قَالَ اِنَّکَ مِنَ الۡمُنۡظَرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۶﴾
قَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُنظَرِينَ
قَالَ فَبِمَاۤ اَغۡوَیۡتَنِیۡ لَاَقۡعُدَنَّ لَہُمۡ صِرَاطَکَ الۡمُسۡتَقِیۡمَ ﴿ۙ۱۷﴾
قَالَ فَبِمَآ أَغۡوَيۡتَنِي لَأَقۡعُدَنَّ لَهُمۡ صِرَٰطَكَ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقِيمَ
c. 15:40; 38:83. (close)
a. 15:40; 38:83. (close)
920. Important Words:
اغویتنی (Thou hast adjudged me as lost). اغویت is derived from اغوی which again is derived from غوی which means, he erred; he deviated from the right way; he acted ignorantly; he failed in his object and was disappointed; he was lost; he perished; his life became unpleasant. اغواہ means, he caused him to err; or he caused him to deviate from the right course; he caused him to be disappointed, or to fail in attaining his desire; he seduced him, or misled him; or he caused him to be lost or to perish; he declared or adjudged him to be lost; he destroyed him; or he punished him for erring; or he called upon him to do a thing as a result of which he deviated from the right course and was lost (Lane, Lisan, Aqrab & Mufradat).
Iblis here declares that as God had adjudged him as lost, he would now tempt and waylay men and cause them to be lost even as he himself was lost. This work becomes his life’s function. See also 2:35.
The particle با (since) in the clause فبما اغویتنی may also be taken in the sense of "swearing", in which case the clause would mean, "I swear by Thy having adjudged me as lost." (close)
ثُمَّ لَاٰتِیَنَّہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَیۡنِ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ مِنۡ خَلۡفِہِمۡ وَ عَنۡ اَیۡمَانِہِمۡ وَ عَنۡ شَمَآئِلِہِمۡ ؕ وَ لَا تَجِدُ اَکۡثَرَہُمۡ شٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۸﴾
ثُمَّ لَأٓتِيَنَّهُم مِّنۢ بَيۡنِ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمِنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡ وَعَنۡ أَيۡمَٰنِهِمۡ وَعَن شَمَآئِلِهِمۡۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكۡثَرَهُمۡ شَٰكِرِينَ
955. Note the network of seductions threatened by Satan. (close)
Note the network of seductions created by Satan. But the great truth still stands and shalt ever stand: As to My servants, thou (Satan) shalt certainly have no power over them (17:66). The refuge certainly lies in God only, the Lord of man and the Lord of Satan and indeed the Lord of the worlds. (close)
قَالَ اخۡرُجۡ مِنۡہَا مَذۡءُوۡمًا مَّدۡحُوۡرًا ؕ لَمَنۡ تَبِعَکَ مِنۡہُمۡ لَاَمۡلَـَٔنَّ جَہَنَّمَ مِنۡکُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹﴾
قَالَ ٱخۡرُجۡ مِنۡهَا مَذۡءُومٗا مَّدۡحُورٗاۖ لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنۡهُمۡ لَأَمۡلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ
a. 11:20; 15:43-44; 32:14; 38:86. (close)
a. 11:120; 15:43-44; 32:14; 38:86. (close)
The verse makes it clear that Iblis will not be allowed to waylay those chosen servants of God who would have attained to the exalted stage of spiritual rebirth. He will not also be able to force men to disobey God; for, as the verse clearly points out, only those will come under his influence who themselves choose to 'follow' him. (close)
وَ یٰۤاٰدَمُ اسۡکُنۡ اَنۡتَ وَ زَوۡجُکَ الۡجَنَّۃَ فَکُلَا مِنۡ حَیۡثُ شِئۡتُمَا وَ لَا تَقۡرَبَا ہٰذِہِ الشَّجَرَۃَ فَتَکُوۡنَا مِنَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۲۰﴾
وَيَـٰٓـَٔادَمُ ٱسۡكُنۡ أَنتَ وَزَوۡجُكَ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ فَكُلَا مِنۡ حَيۡثُ شِئۡتُمَا وَلَا تَقۡرَبَا هَٰذِهِ ٱلشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
b. 2:38; 20:118. (close)
955A. See 68. (close)
956. This shows that every thing is lawful, except what may be forbidden as being harmful physically or spiritually. (close)
957. "Forbidden tree" may also signify commandments whereby certain things were forbidden to Adam and his wife. "Good word" has been likened to "good tree" in the Qur’an (14:25) and evil word to "evil tree" (14:27). (close)
b. 2:38; 20:118. (close)
See 2:36. (close)
فَوَسۡوَسَ لَہُمَا الشَّیۡطٰنُ لِیُبۡدِیَ لَہُمَا مَا وٗرِیَ عَنۡہُمَا مِنۡ سَوۡاٰتِہِمَا وَ قَالَ مَا نَہٰکُمَا رَبُّکُمَا عَنۡ ہٰذِہِ الشَّجَرَۃِ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ تَکُوۡنَا مَلَکَیۡنِ اَوۡ تَکُوۡنَا مِنَ الۡخٰلِدِیۡنَ ﴿۲۱﴾
فَوَسۡوَسَ لَهُمَا ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ لِيُبۡدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُۥرِيَ عَنۡهُمَا مِن سَوۡءَٰتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَىٰكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنۡ هَٰذِهِ ٱلشَّجَرَةِ إِلَّآ أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيۡنِ أَوۡ تَكُونَا مِنَ ٱلۡخَٰلِدِينَ
c. 2:37; 20:121. (close)
957A. While evil thoughts ultimately lead a person to his ruin, they also make manifest to him his weaknesses.
As the place where Adam was made to reside has been metaphorically described in the Qur’an as a "Garden", therefore in the description that follows the metaphor is continued and Adam is represented as having been forbidden to approach a certain 'tree' which was not a tree in its literal and physical sense, but a certain family or tribe from which he was bidden to keep aloof, because the members of that family were his enemies and they would have spared no pains to do him harm. (close)
923. Important Words:
وسوس (whispered evil suggestions) literally means, he spoke in a low voice; he whispered. They say وسوس له الشیطان i.e. Satan spoke to him something evil in which there is no good. وسوس الرجل means, the man’s reason was affected and he spoke in a disorderly manner. وسواس (wiswas) means, the act of whispering; evil suggestion. وسواس (waswas) with different vowel point means melancholia; Satan (Aqrab).
سوآتھما (their shame). سوآت is the plural of سوءة which is derived from ساء which means, it was or became evil, foul or abominable. سوءة means, any evil, foul, unseemly or abominable saying or action or habit or practice; any saying or action of which one is ashamed when it appears, and which one would like to hide; any disgracing action or thing; the external portion of the organs of generation of a man or of a woman; the anus; corpse or dead body; nakedness (Lane & Aqrab). The word is also sometimes figuratively applied to such weaknesses of a man as lie concealed within him.
As the place where Adam was made to reside has been metaphorically described in the Quran as a garden, therefore in the description that follows the metaphor is continued and Adam is represented as forbidden to approach a certain 'tree', which was not a tree in its literal sense but a certain family or tribe from which he was bidden to keep aloof, because the members of that family were his enemies and they would have spared no pains to do him harm. For the meaning of the word شجرة (tree) see 2:36.
Another reading of the word ملکین (malakain), i.e. two angels, is (malikain) ملکین i.e. two kings or rulers. This reading is corroborated by 20:121, i.e. Shall I lead thee to the tree of eternity, and to a kingdom which shall never become decayed.
The wicked man who is here represented as Satan worked his mischievous plan as follows: He came to Adam and said that the reason why God had forbidden him to have anything to do with the family referred to was none other than this that its members were inimically disposed to him and that they would have conspired to bring about his downfall, if he had then contracted intimate relations with them. But as the family had subsequently become friendly towards him, the danger no longer existed; nay, the family would now even prove a source of strength for him, God’s prohibition, he pleaded, was not meant for all time, and the condition attached to it having come to an end, the prohibition also ceased to operate. In this way, this Satan succeeded in deceiving Adam and he assured him on oath that he was his well-wisher (7:22). Adam wavered and was led into thinking that as the reasons for the prohibition had indeed ceased to exist, the prohibition itself was no longer operative. That was an error of judgement on Adam’s part. He did not wilfully disobey God’s commandment. Elsewhere the Quran says, He (Adam) forgot to observe Our commandment and We found in him no determination to do evil (20:116). (close)
وَ قَاسَمَہُمَاۤ اِنِّیۡ لَکُمَا لَمِنَ النّٰصِحِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۲﴾
وَقَاسَمَهُمَآ إِنِّي لَكُمَا لَمِنَ ٱلنَّـٰصِحِينَ
فَدَلّٰٮہُمَا بِغُرُوۡرٍ ۚ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَۃَ بَدَتۡ لَہُمَا سَوۡاٰتُہُمَا وَ طَفِقَا یَخۡصِفٰنِ عَلَیۡہِمَا مِنۡ وَّرَقِ الۡجَنَّۃِ ؕ وَ نَادٰٮہُمَا رَبُّہُمَاۤ اَلَمۡ اَنۡہَکُمَا عَنۡ تِلۡکُمَا الشَّجَرَۃِ وَ اَقُلۡ لَّکُمَاۤ اِنَّ الشَّیۡطٰنَ لَکُمَا عَدُوٌّ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۲۳﴾
فَدَلَّىٰهُمَا بِغُرُورٖۚ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا ٱلشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتۡ لَهُمَا سَوۡءَٰتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخۡصِفَانِ عَلَيۡهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِۖ وَنَادَىٰهُمَا رَبُّهُمَآ أَلَمۡ أَنۡهَكُمَا عَن تِلۡكُمَا ٱلشَّجَرَةِ وَأَقُل لَّكُمَآ إِنَّ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنَ لَكُمَا عَدُوّٞ مُّبِينٞ
a. 2:37; 20:122. (close)
958. The word Sayyi’ah which means, any evil, foul, unseemly or abominable saying or habit or action which one would like to hide; shame; nakedness (Lane), is used here in the sense of "object of shame" or "weakness," because no man’s nakedness is hidden from him. Some of Adam’s weaknesses were indeed hidden from him and he came to realize them when his enemy lured him away from his position of security. Every person has certain weaknesses which are hidden even from himself, but which become exposed at time of strain and stress, or when he is tempted and tried. So it was when Adam was tempted and deceived by Satan that he became aware of some of his natural weaknesses. The Qur’an does not say that the weaknesses of Adam and his wife became known to other people, but that they only themselves became conscious of them. (close)
959. Waraq, meaning, the prime and freshness of a thing; the young lads of a community (Lisan) signifies that when Satan succeeded in causing a split in Adam’s community and some of its weaker members had gone out of its fold, he gathered together the Auraq (leaves) of the Garden, i.e. the youth of the community, and began to reunite and reorganize his people with their help. It is generally the youth who, being mostly free from preconceived ideas and prejudices, follow and help the Prophets of God (10:84). The being whom the Qur’an has represented as having refused to submit to Adam is called Iblis, while the person who tempted him is called Satan. This distinction is observed not only in the verse under comment, but in all the relevant verses throughout the Qur’an. This shows that, so far as this narrative is concerned, Satan and Iblis were two different persons. In fact, the word Shaitan (Satan) is applied not only to evil spirits but also to those human beings who, on account of their evil nature and wicked deeds, become, as it were, Satan incarnate. The Shaitan who tempted Adam and caused him to slip was not an invisible evil spirit but a wicked man of flesh and blood, a devil from among human beings, a manifestation of Satan and an agent of Iblis. He was a member of the family which Adam had been bidden to avoid. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that his name was Harith, (Tirmidhi, ch. on Tafsir) which is further evidence of his being a human being and not an evil spirit. (close)
b. 2:169, 209; 6:143; 12:6; 20:118; 28:16; 35:7; 36:61. (close)
924. Important Words:
دلھما (caused them to fall into disobedience) is derived from دلی or دلا. They say دلاالدلو i.e. he pulled or drew the bucket (of water) out of the well. دلاحاجته means, he sought or demanded the object of his want. ادلی الدلو means, he let down the bucket into the well to draw out water with it. دلی الشیء means, he let down the thing or he let it fall or he made it hang down. It also means, he brought or drew the thing near to another. دلاه بغرور means, he caused him to fall into disobedience by deceit; or he excited his cupidity with deceit and guile; or he caused him to fall into that which he desired without his knowledge and so exposed him to loss or injury (Lane). The expression, as used in this verse, shows that Satan deceived Adam and drew him and his wife to himself or to the forbidden tree by deceitful talk and thus caused them to fall into disobedience, while they knew not.
ورق (leaves) is both singular and plural and is noun from the verb ورق. They say ورق الشجر i.e. the tree put forth its leaves. اورق الرجل means, the man became rich; his wealth and money increased. ورق, therefore, means, leaves, foliage, parchment; sheet of paper; thin plate of metal; minted silver coins; the prime and freshness of a thing; the young lads of a community; any animal having life (Aqrab, Lane & Lisan).
Every person has certain weaknesses which are hidden even from himself but which become exposed at a time of strain and stress or when he is tempted and tried. For instance, some men are cowardly, but they are not generally conscious of their cowardice. When however, they encounter a danger, and their heart fails them, they realize their weakness. So it was when Adam was tempted and deceived by Satan that he became aware of his natural weaknesses. The Quran does not say that the weaknesses of Adam and his wife became known to other people, but that they became known to themselves.
The word سوأة (treated under 7:21 above) is not used here in the sense of "nakedness" but rather of "objects of shame" or "weakness", because no man’s nakedness is hidden from him. Some of Adam’s weaknesses were indeed hidden from him and he came to realize them when his enemy lured him away from his position of security. Before this he did his work, aided and helped by Divine grace which kept covered his failings and weaknesses; but when he allied himself with the family against which he had been warned, he was exposed and he realized, to his sorrow, how weak he was.
As Satan had succeeded in causing a split in the community and some of the weaker members had gone out of its fold, Adam gathered together the اوراق (leaves) of the garden, i.e. the youth of the community and began to reunite and reorganize his people with their help. It is generally the young men who, being mostly free from bias and regardless of dangers, follow and help the Prophets of God. Speaking of Moses, the Quran says: And none obeyed Moses, save some youths from among his people, because of the fear of Pharaoh and their chiefs (10:84).
It must be noted here that the being whom the Quran has represented as having refused to submit to Adam is called Iblis, while the person who tempted him is called Satan. This distinction is observed not only in the verse under comment, but in all the relevant verses throughout the Quran. This shows that, so far as this narrative is concerned, Satan and Iblis were two different persons. In fact, the word Shaitan (Satan) is applied not only to evil spirits but to certain human beings also who, on account of their evil nature and wicked deeds, become, as it were, fiends incarnate. Just as a man can advance in virtue and piety so as to become like an angel, similarly he may become morally so depraved and degenerate as to be called a devil. Thus the Shaitan, who tempted Adam and caused him to slip, was not an invisible evil spirit but a wicked man of flesh and blood, a devil from among human beings, a manifestation of Satan, and an agent of Iblis. He was a member of the family which Adam had been bidden to avoid. The Holy Prophettells us that his name was Harith, literally meaning a farmer, (Tirmidhi, ch. on Tafsir) which is further evidence of his being a human being and not an evil spirit. See also 2:15 & 2:37.
Adam’s error lay in taking this man-devil for a well-wisher, although God had warned him against having anything to do with him. (close)
قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمۡنَاۤ اَنۡفُسَنَا ٜ وَ اِنۡ لَّمۡ تَغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَ تَرۡحَمۡنَا لَنَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الۡخٰسِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾
قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمۡنَآ أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمۡ تَغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَتَرۡحَمۡنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡخَٰسِرِينَ
b. 2:38. (close)
960. Adam soon realized his error and hastened to turn to God in repentance. In fact, Adam’s error lay in taking this man-devil for a well-wisher, although God had warned him against having anything to do with him. (close)
a. 2:38. (close)
Adam did not long remain in error. He soon realized his mistake and hastened to turn to God in repentance. (close)
قَالَ اہۡبِطُوۡا بَعۡضُکُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۚ وَ لَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرٌّ وَّ مَتَاعٌ اِلٰی حِیۡنٍ ﴿۲۵﴾
قَالَ ٱهۡبِطُواْ بَعۡضُكُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوّٞۖ وَلَكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرّٞ وَمَتَٰعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٖ
c. 2:37, 39; 20:124. (close)
961. The verse shows that Adam was commanded to emigrate from the land of his birth because enmity and hatred had sprung up between different members of his community. This constitutes a further evidence of the fact that the "Garden" which Adam was commanded to leave was not Paradise. It appears that Adam emigrated from Mesopotamia, the land of his birth, to a neighbouring land. The emigration was perhaps a temporary one and he may have returned to his native land not long after. Indeed, the words, a provision for a time, contain a veiled hint at the emigration being a temporary one. Adam is warned in this verse to be careful in future; for it was in his native land that he was now to live forever. (close)
b. 2:37, 39; 20:124. (close)
The verse shows that Adam was commanded to migrate from the land of his birth because enmity and hatred had sprung up between different members of his community. This constitutes a further evidence of the fact that "the garden" which Adam was bidden to leave was not the Heaven or Paradise of the Quran, because, as the Quran itself tells us, Paradise is a place from which nobody is ever turned out (15:49), nor can Satan deceive or even approach anyone there. It appears that Adam migrated from Mesopotamia, the land of his birth, to a neighbouring land. The migration was perhaps a temporary one, and Adam may have returned to his native land not long after. Indeed, the words, a provision for a time, contain a veiled hint at the migration being a temporary one. (close)