فَاَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمُ الطُّوۡفَانَ وَ الۡجَرَادَ وَ الۡقُمَّلَ وَ الضَّفَادِعَ وَ الدَّمَ اٰیٰتٍ مُّفَصَّلٰتٍ ۟ فَاسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا وَ کَانُوۡا قَوۡمًا مُّجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۴﴾
فَأَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلطُّوفَانَ وَٱلۡجَرَادَ وَٱلۡقُمَّلَ وَٱلضَّفَادِعَ وَٱلدَّمَ ءَايَٰتٖ مُّفَصَّلَٰتٖ فَٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ قَوۡمٗا مُّجۡرِمِينَ
d. 17:102; 43:49. (close)
1040. The Bible mentions ten Signs besides the Signs of the rod and the white hand (Exod. chaps. 7-11). The biblical account seems to have greatly exaggerated the Signs. (close)
b. 17:102; 43:49. (close)
1023. Important Words:
القمل (lice) is derived from قمل. They say قمل رأسه i.e. his head became infected with lice or the lice abounded in his head. قمل القوم means, the people multiplied and increased in number (like unto lice). قمل فلان means, such a one became corpulent and big-bellied. So القمل (al-qaml) means, lice, etc., that infect the head or body of a person as a result of uncleanliness and filth. القمل (al-qummal) means, small ants; small insects like flies or mosquitoes having small wings and infesting vegetation and animals and men; the word has also been taken to mean lice, etc. (Aqrab & Lisan).
مفصلات (clear) also mean, separate, distinct, etc.
This verse explains the two kinds of punishment mentioned in 7:131 above. Locusts and storms bring about famine, whereas lice and frogs and blood may cause disease resulting in loss of life.
The Bible mentions 10 signs, besides the signs of the rod and of the white hand:
(1) the turning of the water of the river into blood; (2) frogs; (3) lice; (4) swarms of flies; (5) the murrain of beasts; (6) the plague of boils and blains; (7) the plague of hail; (8) locusts; (9) the plague of darkness; and (10) the death of the firstborn (Exod. Chaps. 7–11). All these signs are included in the signs mentioned in the verse under comment. Thus the word طوفان (storm) comprises the plague of hail and the plague of darkness; جراد (locusts) expresses the plague of locusts; قمل (lice) comprises lice, the swarms of flies, the murrain of beasts and the death of the firstborn, because all these may be caused by infection carried through lice, flies, mosquitoes, etc. The sign of الدم (the blood) comprises the turning of the water of the river into blood as well as boils and blains. The sign of blood may also comprise the death of the firstborn. The turning of the water of the river into blood may also mean that the water of the river became vitiated so that it spoiled the blood of those who drank of it. That the river was actually turned into blood is negated by the Bible itself, for we read there that the water only became blood when it was sprinkled on the land (Exod.4:9). This only means that the water of the river became unfit for drinking purpose and it vitiated the blood of those who drank it. Similarly, the storms raised dust which in turn gave rise to lice. These signs seem to have been greatly exaggerated in the Bible. (close)
وَ لَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَیۡہِمُ الرِّجۡزُ قَالُوۡا یٰمُوۡسَی ادۡعُ لَنَا رَبَّکَ بِمَا عَہِدَ عِنۡدَکَ ۚ لَئِنۡ کَشَفۡتَ عَنَّا الرِّجۡزَ لَنُؤۡمِنَنَّ لَکَ وَ لَنُرۡسِلَنَّ مَعَکَ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ﴿۱۳۵﴾ۚ
وَلَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلرِّجۡزُ قَالُواْ يَٰمُوسَى ٱدۡعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَۖ لَئِن كَشَفۡتَ عَنَّا ٱلرِّجۡزَ لَنُؤۡمِنَنَّ لَكَ وَلَنُرۡسِلَنَّ مَعَكَ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ
a. 43:50. (close)
a. 43:50. (close)
The words, according to that which He has promised to thee, may refer either to the promise which God made to Moses that He would listen to his prayers, or to the promise of God to forgive those who repented. The people of Pharaoh reminded Moses of these promises of God and asked him to pray to God in their behalf so that He might pardon them their sins and remove from them the punishments which had befallen them. The sentence may also mean, "pray for us to thy Lord, with the prayers which He has taught thee or in the way He has taught thee to pray." (close)
فَلَمَّا کَشَفۡنَا عَنۡہُمُ الرِّجۡزَ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ ہُمۡ بٰلِغُوۡہُ اِذَا ہُمۡ یَنۡکُثُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۶﴾
فَلَمَّا كَشَفۡنَا عَنۡهُمُ ٱلرِّجۡزَ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍ هُم بَٰلِغُوهُ إِذَا هُمۡ يَنكُثُونَ
b. 43:5. (close)
1041. Ajal means both "term" and "end of term" (2:232). The punishment was removed only for a time to grant Pharaoh an opportunity to repent and comply with the demand of Moses. (close)
b. 43:51. (close)
1025. Important Words:
اجل (term) means both "term" and "end of term". See 2:232. The punishment was removed only for a time to grant Pharaoh an opportunity to repent and comply with the demand of Moses. (close)
فَانۡتَقَمۡنَا مِنۡہُمۡ فَاَغۡرَقۡنٰہُمۡ فِی الۡیَمِّ بِاَنَّہُمۡ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ کَانُوۡا عَنۡہَا غٰفِلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۷﴾
فَٱنتَقَمۡنَا مِنۡهُمۡ فَأَغۡرَقۡنَٰهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡيَمِّ بِأَنَّهُمۡ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا وَكَانُواْ عَنۡهَا غَٰفِلِينَ
c. 43:56. (close)
a. 43:56. (close)
1026. Important Words:
الیم (sea) is substantive from یم or یمم. The Arabs say یم الرجل i.e. the man was thrown into the sea; or he was drowned in the sea. یم الساحلmeans, the water of the sea or the water of the river overflowed its banks. الیم means, the sea; or the sea of unknown or unreached depth; a great body of water either salt or sweet (Lisan). The Quran uses the word یم both in the sense of sea (as in the present verse) and in the sense of a great river as in 20:40. See also 7:139 below. (close)
وَ اَوۡرَثۡنَا الۡقَوۡمَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَانُوۡا یُسۡتَضۡعَفُوۡنَ مَشَارِقَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَغَارِبَہَا الَّتِیۡ بٰرَکۡنَا فِیۡہَا ؕ وَ تَمَّتۡ کَلِمَتُ رَبِّکَ الۡحُسۡنٰی عَلٰی بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ۬ۙ بِمَا صَبَرُوۡا ؕ وَ دَمَّرۡنَا مَا کَانَ یَصۡنَعُ فِرۡعَوۡنُ وَ قَوۡمُہٗ وَ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡرِشُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۸﴾
وَأَوۡرَثۡنَا ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَانُواْ يُسۡتَضۡعَفُونَ مَشَٰرِقَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَغَٰرِبَهَا ٱلَّتِي بَٰرَكۡنَا فِيهَاۖ وَتَمَّتۡ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ عَلَىٰ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ بِمَا صَبَرُواْۖ وَدَمَّرۡنَا مَا كَانَ يَصۡنَعُ فِرۡعَوۡنُ وَقَوۡمُهُۥ وَمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡرِشُونَ
d. 28:6. (close)
1042. The words, the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof, signify, according to Arabic idiom, the entire country. (close)
1043. The Holy Land which had been promised to the descendants of Abraham and Jacob (5:22). It was blessed because it was the land where the Israelites were to thrive and prosper and grow into a great nation. (close)
a. 32:25. (close)
b. 28:6. (close)
c. 32:25. (close)
1027. Important Words:
یعرشون (they erect) is formed from عرش i.e. he constructed or erected a structure for grapevines to rise and spread upon; or he erected or built a shed or an enclosure or a house, etc. (Lane). See also 2:260; 6:142.
The words, the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof, signify, according to Arabic idiom, the entire country.
The words, which We blessed, refer to the Holy Land which had been promised to the descendants of Abraham and Jacob (5:22). It was blessed because it was the land where the Israelites were to thrive and prosper and grow into a great nation. The words, And the gracious Word of thy Lord was fulfilled, mean that the promise which God had made to Abraham and Jacob came to pass.
The words, We destroyed all that Pharaoh and his people had built, mean that the great buildings and memorials erected by Pharaoh by unjustly exacting hard labour from the Children of Israel fell into ruin in the time of the dynasty that ruled Egypt after him. (close)
وَ جٰوَزۡنَا بِبَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ الۡبَحۡرَ فَاَتَوۡا عَلٰی قَوۡمٍ یَّعۡکُفُوۡنَ عَلٰۤی اَصۡنَامٍ لَّہُمۡ ۚ قَالُوۡا یٰمُوۡسَی اجۡعَلۡ لَّنَاۤ اِلٰـہًا کَمَا لَہُمۡ اٰلِـہَۃٌ ؕ قَالَ اِنَّکُمۡ قَوۡمٌ تَجۡہَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۹﴾
وَجَٰوَزۡنَا بِبَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَ فَأَتَوۡاْ عَلَىٰ قَوۡمٖ يَعۡكُفُونَ عَلَىٰٓ أَصۡنَامٖ لَّهُمۡۚ قَالُواْ يَٰمُوسَى ٱجۡعَل لَّنَآ إِلَٰهٗا كَمَا لَهُمۡ ءَالِهَةٞۚ قَالَ إِنَّكُمۡ قَوۡمٞ تَجۡهَلُونَ
1028. Important Words:
البحر (sea) is derived from بحر i.e. he cut open a thing; or he enlarged and made it wide. بحر means, it became wide and spacious (Lane). Most probably the word البحر is used of the sea on account of its great spaciousness, and the word الیم (see 7:137 above) is used about it on account of its great depth.
Though the words البحر and الیم are generally considered synonymous, yet it is significant that the Quran uses the word الیمwhen speaking of the drowning of the people of Pharaoh (7:137) and البحر (as in the present verse) when speaking of the escape of the Israelites across it. This confirms the inference that generally the word البحر denotes spaciousness and the word الیم depth.
The request of the Israelites to Moses embodied in the words, make for us a god just as they have gods, does not show that they really wished to worship idols. As they were yet new in faith, so when they happened to see the idols of an idol-worshipping people, they simply wished to have an image of their God. The idols of the people thus suggested to them the idea of having an image of their God on which to fix their attention. The words, This is your God, and the God of Moses, used elsewhere in the Quran (20:89), also show that what the Israelites wanted was simply a representation of the God of Moses and that they did not want to abandon Him or set up equals to Him.
The expression, Surely you are an ignorant people, contains the answer to their request. They were told that it was foolish on their part to think that they could fix their attention on God better by concentrating on an idol, because firstly, there was really nothing like Him and secondly, the practice was sure subsequently to develop into real idol-worship. The right way to fix attention on God is to ponder and meditate upon His attributes. To bow down before a lifeless image cannot but degrade a man both morally and spiritually. (close)
اِنَّ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ مُتَبَّرٌ مَّا ہُمۡ فِیۡہِ وَ بٰطِلٌ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۰﴾
إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ مُتَبَّرٞ مَّا هُمۡ فِيهِ وَبَٰطِلٞ مَّا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
The word "these" refers to the idol-worshippers whom the Israelites wished to copy. Moses explains to his men that the people they desired to imitate were a people doomed to perdition. (close)
قَالَ اَغَیۡرَ اللّٰہِ اَبۡغِیۡکُمۡ اِلٰـہًا وَّ ہُوَ فَضَّلَکُمۡ عَلَی الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۱﴾
قَالَ أَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ أَبۡغِيكُمۡ إِلَٰهٗا وَهُوَ فَضَّلَكُمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
b. 6:15, 165. (close)
c. 2:48; 3:34. (close)
a. 6:15,165; (close)
b. 2:48; 3:34. (close)
The error of the Israelites in desiring to have an image of God like the idols of other peoples (7:139) has been brought home to them by three cogent reasons. Firstly, they are told that the works of the people whose example had prompted them to wish for an image of God would be brought to nought and their image worship would prove of no avail to them (7:140). The second argument is given in the present verse. The idea that by having a representation of God they would not be guilty of idolatry is rebutted by saying that the image thus made would be, and cannot but be, something other than Allah, and it is inconceivable that one should make an image of God and then think that he is not worshipping anything beside Him. The third argument is contained in the words, He has exalted you above all peoples, which are intended to point out that he, who makes an image with his own hand and then proceeds to worship it, degrades himself and brings himself lower than God has intended him to be. (close)
وَ اِذۡ اَنۡجَیۡنٰکُمۡ مِّنۡ اٰلِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ یَسُوۡمُوۡنَکُمۡ سُوۡٓءَ الۡعَذَابِ ۚ یُقَتِّلُوۡنَ اَبۡنَآءَکُمۡ وَ یَسۡتَحۡیُوۡنَ نِسَآءَکُمۡ ؕ وَ فِیۡ ذٰلِکُمۡ بَلَآءٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۴۲﴾٪
وَإِذۡ أَنجَيۡنَٰكُم مِّنۡ ءَالِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ يَسُومُونَكُمۡ سُوٓءَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ يُقَتِّلُونَ أَبۡنَآءَكُمۡ وَيَسۡتَحۡيُونَ نِسَآءَكُمۡۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكُم بَلَآءٞ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ عَظِيمٞ
d. 2:50; 7:128; 14:7; 28:5. (close)
c. 2:50; 7:128; 14:7; 28:5. (close)
If the verse be taken as referring to the time of Moses and not the time that preceded his ministry, the words, your sons, would mean "your grown up sons" on whom heavy tasks were laid with a view to weakening and annihilating them. The children of Israel complained to Moses, saying, "The Lord look upon you and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us" (Exod. 5:21). See also 7:128 above. (close)
وَ وٰعَدۡنَا مُوۡسٰی ثَلٰثِیۡنَ لَیۡلَۃً وَّ اَتۡمَمۡنٰہَا بِعَشۡرٍ فَتَمَّ مِیۡقَاتُ رَبِّہٖۤ اَرۡبَعِیۡنَ لَیۡلَۃً ۚ وَ قَالَ مُوۡسٰی لِاَخِیۡہِ ہٰرُوۡنَ اخۡلُفۡنِیۡ فِیۡ قَوۡمِیۡ وَ اَصۡلِحۡ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ سَبِیۡلَ الۡمُفۡسِدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۳﴾
۞وَوَٰعَدۡنَا مُوسَىٰ ثَلَٰثِينَ لَيۡلَةٗ وَأَتۡمَمۡنَٰهَا بِعَشۡرٖ فَتَمَّ مِيقَٰتُ رَبِّهِۦٓ أَرۡبَعِينَ لَيۡلَةٗۚ وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِأَخِيهِ هَٰرُونَ ٱخۡلُفۡنِي فِي قَوۡمِي وَأَصۡلِحۡ وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ سَبِيلَ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ
a. 2:52. (close)
1044. God’s communion with Moses was completed in the promised thirty nights. The prolongation of the period by ten nights did not form part of the promise but was an additional favour. (close)
1045. The words show that Aaron’s position was that of a subordinate to Moses. Moses called the Israelites "my people” and directed Aaron to act for him, i.e. officiate in his place during his absence. (close)
a. 2:52. (close)
The promised nights were only thirty, and ten were added subsequently to increase the favour. In fact, God’s communion with Moses was completed in the promised thirty nights, as hinted in the next verse. So the prolongation of the period by ten nights, which was due to the request of Moses to God to manifest Himself to him, did not form part of the promise but was something additional.
The words, Act for me among my people in my absence, clearly indicate that Aaron’s position was subordinate to that of Moses. Moses called the Israelites "my people" and directed Aaron to act for him, i.e. officiate in his place during his absence, which shows that Aaron occupied no independent position but was only a subordinate Prophet to Moses.
The words, and follow not the ways of those who cause disorder, are intended as a warning to Aaron to beware of the mischief-makers and adopt a strong policy.
The use of the word "nights" is significant. As this period was meant to be passed in meditation and devotion for which the quiet and calmness of the night is much more suitable than the day, so God used the word "nights". (close)