَّا لَمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنۡتُمۡ وَ لَاۤ اٰبَآؤُکُمۡ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ ۙ ثُمَّ ذَرۡہُمۡ فِیۡ خَوۡضِہِمۡ یَلۡعَبُوۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾
وَمَا قَدَرُواْ ٱللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدۡرِهِۦٓ إِذۡ قَالُواْ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ بَشَرٖ مِّن شَيۡءٖۗ قُلۡ مَنۡ أَنزَلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ ٱلَّذِي جَآءَ بِهِۦ مُوسَىٰ نُورٗا وَهُدٗى لِّلنَّاسِۖ تَجۡعَلُونَهُۥ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبۡدُونَهَا وَتُخۡفُونَ كَثِيرٗاۖ وَعُلِّمۡتُم مَّا لَمۡ تَعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنتُمۡ وَلَآ ءَابَآؤُكُمۡۖ قُلِ ٱللَّهُۖ ثُمَّ ذَرۡهُمۡ فِي خَوۡضِهِمۡ يَلۡعَبُونَ
a. 22:75; 39:68. (close)
b. 36:16; 67:10. (close)
873. The words mean, "If this Book (the Qur’an) has not been revealed by God, then who embodied in it such wise and comprehensive teachings as were known neither to you nor to your forefathers—teachings which it was beyond your power to produce. Only God could give such teachings." (close)
874. The Jews have been condemned here for disclosing one part of the Torah and hiding the other part which contains prophecies and Signs about the advent of the Holy Prophet. (close)
a. 22:75; 39:68. (close)
In this verse, the Quran gives the reason why there are differences in religion. Differences spring from ignorance, from a lack of true estimation or true understanding, as indicated by the words, they do not make a just estimate of Allah. Indeed, those who say that Allah has not revealed anything to any man make a very poor estimate of His attributes. To hold such a view about God is highly derogatory to His glory and most inconsistent with His attributes.
As regards religious beliefs, there were two classes of men in the days of the Holy Prophet. Firstly, there were those who denied revelation in toto. According to them, there had never been any revelation in any age. Secondly, there were those who believed that there had been revelation in the past, but that God had sent no revelation in their own age. To the first-mentioned class belonged the مشرکون (Idolaters), i.e. those who ascribed co-partners to God and worshipped idols. To the second class belonged the People of the Book. As the words, Allah has not revealed anything to any man, may mean: (1) that God has never revealed anything to any man; or (2) that He has not revealed anything to any man in the present age, so they may be ascribed to both idol-worshippers and the People of the Book. In the foregoing verses only the former were addressed, but now the latter have also been included in the address.
As regards the People of the Book, the Quran specifically states: Say, Who revealed the Book which Moses brought, a light and guidance for the people, though you treat it as scraps of paper which you show while you conceal much, i.e. you have split up the Book of Moses into parts, disclosing one part and concealing the other which contains prophecies and signs of the advent of the Holy Prophet. You deny the Quranic revelation, but your own Book contains evidence of its truth which you suppress.
The above reply, however, could not satisfy the idol-worshippers who did not believe in the Book of Moses or, for that matter, in any revealed Book. The Quran, therefore, gives them a rational answer. It says, And you have been taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew. This is an argument which is meant to prove the Divine origin of the Quran rationally and is meant not merely for the People of the Book but also for idol-worshippers. The argument may be put thus: "If this Book (the Quran) has not been revealed by God, then who embodied in it such wise and comprehensive teachings as were known neither to you nor to your forefathers—teachings which it was beyond your power to produce ? Such teachings could not proceed from a man. Only God could give such teachings."
The last words of the verse, i.e. leave them to amuse themselves with their vain discourse, do not mean that you should abandon preaching to disbelievers. The meaning is, "Tell them and make clear to them that the Quran is the Word of God, for it is superhuman and full of wisdom; but if they still persist in ridiculing it, then leave them alone while they thus amuse themselves." This injunction is similar to the one given in 6:69 above. (close)
وَ ہٰذَا کِتٰبٌ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ مُبٰرَکٌ مُّصَدِّقُ الَّذِیۡ بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ وَ لِتُنۡذِرَ اُمَّ الۡقُرٰی وَ مَنۡ حَوۡلَہَا ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِہٖ وَ ہُمۡ عَلٰی صَلَاتِہِمۡ یُحَافِظُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾
وَهَٰذَا كِتَٰبٌ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ مُبَارَكٞ مُّصَدِّقُ ٱلَّذِي بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ وَلِتُنذِرَ أُمَّ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ وَمَنۡ حَوۡلَهَاۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِهِۦۖ وَهُمۡ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمۡ يُحَافِظُونَ
a. 6:156; 21:51; 38:30. (close)
b. 42:8. (close)
875. The place where a Prophet of God appears is called "The Mother of towns," for it is there that men drink spiritual milk, even as a child sucks milk from the breast of its mother. The words, those around her, may signify the whole world as the Message of the Holy Prophet was meant for the whole of mankind. (close)
876. These words show that a believer in the life to come must believe in the Qur’an also. Thus belief in the Qur’an and belief in the Hereafter are inseparably linked together; the one is meaningless without the other. (close)
c. 23:10; 70:24. (close)
a. 6:156; 21:51; 38:30. (close)
b. 42:8. (close)
c. 23:10; 70:24. (close)
835. Important Words:
مبارك (full of blessings) is derived from برك . They say برك الجمل i.e. the camel kneeled and lay down on his chest with his legs folded. برك also means, he or it was or became firm, steady or steadfast. برك علی فلان (barraka) means, he prayed that such a one might be blessed. بارك علیه means, he kept or applied himself constantly to it. بارك الله علیك or بارك الله فیك means, may God bless thee and make thee prosperous, or may He continue to shower blessings on thee. تبارك الله means, blessed is God; or hallowed is He; or far removed is He from every imperfection; or highly exalted is He. برکة (barakat) means, a blessing; any good bestowed by God, particularly that which continues and goes on increasing. It also means, increase, abundance or plenty. برکة (birkah) means, a tank dug in the ground; a lake or pond; a place where water remains and collects. مبارك means, blessed; gifted with blessing; abounding in good (Lane).
ام (mother), apart from its primary meaning, also signifies: source, origin, foundation or basis; support or cause of subsistence; the main or chief part of a thing; anything to which other things are collected together or joined; place of collection or comprehension or combination of a thing. The word is also applied to inanimate things, as the Arabs say ام الشجرة i.e. the mother of the tree; or ام النجوم i.e. the Milky Way, viz. the place where the stars are collected together in a great multitude. ام القری signifies, the mother of the towns; the metropolis; Mecca, because, being the Qiblah it is the gathering-place of men, or because of all towns it possesses the greatest dignity. In fact, every city is the ام of the smaller towns around it (Lane). Mecca is called ام القری also because it is the source of spiritual food for mankind.
This verse further explains the rational argument contained in the words, you have been taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew (see note on the preceding verse), and makes it clear that it is the Quran that the words quoted above refer to. The present verse mentions four features of the Quran: (1) it has been sent by God; (2) it is full of blessings as the word مبارك indicates, i.e. it is a Book in which, like a برکة (a place where water collects), are collected all the blessings of God; (3) it fulfils that which preceded it, i.e. it fulfils the prophecies contained in the previous Scriptures; and (4) it has been revealed so that the Holy Prophet may warn thereby the Mother of towns and those around her. The place where a Prophet of God appears is called "the mother of towns," for it is out of it that men drink spiritual milk, even as a child sucks milk from the breast of its mother. The words, those around her, are intended to include the whole earth. The earth being round, all parts of it lie around the place where the Holy Prophet made his appearance, i.e. Mecca. Thus, this verse also proves the universal mission of the Holy Prophet.
The words, those who believe in the Hereafter believe therein, signify that a true believer in the life to come cannot but believe in the Quranic teaching. In fact, he who has real faith in the life to come will always be anxious to find out the truth in order to ensure his salvation, and he who earnestly seeks after truth will necessarily be led to believe in the Quran, for as the Quran says: those who strive in Our cause—We will surely guide them in Our ways (29:70). Thus, belief in the Quran is really a criterion of true faith in the Day of Resurrection. Again, when a man comes to have faith in the Quran, he will naturally try to mould his actions according to its teachings and will be constant in his Prayers. (close)