وَ لَقَدۡ اَخَذۡنَاۤ اٰلَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ بِالسِّنِیۡنَ وَ نَقۡصٍ مِّنَ الثَّمَرٰتِ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَذَّکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۱﴾
وَلَقَدۡ أَخَذۡنَآ ءَالَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ بِٱلسِّنِينَ وَنَقۡصٖ مِّنَ ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
a. 17:102. (close)
1038. Sanah which is the singular of Sinin signifies a simple revolution of the earth round the sun. It is synonymous with ‘Am (and also with Haul) but whereas every Sanah is an ‘Am, every ‘Am is not a Sanah. It is also said to be longer than the ‘Am which is applied to the twelve Arabian months collectively; but Sanah is also applied to twelve revolutions of the moon. According to Imam Raghib Sanah is used as denoting a year in which there is difficulty, or drought or barrenness or dearth; and ‘Am as denoting a year which brings ampleness of the means or circumstances of life and abundance of herbage or the like. Sanah also means drought. The verse speaks of loss of life and property. (close)
b. 17:102. (close)
1020. Important Words:
سنین (drought) is the plural of سنة which is derived, according to different authorities, either from سنه or سنی or سنو. They say سنه الطعام i.e. the food became bad or foul or became altered (for the worse) by the lapse of years. سناالسحاب الارض means, the cloud watered the earth. سناالبعیر means, the camel turned round about the well to draw water. سنی الرجل means, the man became high and exalted in rank. سنة means, a year; a single revolution of the sun, i.e. a single revolution of the earth round the sun; a solar year; hence it is generally considered longer than عام which is mostly applied to a lunar year; a year of drought or famine; drought or barrenness or intense drought (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:260.
This verse speaks of two kinds of punishment which overtook Pharaoh’s people––loss of property and loss of life, the word ثمرات (fruits) meaning both fruits and children or offspring. The details of these punishments follow in 7:134. (close)
فَاِذَا جَآءَتۡہُمُ الۡحَسَنَۃُ قَالُوۡا لَنَا ہٰذِہٖ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تُصِبۡہُمۡ سَیِّئَۃٌ یَّطَّیَّرُوۡا بِمُوۡسٰی وَ مَنۡ مَّعَہٗ ؕ اَلَاۤ اِنَّمَا طٰٓئِرُہُمۡ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ لٰکِنَّ اَکۡثَرَہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۲﴾
فَإِذَا جَآءَتۡهُمُ ٱلۡحَسَنَةُ قَالُواْ لَنَا هَٰذِهِۦۖ وَإِن تُصِبۡهُمۡ سَيِّئَةٞ يَطَّيَّرُواْ بِمُوسَىٰ وَمَن مَّعَهُۥٓۗ أَلَآ إِنَّمَا طَـٰٓئِرُهُمۡ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكۡثَرَهُمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
b. 27:48; 36:19. (close)
1039. Ta’ir means, an omen, a bodement of good or of evil; an evil fortune or ill-luck (Lane). (close)
a. 27:48; 36:19. (close)
1021. Important Words:
یطیروا (ascribed the evil fortune) is really یتطیروا which is derived from طار, from which also the word طائر (evil fortune ) is derived. They say, طار الطائر i.e. the bird flew or moved in the air by means of its wings. تطیربالشیء means, he augured evil from the thing, because it was the custom among the Arabs to take augury from the flight of birds, طائر meaning a bird. An Arab would say جری له الطائربامرکذا i.e. the bird, viz. fortune brought to him such an event. طائر therefore, means, a bird; a thing from which one augurs either good or evil; an omen, a bodement of good or of evil; an evil fortune or ill-luck; actions; the means of subsistence; the brain. The words انما طائر ھم عند الله mean, their evil fortune is with God; or the cause of their good and evil is with God; or the cause of their evil fortune is with God, i.e. their actions which are the real cause of their evil fortune have reached God and lie in store there (Lane & Lisan). See also 3:50.
The people of Pharaoh ascribed to Moses the evils and misfortunes that befell them. They pretended to think that the miseries with which they had been afflicted were due to the inauspicious advent of Moses. Such has always been the practice of disbelievers. When, at the advent of a heavenly Messenger, misfortunes befall the people in consequence of their misdeeds, they, instead of repenting of their sins, ascribe them to the inauspicious advent of the heavenly Messenger.
Since the word طائر (lit. a bird) signifies an action or evil fortune, the verse constitutes a severe rebuke administered to the people of Pharaoh. They are told that the misfortunes which had befallen them were due not to what they called the "inauspicious" advent of Moses, but to their own sins and iniquitous deeds. Thus the expression, the cause of their evil fortune is with Allah, means that the evil and malicious words which they uttered concerning Moses would be preserved with God and they would be duly punished for their insolence. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا مَہۡمَا تَاۡتِنَا بِہٖ مِنۡ اٰیَۃٍ لِّتَسۡحَرَنَا بِہَا ۙ فَمَا نَحۡنُ لَکَ بِمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۳﴾
وَقَالُواْ مَهۡمَا تَأۡتِنَا بِهِۦ مِنۡ ءَايَةٖ لِّتَسۡحَرَنَا بِهَا فَمَا نَحۡنُ لَكَ بِمُؤۡمِنِينَ
c. 10:79. (close)
a. 10:79. (close)
Pharaoh’s people proudly said to Moses that however great and powerful the signs he might show, they would never submit to him and would never allow the Israelites to go with him. (close)
فَاَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمُ الطُّوۡفَانَ وَ الۡجَرَادَ وَ الۡقُمَّلَ وَ الضَّفَادِعَ وَ الدَّمَ اٰیٰتٍ مُّفَصَّلٰتٍ ۟ فَاسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا وَ کَانُوۡا قَوۡمًا مُّجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۴﴾
فَأَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلطُّوفَانَ وَٱلۡجَرَادَ وَٱلۡقُمَّلَ وَٱلضَّفَادِعَ وَٱلدَّمَ ءَايَٰتٖ مُّفَصَّلَٰتٖ فَٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ قَوۡمٗا مُّجۡرِمِينَ
d. 17:102; 43:49. (close)
1040. The Bible mentions ten Signs besides the Signs of the rod and the white hand (Exod. chaps. 7-11). The biblical account seems to have greatly exaggerated the Signs. (close)
b. 17:102; 43:49. (close)
1023. Important Words:
القمل (lice) is derived from قمل. They say قمل رأسه i.e. his head became infected with lice or the lice abounded in his head. قمل القوم means, the people multiplied and increased in number (like unto lice). قمل فلان means, such a one became corpulent and big-bellied. So القمل (al-qaml) means, lice, etc., that infect the head or body of a person as a result of uncleanliness and filth. القمل (al-qummal) means, small ants; small insects like flies or mosquitoes having small wings and infesting vegetation and animals and men; the word has also been taken to mean lice, etc. (Aqrab & Lisan).
مفصلات (clear) also mean, separate, distinct, etc.
This verse explains the two kinds of punishment mentioned in 7:131 above. Locusts and storms bring about famine, whereas lice and frogs and blood may cause disease resulting in loss of life.
The Bible mentions 10 signs, besides the signs of the rod and of the white hand:
(1) the turning of the water of the river into blood; (2) frogs; (3) lice; (4) swarms of flies; (5) the murrain of beasts; (6) the plague of boils and blains; (7) the plague of hail; (8) locusts; (9) the plague of darkness; and (10) the death of the firstborn (Exod. Chaps. 7–11). All these signs are included in the signs mentioned in the verse under comment. Thus the word طوفان (storm) comprises the plague of hail and the plague of darkness; جراد (locusts) expresses the plague of locusts; قمل (lice) comprises lice, the swarms of flies, the murrain of beasts and the death of the firstborn, because all these may be caused by infection carried through lice, flies, mosquitoes, etc. The sign of الدم (the blood) comprises the turning of the water of the river into blood as well as boils and blains. The sign of blood may also comprise the death of the firstborn. The turning of the water of the river into blood may also mean that the water of the river became vitiated so that it spoiled the blood of those who drank of it. That the river was actually turned into blood is negated by the Bible itself, for we read there that the water only became blood when it was sprinkled on the land (Exod.4:9). This only means that the water of the river became unfit for drinking purpose and it vitiated the blood of those who drank it. Similarly, the storms raised dust which in turn gave rise to lice. These signs seem to have been greatly exaggerated in the Bible. (close)
وَ لَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَیۡہِمُ الرِّجۡزُ قَالُوۡا یٰمُوۡسَی ادۡعُ لَنَا رَبَّکَ بِمَا عَہِدَ عِنۡدَکَ ۚ لَئِنۡ کَشَفۡتَ عَنَّا الرِّجۡزَ لَنُؤۡمِنَنَّ لَکَ وَ لَنُرۡسِلَنَّ مَعَکَ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ﴿۱۳۵﴾ۚ
وَلَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلرِّجۡزُ قَالُواْ يَٰمُوسَى ٱدۡعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَۖ لَئِن كَشَفۡتَ عَنَّا ٱلرِّجۡزَ لَنُؤۡمِنَنَّ لَكَ وَلَنُرۡسِلَنَّ مَعَكَ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ
a. 43:50. (close)
a. 43:50. (close)
The words, according to that which He has promised to thee, may refer either to the promise which God made to Moses that He would listen to his prayers, or to the promise of God to forgive those who repented. The people of Pharaoh reminded Moses of these promises of God and asked him to pray to God in their behalf so that He might pardon them their sins and remove from them the punishments which had befallen them. The sentence may also mean, "pray for us to thy Lord, with the prayers which He has taught thee or in the way He has taught thee to pray." (close)
فَلَمَّا کَشَفۡنَا عَنۡہُمُ الرِّجۡزَ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ ہُمۡ بٰلِغُوۡہُ اِذَا ہُمۡ یَنۡکُثُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۶﴾
فَلَمَّا كَشَفۡنَا عَنۡهُمُ ٱلرِّجۡزَ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍ هُم بَٰلِغُوهُ إِذَا هُمۡ يَنكُثُونَ
b. 43:5. (close)
1041. Ajal means both "term" and "end of term" (2:232). The punishment was removed only for a time to grant Pharaoh an opportunity to repent and comply with the demand of Moses. (close)
b. 43:51. (close)
1025. Important Words:
اجل (term) means both "term" and "end of term". See 2:232. The punishment was removed only for a time to grant Pharaoh an opportunity to repent and comply with the demand of Moses. (close)
فَانۡتَقَمۡنَا مِنۡہُمۡ فَاَغۡرَقۡنٰہُمۡ فِی الۡیَمِّ بِاَنَّہُمۡ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ کَانُوۡا عَنۡہَا غٰفِلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۷﴾
فَٱنتَقَمۡنَا مِنۡهُمۡ فَأَغۡرَقۡنَٰهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡيَمِّ بِأَنَّهُمۡ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا وَكَانُواْ عَنۡهَا غَٰفِلِينَ
c. 43:56. (close)
a. 43:56. (close)
1026. Important Words:
الیم (sea) is substantive from یم or یمم. The Arabs say یم الرجل i.e. the man was thrown into the sea; or he was drowned in the sea. یم الساحلmeans, the water of the sea or the water of the river overflowed its banks. الیم means, the sea; or the sea of unknown or unreached depth; a great body of water either salt or sweet (Lisan). The Quran uses the word یم both in the sense of sea (as in the present verse) and in the sense of a great river as in 20:40. See also 7:139 below. (close)
وَ اَوۡرَثۡنَا الۡقَوۡمَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَانُوۡا یُسۡتَضۡعَفُوۡنَ مَشَارِقَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَغَارِبَہَا الَّتِیۡ بٰرَکۡنَا فِیۡہَا ؕ وَ تَمَّتۡ کَلِمَتُ رَبِّکَ الۡحُسۡنٰی عَلٰی بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ۬ۙ بِمَا صَبَرُوۡا ؕ وَ دَمَّرۡنَا مَا کَانَ یَصۡنَعُ فِرۡعَوۡنُ وَ قَوۡمُہٗ وَ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡرِشُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۸﴾
وَأَوۡرَثۡنَا ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَانُواْ يُسۡتَضۡعَفُونَ مَشَٰرِقَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَغَٰرِبَهَا ٱلَّتِي بَٰرَكۡنَا فِيهَاۖ وَتَمَّتۡ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ عَلَىٰ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ بِمَا صَبَرُواْۖ وَدَمَّرۡنَا مَا كَانَ يَصۡنَعُ فِرۡعَوۡنُ وَقَوۡمُهُۥ وَمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡرِشُونَ
d. 28:6. (close)
1042. The words, the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof, signify, according to Arabic idiom, the entire country. (close)
1043. The Holy Land which had been promised to the descendants of Abraham and Jacob (5:22). It was blessed because it was the land where the Israelites were to thrive and prosper and grow into a great nation. (close)
a. 32:25. (close)
b. 28:6. (close)
c. 32:25. (close)
1027. Important Words:
یعرشون (they erect) is formed from عرش i.e. he constructed or erected a structure for grapevines to rise and spread upon; or he erected or built a shed or an enclosure or a house, etc. (Lane). See also 2:260; 6:142.
The words, the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof, signify, according to Arabic idiom, the entire country.
The words, which We blessed, refer to the Holy Land which had been promised to the descendants of Abraham and Jacob (5:22). It was blessed because it was the land where the Israelites were to thrive and prosper and grow into a great nation. The words, And the gracious Word of thy Lord was fulfilled, mean that the promise which God had made to Abraham and Jacob came to pass.
The words, We destroyed all that Pharaoh and his people had built, mean that the great buildings and memorials erected by Pharaoh by unjustly exacting hard labour from the Children of Israel fell into ruin in the time of the dynasty that ruled Egypt after him. (close)
وَ جٰوَزۡنَا بِبَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ الۡبَحۡرَ فَاَتَوۡا عَلٰی قَوۡمٍ یَّعۡکُفُوۡنَ عَلٰۤی اَصۡنَامٍ لَّہُمۡ ۚ قَالُوۡا یٰمُوۡسَی اجۡعَلۡ لَّنَاۤ اِلٰـہًا کَمَا لَہُمۡ اٰلِـہَۃٌ ؕ قَالَ اِنَّکُمۡ قَوۡمٌ تَجۡہَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۹﴾
وَجَٰوَزۡنَا بِبَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَ فَأَتَوۡاْ عَلَىٰ قَوۡمٖ يَعۡكُفُونَ عَلَىٰٓ أَصۡنَامٖ لَّهُمۡۚ قَالُواْ يَٰمُوسَى ٱجۡعَل لَّنَآ إِلَٰهٗا كَمَا لَهُمۡ ءَالِهَةٞۚ قَالَ إِنَّكُمۡ قَوۡمٞ تَجۡهَلُونَ
1028. Important Words:
البحر (sea) is derived from بحر i.e. he cut open a thing; or he enlarged and made it wide. بحر means, it became wide and spacious (Lane). Most probably the word البحر is used of the sea on account of its great spaciousness, and the word الیم (see 7:137 above) is used about it on account of its great depth.
Though the words البحر and الیم are generally considered synonymous, yet it is significant that the Quran uses the word الیمwhen speaking of the drowning of the people of Pharaoh (7:137) and البحر (as in the present verse) when speaking of the escape of the Israelites across it. This confirms the inference that generally the word البحر denotes spaciousness and the word الیم depth.
The request of the Israelites to Moses embodied in the words, make for us a god just as they have gods, does not show that they really wished to worship idols. As they were yet new in faith, so when they happened to see the idols of an idol-worshipping people, they simply wished to have an image of their God. The idols of the people thus suggested to them the idea of having an image of their God on which to fix their attention. The words, This is your God, and the God of Moses, used elsewhere in the Quran (20:89), also show that what the Israelites wanted was simply a representation of the God of Moses and that they did not want to abandon Him or set up equals to Him.
The expression, Surely you are an ignorant people, contains the answer to their request. They were told that it was foolish on their part to think that they could fix their attention on God better by concentrating on an idol, because firstly, there was really nothing like Him and secondly, the practice was sure subsequently to develop into real idol-worship. The right way to fix attention on God is to ponder and meditate upon His attributes. To bow down before a lifeless image cannot but degrade a man both morally and spiritually. (close)
اِنَّ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ مُتَبَّرٌ مَّا ہُمۡ فِیۡہِ وَ بٰطِلٌ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۰﴾
إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ مُتَبَّرٞ مَّا هُمۡ فِيهِ وَبَٰطِلٞ مَّا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
The word "these" refers to the idol-worshippers whom the Israelites wished to copy. Moses explains to his men that the people they desired to imitate were a people doomed to perdition. (close)