اِنَّ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ مُتَبَّرٌ مَّا ہُمۡ فِیۡہِ وَ بٰطِلٌ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۰﴾
إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ مُتَبَّرٞ مَّا هُمۡ فِيهِ وَبَٰطِلٞ مَّا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
The word "these" refers to the idol-worshippers whom the Israelites wished to copy. Moses explains to his men that the people they desired to imitate were a people doomed to perdition. (close)
قَالَ اَغَیۡرَ اللّٰہِ اَبۡغِیۡکُمۡ اِلٰـہًا وَّ ہُوَ فَضَّلَکُمۡ عَلَی الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۱﴾
قَالَ أَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ أَبۡغِيكُمۡ إِلَٰهٗا وَهُوَ فَضَّلَكُمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
b. 6:15, 165. (close)
c. 2:48; 3:34. (close)
a. 6:15,165; (close)
b. 2:48; 3:34. (close)
The error of the Israelites in desiring to have an image of God like the idols of other peoples (7:139) has been brought home to them by three cogent reasons. Firstly, they are told that the works of the people whose example had prompted them to wish for an image of God would be brought to nought and their image worship would prove of no avail to them (7:140). The second argument is given in the present verse. The idea that by having a representation of God they would not be guilty of idolatry is rebutted by saying that the image thus made would be, and cannot but be, something other than Allah, and it is inconceivable that one should make an image of God and then think that he is not worshipping anything beside Him. The third argument is contained in the words, He has exalted you above all peoples, which are intended to point out that he, who makes an image with his own hand and then proceeds to worship it, degrades himself and brings himself lower than God has intended him to be. (close)
وَ اِذۡ اَنۡجَیۡنٰکُمۡ مِّنۡ اٰلِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ یَسُوۡمُوۡنَکُمۡ سُوۡٓءَ الۡعَذَابِ ۚ یُقَتِّلُوۡنَ اَبۡنَآءَکُمۡ وَ یَسۡتَحۡیُوۡنَ نِسَآءَکُمۡ ؕ وَ فِیۡ ذٰلِکُمۡ بَلَآءٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۴۲﴾٪
وَإِذۡ أَنجَيۡنَٰكُم مِّنۡ ءَالِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ يَسُومُونَكُمۡ سُوٓءَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ يُقَتِّلُونَ أَبۡنَآءَكُمۡ وَيَسۡتَحۡيُونَ نِسَآءَكُمۡۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكُم بَلَآءٞ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ عَظِيمٞ
d. 2:50; 7:128; 14:7; 28:5. (close)
c. 2:50; 7:128; 14:7; 28:5. (close)
If the verse be taken as referring to the time of Moses and not the time that preceded his ministry, the words, your sons, would mean "your grown up sons" on whom heavy tasks were laid with a view to weakening and annihilating them. The children of Israel complained to Moses, saying, "The Lord look upon you and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us" (Exod. 5:21). See also 7:128 above. (close)
وَ وٰعَدۡنَا مُوۡسٰی ثَلٰثِیۡنَ لَیۡلَۃً وَّ اَتۡمَمۡنٰہَا بِعَشۡرٍ فَتَمَّ مِیۡقَاتُ رَبِّہٖۤ اَرۡبَعِیۡنَ لَیۡلَۃً ۚ وَ قَالَ مُوۡسٰی لِاَخِیۡہِ ہٰرُوۡنَ اخۡلُفۡنِیۡ فِیۡ قَوۡمِیۡ وَ اَصۡلِحۡ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ سَبِیۡلَ الۡمُفۡسِدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۳﴾
۞وَوَٰعَدۡنَا مُوسَىٰ ثَلَٰثِينَ لَيۡلَةٗ وَأَتۡمَمۡنَٰهَا بِعَشۡرٖ فَتَمَّ مِيقَٰتُ رَبِّهِۦٓ أَرۡبَعِينَ لَيۡلَةٗۚ وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِأَخِيهِ هَٰرُونَ ٱخۡلُفۡنِي فِي قَوۡمِي وَأَصۡلِحۡ وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ سَبِيلَ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ
a. 2:52. (close)
1044. God’s communion with Moses was completed in the promised thirty nights. The prolongation of the period by ten nights did not form part of the promise but was an additional favour. (close)
1045. The words show that Aaron’s position was that of a subordinate to Moses. Moses called the Israelites "my people” and directed Aaron to act for him, i.e. officiate in his place during his absence. (close)
a. 2:52. (close)
The promised nights were only thirty, and ten were added subsequently to increase the favour. In fact, God’s communion with Moses was completed in the promised thirty nights, as hinted in the next verse. So the prolongation of the period by ten nights, which was due to the request of Moses to God to manifest Himself to him, did not form part of the promise but was something additional.
The words, Act for me among my people in my absence, clearly indicate that Aaron’s position was subordinate to that of Moses. Moses called the Israelites "my people" and directed Aaron to act for him, i.e. officiate in his place during his absence, which shows that Aaron occupied no independent position but was only a subordinate Prophet to Moses.
The words, and follow not the ways of those who cause disorder, are intended as a warning to Aaron to beware of the mischief-makers and adopt a strong policy.
The use of the word "nights" is significant. As this period was meant to be passed in meditation and devotion for which the quiet and calmness of the night is much more suitable than the day, so God used the word "nights". (close)
وَ لَمَّا جَآءَ مُوۡسٰی لِمِیۡقَاتِنَا وَ کَلَّمَہٗ رَبُّہٗ ۙ قَالَ رَبِّ اَرِنِیۡۤ اَنۡظُرۡ اِلَیۡکَ ؕ قَالَ لَنۡ تَرٰٮنِیۡ وَ لٰکِنِ انۡظُرۡ اِلَی الۡجَبَلِ فَاِنِ اسۡتَقَرَّ مَکَانَہٗ فَسَوۡفَ تَرٰٮنِیۡ ۚ فَلَمَّا تَجَلّٰی رَبُّہٗ لِلۡجَبَلِ جَعَلَہٗ دَکًّا وَّ خَرَّ مُوۡسٰی صَعِقًا ۚ فَلَمَّاۤ اَفَاقَ قَالَ سُبۡحٰنَکَ تُبۡتُ اِلَیۡکَ وَ اَنَا اَوَّلُ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۴﴾
وَلَمَّا جَآءَ مُوسَىٰ لِمِيقَٰتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُۥ رَبُّهُۥ قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِيٓ أَنظُرۡ إِلَيۡكَۚ قَالَ لَن تَرَىٰنِي وَلَٰكِنِ ٱنظُرۡ إِلَى ٱلۡجَبَلِ فَإِنِ ٱسۡتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُۥ فَسَوۡفَ تَرَىٰنِيۚ فَلَمَّا تَجَلَّىٰ رَبُّهُۥ لِلۡجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُۥ دَكّٗا وَخَرَّ مُوسَىٰ صَعِقٗاۚ فَلَمَّآ أَفَاقَ قَالَ سُبۡحَٰنَكَ تُبۡتُ إِلَيۡكَ وَأَنَا۠ أَوَّلُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
b. 2:254; 4:165. (close)
1046. This verse sheds some light on one of the most important religious subjects—whether it is possible for one to see God with the physical eyes. The verse lends no support to the view that God is visible to the physical eyes (6:104). Not to say of seeing God with the physical eyes, man cannot even see angels; we can see only a manifestation of them. Similarly, only a manifestation of God can be seen and not God Himself. It is, therefore, inconceivable that a great Prophet of God like Moses, with all his knowledge of the attributes of God, should have desired an impossibility. Moses knew that he could see only a manifestation of God and not God Himself. But he had already seen a manifestation of God in "the Fire" when travelling from Midian to Egypt (28:30). What then did Moses mean by his request to see God, contained in the words, My Lord, show Thyself to me that I may look at Thee. The request seems to refer to the perfect manifestation of God which was to take place in the person of the Holy Prophet of Islam in some later time. Moses had already been given the promise that there would appear, from among the brethren of the Israelites a Prophet in whose mouth God would put His Word (Deut. 18:18-22). This prophecy implied a greater manifestation of God than had been vouchsafed to Moses. So he was naturally anxious to see what sort of God’s Glory and Majesty the Promised Manifestation would be. He wished that something of that Glory and Majesty might be shown to him. He was told that the manifestation of that Glory was beyond his capacity to bear; it could not take place upon his heart and that God had chosen the mountain for its physical manifestation. The mountain shook violently and it appeared as if it had crumbled down and Moses, being overwhelmed with the impact of the shaking fell down unconscious. In this way he was made to realize that he had not attained to that high stage of spiritual eminence which should have made him the object of that Divine Manifestation which he had requested to witness. That unique privilege was reserved for one much greater than him—the Crown of God’s creation––the Holy Prophet Muhammad. Moses’s request may also be taken as having been prompted by the demand of the Elders of the Israelites, to see God with the naked eye (2:56). This very unusual experience of his made Moses realize that his request was inopportune. So he cried spontaneously, "I turn towards Thee, and I am the first to believe," which meant that he had realized that he was not endowed with the capacity to see that perfect manifestation of Divine Glory which was to take place on the heart of the Promised Prophet and that he was the first believer in the great spiritual eminence which that great Prophet was destined to attain. This belief of Moses in the Holy Prophet has also been referred to in 46:11. (close)
1047. The mountain was not actually broken into pieces. The words have been used figuratively to express the great severity of the earthquake. See Exod. 24:18. (close)
a. 2:254; 4:165. (close)
1033. Important Words:
تجلی (manifested Himself) is derived from جلا . They say جلاالامر i.e. the affair was or became clear, manifest, displayed, uncovered or laid open. تجلی الشیء i.e. the thing became manifest or apparent. تجلی الشیء used transitively means, he looked at the thing standing upon a higher position. The Quranic expression فلماتجلی ربه للجبل means, when his Lord became manifest to the mountain, i.e. when He manifested Himself on the mountain (Lane & Aqrab).
دکا (pieces) is the noun-infinitive from دك i.e. he broke or crushed or pounded a thing. They say دك الارض i.e. he made even the elevations and depressions of the earth. دکته الحمی means, fever weakened him. دك , therefore, means, an even or level place; a land broken and made even; a crumbled mountain; a mound or hill or dust or earth such as is a sandhill. The Quranic words جعله دکا means, He made it even or level; or He made it crumbled (Lane).
This verse sheds light on one of the most important religious subjects—whether it is possible for one to see God with the physical eyes. The verse lends no support to the view that God is visible to the physical eyes. Let alone seeing Him, the human eye cannot even see angels. Says the Quran: If God had appointed as Messenger an angel, He would have made him appear as a man (6:10). As we cannot see angels but only a manifestation of them, similarly we can see only a manifestation of God, and not God Himself. It is, therefore, inconceivable that a great Prophet of God like Moses with all his knowledge of the attributes of God, should have desired an impossibility. Moses knew that he could see only a manifestation of God and not God Himself. But he had already seen a manifestation of God in "the fire" whentravelling from Midian to Egypt (28:30). What then did Moses mean by his request to see God, contained in the words, My Lord, show Thyself to me that I may look at Thee? The request seems to refer to the Perfect manifestation of God that was not granted to Moses but was to take place at the time of the Holy Prophet of Islam who was to be a مثیل or like of Moses. Indeed, Moses had already been given the promise that there was to appear, from among the brethren of the Israelites, a Prophet in whose mouth God was to put His word (Deut. 18:18-22). The words in which the promise was given implied a greater manifestation of God than had been vouchsafed to Moses. So Moses was naturally anxious to see what sort of God’s Glory and Majesty the promised Manifestation would be. He, therefore, wished that something of that Glory and Majesty might be shown to him. But a manifestation of that Glory was beyond the capacity of Moses to bear; it could not take place in or upon his heart. He was, therefore, asked to see a manifestation of it taking place at the Mount. But this should not be understood to mean that the Mount was to serve as a receptacle for the Great Glory: for, according to the Quran (33:73), the heart of Moses was certainly more capable of enduring it than the Mount. The Mount thus served only as the site or locality where that great manifestation was to take place. But even this proved too much for the Mount which shook violently.
The effect on the Mount was similar in nature to that produced on a Companion of the Holy Prophet when the latter’s head happened to be resting on his thigh at a time when a revelation descended on the Prophet. He felt such a heavy weight on his thigh that he feared that it would be crushed under it. Moses, too, could not bear to see the manifestation of Divine Power and Majesty and fell down unconscious, in spite of the fact that he had been warned beforehand of the terrible quaking that was to overtake the Mount. Thus it was that Moses realised that he did not possess the capacity for that powerful manifestation of Divine glory which was to take place later through the Holy Prophet of Islam. This is why when he recovered his senses, Moses cried, Holy art Thou, I turn towards Thee, and I am the first to believe. These words meant that he had realized that he did not possess the capacity for that perfect manifestation of Divine glory which was to take place through the Promised Prophet and that he was the first believer in the great spiritual eminence which that Prophet was destined to attain. This belief of Moses in the Holy Prophet has also been referred to in 46:11.
The words, He broke it into pieces, should not be taken literally, for the Mount was not actually broken into pieces. The words are used figuratively to express the great severity of the earthquake.
It may be also noted here that Moses was told to look at the mountain, and he was also told that he would see God if it remained in its place. The laying down of this condition shows that Moses had not asked for an impossible thing; for the laying down of a condition for an impossible thing is evidently meaningless.
The words, look at the mountain, implied that he should look outside himself because the manifestations could not take place within him. The fact that Moses fell down in a swoon shows that he did witness some manifestation, though only partly and imperfectly. The manifestation that takes place in the heart is permanent and lasting, while that which takes place outside is only temporary and passing.
A reference to this request of Moses to see God is to be found in Exod. 33:18. (close)
قَالَ یٰمُوۡسٰۤی اِنِّی اصۡطَفَیۡتُکَ عَلَی النَّاسِ بِرِسٰلٰتِیۡ وَ بِکَلَامِیۡ ۫ۖ فَخُذۡ مَاۤ اٰتَیۡتُکَ وَ کُنۡ مِّنَ الشّٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۵﴾
قَالَ يَٰمُوسَىٰٓ إِنِّي ٱصۡطَفَيۡتُكَ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ بِرِسَٰلَٰتِي وَبِكَلَٰمِي فَخُذۡ مَآ ءَاتَيۡتُكَ وَكُن مِّنَ ٱلشَّـٰكِرِينَ
1048. The verse seems to be addressed to Moses by way of consolation after God had made him realize that he could not attain to that high spiritual rank to which the Great Prophet of the House of Ishmael was destined to attain. He was asked not to covet the high dignity which was reserved for "that Prophet" but to remain content with, and be grateful for, the rank that God had already bestowed upon him. (close)
The words of this verse were addressed to Moses by way of consolation after God had made him realize that he could not attain to that high spiritual rank to which the Great Prophet of the House of Ishmael was destined to attain. He was asked not to covet the high dignity which was reserved for "that Prophet" but to remain content with, and be grateful for, the rank that God had bestowed upon him. The words, So take hold of that which I have given thee and be of the grateful, definitely prove that it was not the seeing of God Himself that Moses desired, but only a manifestation of God higher than the one granted to him. (close)
وَ کَتَبۡنَا لَہٗ فِی الۡاَلۡوَاحِ مِنۡ کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ مَّوۡعِظَۃً وَّ تَفۡصِیۡلًا لِّکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ ۚ فَخُذۡہَا بِقُوَّۃٍ وَّ اۡمُرۡ قَوۡمَکَ یَاۡخُذُوۡا بِاَحۡسَنِہَا ؕ سَاُورِیۡکُمۡ دَارَ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۶﴾
وَكَتَبۡنَا لَهُۥ فِي ٱلۡأَلۡوَاحِ مِن كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ مَّوۡعِظَةٗ وَتَفۡصِيلٗا لِّكُلِّ شَيۡءٖ فَخُذۡهَا بِقُوَّةٖ وَأۡمُرۡ قَوۡمَكَ يَأۡخُذُواْ بِأَحۡسَنِهَاۚ سَأُوْرِيكُمۡ دَارَ ٱلۡفَٰسِقِينَ
a. 6:155. (close)
1049. Katabna means, We prescribed, appointed, ordained or made binding (Lane). (close)
1050. Everything that was required to be explained to the Israelites. (close)
1051. Moses is asked here to exhort his people to try to practise higher forms of virtue and not to remain content with merely acting upon the injunctions that are meant for the weak of faith. (close)
1052. Dar here signifies "station" or "position;" and the words, Soon shall I show you the abode of the transgressors, mean that soon the obedient shall be distinguished and separated from the disobedient. (close)
a. 6:155. (close)
The word "wrote" here does not mean that God actually wrote the commandments upon the tablets with His own hand. The same word has been used elsewhere with regard to the Psalms (21:106). It was indeed Moses, and not God, who wrote on the tablets the commandments that were revealed to him on the Mount; but as the commandments were revealed by God, the act of writing has been ascribed to Him. It is also possible that the word کتبنا does not here mean "We wrote" but "We enjoined" or "We made binding".
The words "everything" and "all things" used in this verse are not absolute but mean respectively "everything" concerning which an admonition was needed at the time of Moses and "all things" that required to be explained to the Israelites.
The words, follow the best thereof, point to a golden principle of individual and national advancement. The teachings of God’s Prophet are of different grades. Some are meant for the weak of faith, others for those whose faith is firm and strong and from whom a high standard of virtue is expected. Moses is asked here to exhort his people to try to practise the higher form of virtue and not to remain content with merely acting upon the injunctions that are meant for the weak of faith.
The words, Soon shall I show you the abode of the transgressors, mean that soon the obedient shall be distinguished and separated from the disobedient. At the time of the flight of the Israelites from Egypt, it was a medley host of all sorts of people that had fled from fear of Pharaoh. But when the Law was revealed to Moses, it served to distinguish the true from the false. Those who were sincere, obeyed the Law, while those who had no faith in their hearts, rejected and defied it. Thus, true believers became distinguished and separated from the transgressors. The word دار (abode) here signifies "station or position". (close)
سَاَصۡرِفُ عَنۡ اٰیٰتِیَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَتَکَبَّرُوۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ بِغَیۡرِ الۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ اِنۡ یَّرَوۡا کُلَّ اٰیَۃٍ لَّا یُؤۡمِنُوۡا بِہَا ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّرَوۡا سَبِیۡلَ الرُّشۡدِ لَا یَتَّخِذُوۡہُ سَبِیۡلًا ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّرَوۡا سَبِیۡلَ الۡغَیِّ یَتَّخِذُوۡہُ سَبِیۡلًا ؕ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ کَانُوۡا عَنۡہَا غٰفِلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۷﴾
سَأَصۡرِفُ عَنۡ ءَايَٰتِيَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَكَبَّرُونَ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ بِغَيۡرِ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَإِن يَرَوۡاْ كُلَّ ءَايَةٖ لَّا يُؤۡمِنُواْ بِهَا وَإِن يَرَوۡاْ سَبِيلَ ٱلرُّشۡدِ لَا يَتَّخِذُوهُ سَبِيلٗا وَإِن يَرَوۡاْ سَبِيلَ ٱلۡغَيِّ يَتَّخِذُوهُ سَبِيلٗاۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا وَكَانُواْ عَنۡهَا غَٰفِلِينَ
b. 6:26. (close)
a. 6:26. (close)
This verse explains the true significance of the word دار (abode) occurring in the sentence, I shall show you the abode of the transgressors, contained in the preceding verse. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ لِقَآءِ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ حَبِطَتۡ اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ ؕ ہَلۡ یُجۡزَوۡنَ اِلَّا مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴۸﴾٪
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا وَلِقَآءِ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡۚ هَلۡ يُجۡزَوۡنَ إِلَّا مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 3:12; 5:11; 7:37; 21:78. (close)
b. 3:12; 5:11; 7:37; 21:78. (close)
The verse serves as a great warning for all men. One should not live on pious hopes. Only good works count when rewards are meted out. (close)
وَ اتَّخَذَ قَوۡمُ مُوۡسٰی مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ مِنۡ حُلِیِّہِمۡ عِجۡلًا جَسَدًا لَّہٗ خُوَارٌ ؕ اَلَمۡ یَرَوۡا اَنَّہٗ لَا یُکَلِّمُہُمۡ وَ لَا یَہۡدِیۡہِمۡ سَبِیۡلًا ۘ اِتَّخَذُوۡہُ وَ کَانُوۡا ظٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴۹﴾
وَٱتَّخَذَ قَوۡمُ مُوسَىٰ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ مِنۡ حُلِيِّهِمۡ عِجۡلٗا جَسَدٗا لَّهُۥ خُوَارٌۚ أَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ أَنَّهُۥ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمۡ وَلَا يَهۡدِيهِمۡ سَبِيلًاۘ ٱتَّخَذُوهُ وَكَانُواْ ظَٰلِمِينَ
b. 2:52, 93; 4:154; 7:153; 20:89. (close)
c. 20:90. (close)
1053. God can be proved to be a Living God only if He speaks to His servants. It does not stand to reason that God should have ceased to speak now when He spoke to His chosen servants in the past. No attribute of God can be supposed to have ceased to function. The gift of Divine revelation is attainable even now as it was attained in the past. Revelation necessarily does not contain a new Law. It is also meant to give freshness of spiritual life and bring man near unto his Lord and Master. (close)
c. 2:52, 93; 4:154; 7:153; 20:89. (close)
d. 20:90. (close)
The calf is discarded and condemned as a deity, because it does not speak to its votaries nor guide them to any way. This shows that God can remain a true deity only as long as He speaks to His servants and provides for their guidance. So those are manifestly in the wrong who think that, whereas God used to speak and reveal Himself in the past, He has ceased to do so now. It is foolish to say that there is no harm if God has ceased to speak now when He spoke to His chosen servants in times gone by. If this argument possessed weight, worshippers of the calf could also advance a similar argument with regard to it. The fact is that no attribute of God can be supposed to have ceased to operate or become extinct. The gift of Divine revelation is attainable even now as it was attainable in the past, and those who look upon it as a thing of the past are grievously mistaken. God speaks at all times, and those who possess the capacity and quality to hear His voice, can and do hear it even now. Take away the power of speech from God and you leave Him no better than a calf. It is absurd to argue that as the Law of Islam has been made perfect, so no revelation is needed after the Holy Prophet. Revelation does not come merely to bring a new Law. It is primarily meant to grant freshness of spiritual life to man and bring him near unto his Lord and Master. (close)