اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡحُکۡمَ وَ النُّبُوَّۃَ ۚ فَاِنۡ یَّکۡفُرۡ بِہَا ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ فَقَدۡ وَکَّلۡنَا بِہَا قَوۡمًا لَّیۡسُوۡا بِہَا بِکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۹۰﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيۡنَٰهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَٱلۡحُكۡمَ وَٱلنُّبُوَّةَۚ فَإِن يَكۡفُرۡ بِهَا هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ فَقَدۡ وَكَّلۡنَا بِهَا قَوۡمٗا لَّيۡسُواْ بِهَا بِكَٰفِرِينَ
b. 45:17. (close)
871. The verse does not mean that every Prophet was given a separate Book. "Giving of the Book" is an expression used in the Qur’an generally in the sense of giving it through a Law-bearing Prophet. Elsewhere in the Qur’an (45:17) it is stated that three things, viz. Book, dominion and Prophethood were given to all the Children of Israel. In 5:45 we read that a galaxy of Prophets appeared after Moses who were given no new Law but followed the Law as given in the Torah and judged by it. In fact, Prophets are of two categories—Law-bearing Prophets to whom a Book (Law or the Shari‘ah) is given and Prophets, who are given no Book or Shari‘ah, and who follow the Shari‘ah of the Law-bearing Prophet. In their case the expression "We gave them the Book" means that they were given the knowledge of the Book or they inherited the Book or the Shari‘ah from their Law-bearing predecessor. (close)
The giving of a Book by God generally occurs in two ways: Firstly, directly, as in the case of Moses and the Holy Prophet of Islam. Secondly, indirectly, as in the case of those Prophets to whom no new Book was revealed and who only followed a Book that had been revealed to a previous Prophet. Thus of the Torah we are told in the Quran, Surely, We sent down the Torah wherein was guidance and light. By it did the Prophets who were obedient to Us judge for the Jews(5:45). The above quoted verse proves that there appeared many Prophets among the Israelites to whom no new Book was revealed and who only followed the Torah. This statement of the Quran is also borne out by history, which tells us that there were many Prophets among the Israelites to whom no Book was revealed. Hence, when the verse under comment says: It is these to whom We gave the Book, it does not mean that a Book was given to every Prophet separately but only that every Prophet received knowledge of the Divine Book. Another consideration which lends support to the above conclusion is that the word "these" put in the beginning of the verse not only refers to the Prophets named in the foregoing verses, but also to some of their fathers and their children and their brethren (6:88), and it is evident that the latter did not receive any new Book.
There are also other verses of the Quran in which the expression, "We gave the Book" has been used in the sense of giving the Book indirectly. Among others the reader is referred to 2:122; 2:147; 29:48 & 45:17. It is of interest that in the last-mentioned verse, i.e. 45:17, not only the Book but all the three things mentioned in the verse under comment have been spoken of as having been given to the Children of Israel. The verse runs thus: And We gave the Children of Israel the Book, and sovereignty, and prophethood, and We provided them with good things, and exalted them over the people of the time (45:17).
In short, when on the one hand we learn not only from the Quran but also from history that there have been many Prophets who did not receive any new Book directly, and on the other hand, we see that the expression, "We gave the Book" has also been used in the Quran in the sense of giving a Book indirectly, the verse under comment cannot be interpreted to mean that every Prophet was given a Book directly from God. Muslim commentators are agreed in holding that every Prophet was not given a Book directly by God, and that in the case of those Prophets to whom no Book was given directly, the words, "We gave the Book", simply mean, "We gave them knowledge or understanding of the Book", or "We made them inherit the Book."
The word "people" in the latter portion of the verse refers to Muslims; and the pronoun "them" at the end refers to the Book, dominion and prophethood mentioned in the opening clause of the verse. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ ہَدَی اللّٰہُ فَبِہُدٰٮہُمُ اقۡتَدِہۡ ؕ قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَسۡـَٔلُکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ اَجۡرًا ؕ اِنۡ ہُوَ اِلَّا ذِکۡرٰی لِلۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۹۱﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ هَدَى ٱللَّهُۖ فَبِهُدَىٰهُمُ ٱقۡتَدِهۡۗ قُل لَّآ أَسۡـَٔلُكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَجۡرًاۖ إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكۡرَىٰ لِلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
872. The words may be taken to have been addressed either to the Holy Prophet or to every Muslim, because the fundamental teaching of all Prophets is the same. Or they may signify that the spiritual self or nature of the Holy Prophet was such that it was, as if, commanded to combine in itself all the excellent qualities that were to be found individually in all other Divine Prophets. The command expressed by the words "follow them" is in spiritual terminology called Amre Kauni or Khalqi signifying a wish or quality inherent in a thing or person. For instances of such a command see 3:60 and 21:70. (close)
The words, so follow thou their guidance, may be taken to be addressed either to the Holy Prophet or to every Muslim. The fundamental teaching of all Prophets is the same. (close)
وَ مَا قَدَرُوا اللّٰہَ حَقَّ قَدۡرِہٖۤ اِذۡ قَالُوۡا مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی بَشَرٍ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ قُلۡ مَنۡ اَنۡزَلَ الۡکِتٰبَ الَّذِیۡ جَآءَ بِہٖ مُوۡسٰی نُوۡرًا وَّ ہُدًی لِّلنَّاسِ تَجۡعَلُوۡنَہٗ قَرَاطِیۡسَ تُبۡدُوۡنَہَا وَ تُخۡفُوۡنَ کَثِیۡرًا ۚ وَ عُلِّمۡتُمۡ مَّا لَمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنۡتُمۡ وَ لَاۤ اٰبَآؤُکُمۡ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ ۙ ثُمَّ ذَرۡہُمۡ فِیۡ خَوۡضِہِمۡ یَلۡعَبُوۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾
وَمَا قَدَرُواْ ٱللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدۡرِهِۦٓ إِذۡ قَالُواْ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ بَشَرٖ مِّن شَيۡءٖۗ قُلۡ مَنۡ أَنزَلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ ٱلَّذِي جَآءَ بِهِۦ مُوسَىٰ نُورٗا وَهُدٗى لِّلنَّاسِۖ تَجۡعَلُونَهُۥ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبۡدُونَهَا وَتُخۡفُونَ كَثِيرٗاۖ وَعُلِّمۡتُم مَّا لَمۡ تَعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنتُمۡ وَلَآ ءَابَآؤُكُمۡۖ قُلِ ٱللَّهُۖ ثُمَّ ذَرۡهُمۡ فِي خَوۡضِهِمۡ يَلۡعَبُونَ
a. 22:75; 39:68. (close)
b. 36:16; 67:10. (close)
873. The words mean, "If this Book (the Qur’an) has not been revealed by God, then who embodied in it such wise and comprehensive teachings as were known neither to you nor to your forefathers—teachings which it was beyond your power to produce. Only God could give such teachings." (close)
874. The Jews have been condemned here for disclosing one part of the Torah and hiding the other part which contains prophecies and Signs about the advent of the Holy Prophet. (close)
a. 22:75; 39:68. (close)
In this verse, the Quran gives the reason why there are differences in religion. Differences spring from ignorance, from a lack of true estimation or true understanding, as indicated by the words, they do not make a just estimate of Allah. Indeed, those who say that Allah has not revealed anything to any man make a very poor estimate of His attributes. To hold such a view about God is highly derogatory to His glory and most inconsistent with His attributes.
As regards religious beliefs, there were two classes of men in the days of the Holy Prophet. Firstly, there were those who denied revelation in toto. According to them, there had never been any revelation in any age. Secondly, there were those who believed that there had been revelation in the past, but that God had sent no revelation in their own age. To the first-mentioned class belonged the مشرکون (Idolaters), i.e. those who ascribed co-partners to God and worshipped idols. To the second class belonged the People of the Book. As the words, Allah has not revealed anything to any man, may mean: (1) that God has never revealed anything to any man; or (2) that He has not revealed anything to any man in the present age, so they may be ascribed to both idol-worshippers and the People of the Book. In the foregoing verses only the former were addressed, but now the latter have also been included in the address.
As regards the People of the Book, the Quran specifically states: Say, Who revealed the Book which Moses brought, a light and guidance for the people, though you treat it as scraps of paper which you show while you conceal much, i.e. you have split up the Book of Moses into parts, disclosing one part and concealing the other which contains prophecies and signs of the advent of the Holy Prophet. You deny the Quranic revelation, but your own Book contains evidence of its truth which you suppress.
The above reply, however, could not satisfy the idol-worshippers who did not believe in the Book of Moses or, for that matter, in any revealed Book. The Quran, therefore, gives them a rational answer. It says, And you have been taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew. This is an argument which is meant to prove the Divine origin of the Quran rationally and is meant not merely for the People of the Book but also for idol-worshippers. The argument may be put thus: "If this Book (the Quran) has not been revealed by God, then who embodied in it such wise and comprehensive teachings as were known neither to you nor to your forefathers—teachings which it was beyond your power to produce ? Such teachings could not proceed from a man. Only God could give such teachings."
The last words of the verse, i.e. leave them to amuse themselves with their vain discourse, do not mean that you should abandon preaching to disbelievers. The meaning is, "Tell them and make clear to them that the Quran is the Word of God, for it is superhuman and full of wisdom; but if they still persist in ridiculing it, then leave them alone while they thus amuse themselves." This injunction is similar to the one given in 6:69 above. (close)
وَ ہٰذَا کِتٰبٌ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ مُبٰرَکٌ مُّصَدِّقُ الَّذِیۡ بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ وَ لِتُنۡذِرَ اُمَّ الۡقُرٰی وَ مَنۡ حَوۡلَہَا ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِہٖ وَ ہُمۡ عَلٰی صَلَاتِہِمۡ یُحَافِظُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾
وَهَٰذَا كِتَٰبٌ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ مُبَارَكٞ مُّصَدِّقُ ٱلَّذِي بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ وَلِتُنذِرَ أُمَّ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ وَمَنۡ حَوۡلَهَاۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِهِۦۖ وَهُمۡ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمۡ يُحَافِظُونَ
a. 6:156; 21:51; 38:30. (close)
b. 42:8. (close)
875. The place where a Prophet of God appears is called "The Mother of towns," for it is there that men drink spiritual milk, even as a child sucks milk from the breast of its mother. The words, those around her, may signify the whole world as the Message of the Holy Prophet was meant for the whole of mankind. (close)
876. These words show that a believer in the life to come must believe in the Qur’an also. Thus belief in the Qur’an and belief in the Hereafter are inseparably linked together; the one is meaningless without the other. (close)
c. 23:10; 70:24. (close)
a. 6:156; 21:51; 38:30. (close)
b. 42:8. (close)
c. 23:10; 70:24. (close)
835. Important Words:
مبارك (full of blessings) is derived from برك . They say برك الجمل i.e. the camel kneeled and lay down on his chest with his legs folded. برك also means, he or it was or became firm, steady or steadfast. برك علی فلان (barraka) means, he prayed that such a one might be blessed. بارك علیه means, he kept or applied himself constantly to it. بارك الله علیك or بارك الله فیك means, may God bless thee and make thee prosperous, or may He continue to shower blessings on thee. تبارك الله means, blessed is God; or hallowed is He; or far removed is He from every imperfection; or highly exalted is He. برکة (barakat) means, a blessing; any good bestowed by God, particularly that which continues and goes on increasing. It also means, increase, abundance or plenty. برکة (birkah) means, a tank dug in the ground; a lake or pond; a place where water remains and collects. مبارك means, blessed; gifted with blessing; abounding in good (Lane).
ام (mother), apart from its primary meaning, also signifies: source, origin, foundation or basis; support or cause of subsistence; the main or chief part of a thing; anything to which other things are collected together or joined; place of collection or comprehension or combination of a thing. The word is also applied to inanimate things, as the Arabs say ام الشجرة i.e. the mother of the tree; or ام النجوم i.e. the Milky Way, viz. the place where the stars are collected together in a great multitude. ام القری signifies, the mother of the towns; the metropolis; Mecca, because, being the Qiblah it is the gathering-place of men, or because of all towns it possesses the greatest dignity. In fact, every city is the ام of the smaller towns around it (Lane). Mecca is called ام القری also because it is the source of spiritual food for mankind.
This verse further explains the rational argument contained in the words, you have been taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew (see note on the preceding verse), and makes it clear that it is the Quran that the words quoted above refer to. The present verse mentions four features of the Quran: (1) it has been sent by God; (2) it is full of blessings as the word مبارك indicates, i.e. it is a Book in which, like a برکة (a place where water collects), are collected all the blessings of God; (3) it fulfils that which preceded it, i.e. it fulfils the prophecies contained in the previous Scriptures; and (4) it has been revealed so that the Holy Prophet may warn thereby the Mother of towns and those around her. The place where a Prophet of God appears is called "the mother of towns," for it is out of it that men drink spiritual milk, even as a child sucks milk from the breast of its mother. The words, those around her, are intended to include the whole earth. The earth being round, all parts of it lie around the place where the Holy Prophet made his appearance, i.e. Mecca. Thus, this verse also proves the universal mission of the Holy Prophet.
The words, those who believe in the Hereafter believe therein, signify that a true believer in the life to come cannot but believe in the Quranic teaching. In fact, he who has real faith in the life to come will always be anxious to find out the truth in order to ensure his salvation, and he who earnestly seeks after truth will necessarily be led to believe in the Quran, for as the Quran says: those who strive in Our cause—We will surely guide them in Our ways (29:70). Thus, belief in the Quran is really a criterion of true faith in the Day of Resurrection. Again, when a man comes to have faith in the Quran, he will naturally try to mould his actions according to its teachings and will be constant in his Prayers. (close)
وَ مَنۡ اَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ افۡتَرٰی عَلَی اللّٰہِ کَذِبًا اَوۡ قَالَ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیَّ وَ لَمۡ یُوۡحَ اِلَیۡہِ شَیۡءٌ وَّ مَنۡ قَالَ سَاُنۡزِلُ مِثۡلَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ لَوۡ تَرٰۤی اِذِ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ فِیۡ غَمَرٰتِ الۡمَوۡتِ وَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ بَاسِطُوۡۤا اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ ۚ اَخۡرِجُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ ؕ اَلۡیَوۡمَ تُجۡزَوۡنَ عَذَابَ الۡہُوۡنِ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَقُوۡلُوۡنَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ غَیۡرَ الۡحَقِّ وَ کُنۡتُمۡ عَنۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ تَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ ﴿۹۴﴾
وَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوۡ قَالَ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ وَلَمۡ يُوحَ إِلَيۡهِ شَيۡءٞ وَمَن قَالَ سَأُنزِلُ مِثۡلَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُۗ وَلَوۡ تَرَىٰٓ إِذِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ فِي غَمَرَٰتِ ٱلۡمَوۡتِ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ بَاسِطُوٓاْ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ أَخۡرِجُوٓاْ أَنفُسَكُمُۖ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ تُجۡزَوۡنَ عَذَابَ ٱلۡهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ غَيۡرَ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَكُنتُمۡ عَنۡ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ تَسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ
d. 6:22; 7:38; 10:18; 11:19; 61:8. (close)
877. This torment is not to be identified with the ordinary agonies of death, which are shared, under the general law of nature, by righteous and unrighteous alike, but to the specific punishment that clings to the rejectors of Prophets from the very moment of their death. (close)
a. 46:21. (close)
a. 6:22; 7:38; 10:18; 11:19; 61:8. (close)
b. 46:21. (close)
The verse gives another reason of the fact that the Quran is the revealed Word of God. If this Book, says the verse, is not the Word of God, then he who has forged this lie against God is the most guilty of men and cannot escape Divine punishment. But the verse also reminds deniers or rejecters that if the Quran is not a forged Book but the Word of God, as it actually is, then they are as great offenders as the one who forges a lie against God. In this case, it will be they who will be visited with Divine punishment.
The second sentence, i.e. or says, It has been revealed to me while nothing has been revealed to him, may be taken as an explanation or elaboration of the first sentence, i.e. who forges a lie against Allah; or the first sentence is general, while the second is particular. For instance, falsely to ascribe any teaching to God will come under the first category, and to claim falsely that God has spoken to him particular words will come under the second.
By saying, I will send down the like of that which Allah has sent down, a disbeliever only borrows the phraseology of those whom he addresses, viz. believers. Being a disbeliever in Divine revelation, he does not believe that God sends down anything, so he only quotes the expression made use of by believers concerning Divine revelation. Another instance of such usage is to be met with in 5:44.
The words, if thou couldst only see, signify that if anyone should witness the torment which the deniers of Prophets undergo when their souls leave their bodies, he would at once realize how severe is the torment of those who reject a Divine Messenger. This torment is not to be identified with the ordinary agonies of death, which are shared, under the general law of nature, by righteous and unrighteous alike, but to the specific punishment that clings to the rejecters of Prophets from the very moment of their death. The "punishment of disgrace" mentioned in the latter part of the verse refers, as the words "this day" indicate, not to the punishment of Hell but to the punishment which sinners begin to undergo immediately after death and before the Day of Resurrection. This is known as عذاب القبر (‘Adhabul-Qabr), i.e. punishment in the grave, in Islamic religious terminology, قبر or grave being the name given to the place where souls are kept after death but before Resurrection. Says the Holy Prophet: "When anyone dies, a window is opened out for him in the grave facing Heaven or Hell as the case may be" (Majah, ch. on Qabr). This is, of course, not the final retribution but only preparatory to it. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ جِئۡتُمُوۡنَا فُرَادٰی کَمَا خَلَقۡنٰکُمۡ اَوَّلَ مَرَّۃٍ وَّ تَرَکۡتُمۡ مَّا خَوَّلۡنٰکُمۡ وَرَآءَ ظُہُوۡرِکُمۡ ۚ وَ مَا نَرٰی مَعَکُمۡ شُفَعَآءَکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ زَعَمۡتُمۡ اَنَّہُمۡ فِیۡکُمۡ شُرَکٰٓؤُا ؕ لَقَدۡ تَّقَطَّعَ بَیۡنَکُمۡ وَ ضَلَّ عَنۡکُمۡ مَّا کُنۡتُمۡ تَزۡعُمُوۡنَ ﴿٪۹۵﴾
وَلَقَدۡ جِئۡتُمُونَا فُرَٰدَىٰ كَمَا خَلَقۡنَٰكُمۡ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٖ وَتَرَكۡتُم مَّا خَوَّلۡنَٰكُمۡ وَرَآءَ ظُهُورِكُمۡۖ وَمَا نَرَىٰ مَعَكُمۡ شُفَعَآءَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ زَعَمۡتُمۡ أَنَّهُمۡ فِيكُمۡ شُرَكَـٰٓؤُاْۚ لَقَد تَّقَطَّعَ بَيۡنَكُمۡ وَضَلَّ عَنكُم مَّا كُنتُمۡ تَزۡعُمُونَ
b. 18:49. (close)
878. The words mean, "We gave you certain things so that you might thereby improve your spiritual condition, but you have left them behind your backs, i.e. you made no use of them, and now the time for their use has passed away." (close)
a. 18:49. (close)
837. Important Words:
خولناکم (bestowed on you) is derived from خال which means, he became possessed of servants, slaves and other dependents as well as gifts, after having been without them. خوله الله مالا means, God conferred upon him property as a favour. The noun الخول means, slaves, servants and other dependents, or cattle, camels, etc. given to one by God; a gift or gifts (Lane). The word signifies the bestowal of things meant for the betterment and progress of the person receiving them (Mufradat).
As shown under Important Words, خول (bestowal) implies the giving of a thing for the purpose of setting things right or bettering the condition of the recipient. Thus, the sentence, you have left behind you that which We bestowed upon you, means, "We gave you certain things so that you might thereby improve your spiritual conditions, but you have left them behind, i.e. you made no use of them, and now the time for their use has passed away."
The words, We see not with you your intercessors, imply that your hope lay in your mediators, whom you supposed to be co-partners with God and who, you imagined, would help you; but your connection with them is now completely cut off and they are not here with you to render you any help; they have failed you and become entirely lost to you. (close)
اِنَّ اللّٰہَ فَالِقُ الۡحَبِّ وَ النَّوٰی ؕ یُخۡرِجُ الۡحَیَّ مِنَ الۡمَیِّتِ وَ مُخۡرِجُ الۡمَیِّتِ مِنَ الۡحَیِّ ؕ ذٰلِکُمُ اللّٰہُ فَاَنّٰی تُؤۡفَکُوۡنَ ﴿۹۶﴾
۞إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ فَالِقُ ٱلۡحَبِّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰۖ يُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَيَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَمُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ مِنَ ٱلۡحَيِّۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤۡفَكُونَ
879. Attention is drawn to the seed from which a plant sprouts. How insignificant it is but how it grows and develops into a big tree. Similarly, like a seed, man is capable of growing into the recipient of Divine revelation and of being the reflector of God’s great attributes. (close)
a. 3:28; 10:32; 30:20. (close)
a. 3:28; 10:32; 30:20. (close)
The Quran now proceeds to give arguments from nature to prove the need of revelation and Divine guidance. Firstly, the attention of man is drawn to the seeds and stones from which trees sprout. How insignificant is the seed, but how it grows and develops into a big tree. Similarly, you look upon man as a contemptible thing and say, Allah has not revealed anything to any man (6:92). But man also, whom you imagine to be so despicable, is like a seed and is capable of growing into something great.
The words, He brings forth the living from the dead, signify that not unoften noble and great men are born of low and ill-bred parents. Why then do you wonder and think it impossible that a righteous man should rise spiritually and become recipient of divine favours? Your God has made man after the manner of a seed. He has endowed him with many faculties and has made him capable of great progress. Why do you not then understand and see the truth? (close)
فَالِقُ الۡاِصۡبَاحِ ۚ وَ جَعَلَ الَّیۡلَ سَکَنًا وَّ الشَّمۡسَ وَ الۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَانًا ؕ ذٰلِکَ تَقۡدِیۡرُ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡعَلِیۡمِ ﴿۹۷﴾
فَالِقُ ٱلۡإِصۡبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ ٱلَّيۡلَ سَكَنٗا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَانٗاۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ
b. 113:2. (close)
c. 25:48; 78:11. (close)
880. Just as by working during the day, a man gets tired and he goes to sleep at night and is refreshed similarly, the people among whom the Holy Prophet made his appearance had a long night of rest, and their faculties having been reinvigorated they were full of spiritual energy and were eminently fitted to ascend the heights of spiritual development under his lead. (close)
d. 36:39, 40; 55:6. (close)
881. Just as in the physical world the sun and the moon are indispensable for measuring time and as sources of light, so are the Prophets of God indispensable in the spiritual world. (close)
a. 113:2. (close)
b. 25:48; 78:11. (close)
c. 36:39-40; 55:6. (close)
839. Important Words:
حسبانا (reckoning) is the noun-infinitive from حسب. They sayحسبه i.e. he numbered or counted or reckoned it. حسبان means, numbering, counting or reckoning; also punishment, calamity or affliction with which a man is tried; the revolving firmament (Lane).
The words, He causes the break of day, signify that just as God causes the dawn to break, i.e. the night to change into day, similarly He brings men from spiritual darkness into light. He takes them out of the darkness of disbelief and sin into the light of faith and virtue.
The words, He made the night for rest, signify that just as a man, who works during the day, gets tired and goes to sleep at night and then gets refreshed, similarly the people among whom the Holy Prophet made his appearance had had a long night of rest, and so their powers had been renewed. The Holy Prophet had made his appearance when the time was ripe for it and when the people, with their powers refreshed, were best fitted for work and could benefit most by his advent. They were now full of energy and well able to ascend the heights of spirituality under his lead; and so it actually happened.
By referring to the sun and the moon in this verse, the Quran draws the attention of the deniers of revelation to the fact that, just as in the physical world the sun and the moon are indispensable, being measures of time and sources of light, so are the Prophets of God indispensable in the spiritual world. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلَ لَکُمُ النُّجُوۡمَ لِتَہۡتَدُوۡا بِہَا فِیۡ ظُلُمٰتِ الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ ؕ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا الۡاٰیٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۹۸﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلنُّجُومَ لِتَهۡتَدُواْ بِهَا فِي ظُلُمَٰتِ ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِۗ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ لِقَوۡمٖ يَعۡلَمُونَ
e. 16:17. (close)
882. Like the stars which guide the wayfarers in the night, the Divine and spiritual savants give guidance to the erring people groping in spiritual darkness. (close)
a. 16:17. (close)
The argument embodied in this verse runs like this: "When God has made stars for guidance during the hours of night in the physical world, would He make no stars for the guidance of man in the spiritual world? The spiritual welfare of man is much more important than his physical welfare; so when God has created means of guidance for the temporal welfare of man, does it not stand to reason that He should have also provided means for the spiritual guidance of erring humanity?" (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡشَاَکُمۡ مِّنۡ نَّفۡسٍ وَّاحِدَۃٍ فَمُسۡتَقَرٌّ وَّ مُسۡتَوۡدَعٌ ؕ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا الۡاٰیٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ یَّفۡقَہُوۡنَ ﴿۹۹﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٖ وَٰحِدَةٖ فَمُسۡتَقَرّٞ وَمُسۡتَوۡدَعٞۗ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ لِقَوۡمٖ يَفۡقَهُونَ
a. 4:3; 7:190; 39:7. (close)
b. 11:7. (close)
883. Mustaqarr signifies the life of this world and Mustauda‘ the life after death, or the former word signifies the span between death and Resurrection and the latter the life after Resurrection. The verse signifies that when God has multiplied humanity out of "a single soul," it could not have been without a purpose. The great object for which He has created and multiplied human beings is that He has appointed for them not only a period of residence on this earth but also an everlasting life beyond the grave where the righteous will meet their Lord—a lofty goal indeed to which they can only rise under the guidance of Divine Messengers. (close)
b. 4:3; 7:190; 39:7. (close)
c. 11:7. (close)
841. Important Words:
انشأکم (has produced you). The word انشأ is derived from نشأ which means, he lived; he rose or became high or elevated; he grew up; it became produced or originated. انشأ means, he created, produced or originated; he raised or lifted (Lane).
مستقر (home) is derived from; قر which means he or it settled or became firm or fixed or established; or he or it remained or continued in a place; or he or it rested; or he or it became still or quiet or stationary. استقر gives the same meaning as above. It also means, it subsisted. مستقر means, place or time of settledness; or of permanence and continuance, i.e. home; also a resting place (Lane).
مستودع (lodging) is derived from ودع (wada‘a) or ودع (wadu‘a) which means, he or it became still, quiet or at rest. ودع الشیء(wada‘a) means, he left off the thing. ودع عندہ مالا means, he left the property with him as a deposit. ودعه (wadda‘a-hu) means, he bade him farewell; he forsook or deserted him. استودعه مالا means, he entrusted him with property for safe custody. مستودع means, a depository; a place of safety or security; womb or the part of the body in which the child lies before its birth (Lane & Aqrab).
The expressions مستقر (home) and مستودع (lodging) besides giving distinct and independent meanings are also sometimes used to give identical meanings, being interchangeable. The Quran says ونقر فی الارحام مانشاء i.e. And We cause what We will to remain in the wombs (22:6). Again it says ولکم فی الارض مستقر i.e. and for you there is an abode in the earth (2:37). From these two verses it appears that according to the Quran, "the womb" of the mother and "the earth", though places of temporary residence, are each a مستقر i.e. a resting-place or a home for men. Corresponding to these, "the womb" may be called a مستودع i.e. a lodging or a depository. The next world is truly a مستقر i.e. a home for man. In fact, these are really relative terms, the same place being both a مستقر and a مستودع in reference to different things. Again, a place may be called a مستقر(home) because one stays therein, and it may be called a مستودع (lodging) because it provides security.
The verse signifies that when God has multiplied humanity out of one individual, it could not be without a purpose. The great object for which He has created and multiplied human beings is that He has appointed for them not only a period of residence on this earth but also an everlasting life beyond the grave where the righteous will meet the Lord—a lofty goal to which they can rise under the guidance of Divine Messengers. (close)