وَ قَطَّعۡنٰہُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ اُمَمًا ۚ مِنۡہُمُ الصّٰلِحُوۡنَ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ دُوۡنَ ذٰلِکَ ۫ وَ بَلَوۡنٰہُمۡ بِالۡحَسَنٰتِ وَ السَّیِّاٰتِ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَرۡجِعُوۡنَ ﴿۱۶۹﴾
وَقَطَّعۡنَٰهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ أُمَمٗاۖ مِّنۡهُمُ ٱلصَّـٰلِحُونَ وَمِنۡهُمۡ دُونَ ذَٰلِكَۖ وَبَلَوۡنَٰهُم بِٱلۡحَسَنَٰتِ وَٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَرۡجِعُونَ
a. 7:164. (close)
a. 7:164. (close)
The prophecy contained in this verse has met with a remarkable fulfilment. No people has been so much harassed and so widely dispersed over the face of the earth as the Jews have been. (close)
فَخَلَفَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ خَلۡفٌ وَّرِثُوا الۡکِتٰبَ یَاۡخُذُوۡنَ عَرَضَ ہٰذَا الۡاَدۡنٰی وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ سَیُغۡفَرُ لَنَا ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّاۡتِہِمۡ عَرَضٌ مِّثۡلُہٗ یَاۡخُذُوۡہُ ؕ اَلَمۡ یُؤۡخَذۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّیۡثَاقُ الۡکِتٰبِ اَنۡ لَّا یَقُوۡلُوۡا عَلَی اللّٰہِ اِلَّا الۡحَقَّ وَ دَرَسُوۡا مَا فِیۡہِ ؕ وَ الدَّارُ الۡاٰخِرَۃُ خَیۡرٌ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ یَتَّقُوۡنَ ؕ اَفَلَا تَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷۰﴾
فَخَلَفَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ خَلۡفٞ وَرِثُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ يَأۡخُذُونَ عَرَضَ هَٰذَا ٱلۡأَدۡنَىٰ وَيَقُولُونَ سَيُغۡفَرُ لَنَا وَإِن يَأۡتِهِمۡ عَرَضٞ مِّثۡلُهُۥ يَأۡخُذُوهُۚ أَلَمۡ يُؤۡخَذۡ عَلَيۡهِم مِّيثَٰقُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ أَن لَّا يَقُولُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ إِلَّا ٱلۡحَقَّ وَدَرَسُواْ مَا فِيهِۗ وَٱلدَّارُ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةُ خَيۡرٞ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَۚ أَفَلَا تَعۡقِلُونَ
b. 19:60. (close)
1067. ‘Arad means, a thing that is not permanent; the paltry goods of the present world; worldly goods or commodities; an object of desire; (Lane). (close)
1068. Darasa means, (1) he read or studied a book; (2) he effaced, erased or obliterated something (Lane). (close)
c. 6:33; 12:110. (close)
b. 19:60. (close)
1059. Important Words:
خلف (an evil generation) is a substantive from خلف (khalafa) meaning, he came after, succeeded or remained after another. خلف means, the location or quarter that is behind; the time past; the side corresponding to the front; one who remains after another, or persons remaining after others; a remnant of people; a generation after a generation; a bad son; an evil generation; one or more persons in whom there is no good; a thing in which there is no good (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:31; 7:70.
عرض (paltry goods) is derived from عرض. They say عرض له الشیء i.e. he presented, showed or offered the thing to him. عرضmeans, a thing that befalls or happens to a man, such as disease, misfortune and the like; a thing that is not permanent; the paltry goods of the present world; worldly goods or commodities; booty or spoil; an object of desire; an eager desire or covetousness (Lane & Aqrab).
درسوا (they have studied) is from درس i.e. (1) he read or studied a book; (2) it became effaced, erased or obliterated; (3) he effaced, erased or obliterated something (Lane). See also 6:106.
The Book spoken of in this verse is the Bible and the expression, who inherited the Book, means who received the Book as a sacred trust from God through the Prophets, or through those gone before them.
The words درسوا ما فیه (they have studied what is therein) may also be rendered as "they have obliterated or effaced what is therein", meaning that they were taught the Divine Book, but they forgot it and rendered it as something effaced and obliterated. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُمَسِّکُوۡنَ بِالۡکِتٰبِ وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ ؕ اِنَّا لَا نُضِیۡعُ اَجۡرَ الۡمُصۡلِحِیۡنَ ﴿۱۷۱﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ يُمَسِّكُونَ بِٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَأَقَامُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ إِنَّا لَا نُضِيعُ أَجۡرَ ٱلۡمُصۡلِحِينَ
a. 31:23. (close)
a. 31:23. (close)
وَ اِذۡ نَتَقۡنَا الۡجَبَلَ فَوۡقَہُمۡ کَاَنَّہٗ ظُلَّۃٌ وَّ ظَنُّوۡۤا اَنَّہٗ وَاقِعٌۢ بِہِمۡ ۚ خُذُوۡا مَاۤ اٰتَیۡنٰکُمۡ بِقُوَّۃٍ وَّ اذۡکُرُوۡا مَا فِیۡہِ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷۲﴾٪
۞وَإِذۡ نَتَقۡنَا ٱلۡجَبَلَ فَوۡقَهُمۡ كَأَنَّهُۥ ظُلَّةٞ وَظَنُّوٓاْ أَنَّهُۥ وَاقِعُۢ بِهِمۡ خُذُواْ مَآ ءَاتَيۡنَٰكُم بِقُوَّةٖ وَٱذۡكُرُواْ مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَتَّقُونَ
b. 2:64. (close)
1069. The leading men of Israel were brought to the foot of the mountain (Exod.19:17). It seemed to them to tower above them like a canopy which might at any time fall upon them. (close)
b. 2:64. (close)
1060. Important Words:
نتقنا (We shook) is formed from نتق. They say نتقه i.e. (1) he shook it; (2) he raised it; or (3) he spread it. An Arab would say نتق الله فوقھم الجبل i.e. God raised the mountain shaking above them (Aqrab).
ظلة (covering). See 2:211.
Owing to the violent shaking, the Mount looked like being suspended over the heads of the Israelites as though it were a covering. See also 2:64, 94 & 4:155. (close)
وَ اِذۡ اَخَذَ رَبُّکَ مِنۡۢ بَنِیۡۤ اٰدَمَ مِنۡ ظُہُوۡرِہِمۡ ذُرِّیَّتَہُمۡ وَ اَشۡہَدَہُمۡ عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ۚ اَلَسۡتُ بِرَبِّکُمۡ ؕ قَالُوۡا بَلٰی ۚۛ شَہِدۡنَا ۚۛ اَنۡ تَقُوۡلُوۡا یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ اِنَّا کُنَّا عَنۡ ہٰذَا غٰفِلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۷۳﴾ۙ
وَإِذۡ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنۢ بَنِيٓ ءَادَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمۡ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمۡ وَأَشۡهَدَهُمۡ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ أَلَسۡتُ بِرَبِّكُمۡۖ قَالُواْ بَلَىٰ شَهِدۡنَآۚ أَن تَقُولُواْ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنۡ هَٰذَا غَٰفِلِينَ
1070. The verse may refer to the evidence embedded in the very nature of man about the existence of the Supreme Being Who has created the universe and controls it (30:31). Or it may refer to the appearance of Divine Prophets who show the way to God, the expression 'offspring from the children of Adam,' signifying the people of every age to whom a Messenger of God is sent. It is, in fact, the advent of every new Messenger which prompts the Divine query, Am I not your Lord? The query signifies that when God has made provision for the physical sustenance of man as well as for his moral and spiritual development, how can he deny His Lordship. It is indeed by rejecting their Prophet that men bear witness against themselves; for in that case they cannot take shelter behind the excuse that they did not know God or His Law or the Day of Judgment. (close)
c. 43:38. (close)
a. 43:83. (close)
1061. Important Words:
ظھور (loins) is the plural of ظھر (back) which is derived from ظھر which means, it was or became apparent, open, plain or evident. ظھر means, among other things, the back; the part extending from the lower portion of the neck to the nearest part of the buttocks. Elsewhere the Quran uses the more familiar word اصلاب (4:24), i.e. loins. So in the text the word has been rightly translated as "loins".
The verse may be interpreted in two ways. It may either be taken to refer to the inborn idea in man about the existence of a Supreme Being Who has created and Who governs the universe. God has embedded this idea in the very nature of man so that he may be admonished thereby and seek a way towards his Maker. The expression, out of their loins, supports this interpretation. It should not, however, be supposed that the dialogue actually took place. The words are simply meant to express a state of affairs.
The second interpretation relates to the appearance of Prophets whom God sends to show people His way. In this case it is worthy of note that when speaking about "making them witnesses against their ownselves", the verse does not mention Adam but the children of Adam, which points to the fact that the expression, "offspring from the children of Adam", means the people of every new age or era to whom a Messenger of God is sent. It is, in fact, the advent of every new Messenger that prompts the Divine query, Am I not your Lord? The query asserts that when God has made a provision for the physical sustenance of mankind as well as for their moral and spiritual development, they cannot deny His lordship. To this question the only possible reply can be, Yea, we do bear witness. It is indeed only through the rejection of their Prophet that the people of an age become witnesses against themselves; for in that case they cannot take shelter behind the excuse that they did not know God or His Law or the Day of Judgement. (close)
اَوۡ تَقُوۡلُوۡۤا اِنَّمَاۤ اَشۡرَکَ اٰبَآؤُنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ کُنَّا ذُرِّیَّۃً مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ ۚ اَفَتُہۡلِکُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ الۡمُبۡطِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷۴﴾
أَوۡ تَقُولُوٓاْ إِنَّمَآ أَشۡرَكَ ءَابَآؤُنَا مِن قَبۡلُ وَكُنَّا ذُرِّيَّةٗ مِّنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡۖ أَفَتُهۡلِكُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ ٱلۡمُبۡطِلُونَ
a. 7:39. (close)
The appearance of a Prophet also debars the people of his time from urging the plea mentioned in the present verse, for then the truth is made manifest from falsehood and idolatry stands publicly condemned. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ نُفَصِّلُ الۡاٰیٰتِ وَ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَرۡجِعُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷۵﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ وَلَعَلَّهُمۡ يَرۡجِعُونَ
1071. The appearance of a Prophet also debars the people of his time from urging the plea mentioned in v. 7:173 above, for then the truth is made Manifest from falsehood and idolatry stands publicly condemned. (close)
وَ اتۡلُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ نَبَاَ الَّذِیۡۤ اٰتَیۡنٰہُ اٰیٰتِنَا فَانۡسَلَخَ مِنۡہَا فَاَتۡبَعَہُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ فَکَانَ مِنَ الۡغٰوِیۡنَ ﴿۱۷۶﴾
وَٱتۡلُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ نَبَأَ ٱلَّذِيٓ ءَاتَيۡنَٰهُ ءَايَٰتِنَا فَٱنسَلَخَ مِنۡهَا فَأَتۡبَعَهُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ فَكَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡغَاوِينَ
1072. The reference here is not to any particular individual but to all persons to whom God shows Signs through a Prophet and who reject them. Similar expressions occur elsewhere in the Qur’an (e.g., 2:18). The verse has been particularly applied to one Bal‘am bin Ba‘ura who, it is related, lived in the time of Moses and who is reported to have been a virtuous man. Pride turned his head and he ended his life in disgrace. The verse may apply also to Abu Jahl or ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul or for that matter to every prominent leader of disbelief. (close)
1063. Important Words:
انسلخ (stepped away) is derived from سلخ. They say سلخ جلدھا i.e. he stripped off its skin. سلخت عنھا قمیصھا means, I pulled off or stripped off her shirt. سلخنا الشھر means, we passed the month, or passed forth from the month. One would say سلخ النبات i.e. the plant shed its foliage and became leafless and then became green again. انسلخ means, he or it became stripped, or he or it passed, or he quitted a thing entirely. They say انسلخت الحیة من قشرھا i.e. the serpent came off, or divested itself of, its slough. انسلخ منه means, he or it became altogether separated from it; or he or it quitted it entirely (Lane & Aqrab).
اتبعه (followed him up). اتبع is derived from تبع. They say تبعه i.e. he followed him or it, or he went or walked after him or it. اتبع besides giving the causative sense is also used like تبع in the sense of following. They say اتبعه i.e. he followed his footsteps; he sought him; also he overtook him (Lane).
The verse does not refer to any particular individual but may apply to all persons to whom God shows signs through a Prophet and who reject them. Similar expressions which do not refer to any particular individual, but are of general application, also occur elsewhere in the Quran (e.g. 2:18). The verse under comment has been applied to one Bal‘am bin Ba‘ura who, it is related, lived in the time of Moses. He is reported to have been a virtuous man, but pride turned his head and he ended in disgrace. But the verse also aptly describes also the case of Abu Jahl who had clearly seen and even admitted the truth of the Holy Prophet, but proudly and scornfully remarked that his people had never owed allegiance to the house of ‘Abd Manaf, a progenitor of the Holy Prophet. The verse may equally apply to ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, the arch-hypocrite, who witnessed many signs establishing the truth of the Holy Prophet and even apparently professed his faith in him, but at heart ever remained his implacable enemy. (close)
وَ لَوۡ شِئۡنَا لَرَفَعۡنٰہُ بِہَا وَ لٰکِنَّہٗۤ اَخۡلَدَ اِلَی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ اتَّبَعَ ہَوٰٮہُ ۚ فَمَثَلُہٗ کَمَثَلِ الۡکَلۡبِ ۚ اِنۡ تَحۡمِلۡ عَلَیۡہِ یَلۡہَثۡ اَوۡ تَتۡرُکۡہُ یَلۡہَثۡ ؕ ذٰلِکَ مَثَلُ الۡقَوۡمِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا ۚ فَاقۡصُصِ الۡقَصَصَ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷۷﴾
وَلَوۡ شِئۡنَا لَرَفَعۡنَٰهُ بِهَا وَلَٰكِنَّهُۥٓ أَخۡلَدَ إِلَى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱتَّبَعَ هَوَىٰهُۚ فَمَثَلُهُۥ كَمَثَلِ ٱلۡكَلۡبِ إِن تَحۡمِلۡ عَلَيۡهِ يَلۡهَثۡ أَوۡ تَتۡرُكۡهُ يَلۡهَثۚ ذَّـٰلِكَ مَثَلُ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَاۚ فَٱقۡصُصِ ٱلۡقَصَصَ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
1073. Material things, specially love of money. (close)
1074. Yalhath, (from Lahatha which means, his breath rose on account of fatigue or weariness), signifies that whether or not such a one is asked to make sacrifices in the cause of religion, he seems to be always panting like a thirsty dog, as if the ever-increasing burden of sacrifices is leaving him completely exhausted. (close)
1064. Important Words:
تحمل علیه (thou drive him away). تحمل is derived from حمل. They say حمله i.e. he bore or carried or conveyed it. حمل علیه الشیءmeans, he loaded him with the thing, or he put the thing on him as a load; or he imposed on him the thing as a burden. حمل علیه means, he charged or assaulted or attacked him (Lane). It is in the last mentioned sense that the word has been rendered here as "drive him away".
یلھث (hangs out his tongue) is formed from لھث meaning, he thirsted; or thirst heated his body. They say لھث الکلب i.e. the dog put forth his tongue on account of thirst or fatigue or weariness. لھث الرجل means, the breath of the man rose on account of fatigue or weariness; or he was fatigued or weary (Lane & Aqrab).
قصص (description) is the noun-infinitive from قص. They say قص اثره i.e. he followed his footsteps; or he followed his track in pursuit. قص الشعر means, he cut or clipped the hair. قص علیه الخبر means, he related to-him the news or the narrative or the story. قصص therefore, means, description or explanation; a narrative or story; following someone or something in his or its footsteps or track (Lane & Aqrab). See also 3:63.
The verse continues the description of the similitude begun in the previous verse. When a man becomes wholly engrossed in worldly affairs and begins to follow his evil desires and inclinations and rejects truth, he becomes, degraded, as it were, to the position of a dog. His thirst for money becomes insatiable. He continues to hanker after the paltry goods of this world. This description quite fits in with a hypocrite or one weak in faith. Whether or not he is made to undergo sacrifices in the cause of religion, he seems to be always panting like a thirsty dog, as if the ever-increasing burden of sacrifices is leaving him exhausted. The above interpretation is in accord with the meaning of the expression حمل علیه in the sense of "putting a load on". If, however, the expression is taken in the sense of "attacking or charging" or for that matter "driving", then the words would mean that the weak of faith belonging to the class of people mentioned here always feel fatigued and weary in the way of God, whether they are smitten with afflictions and trials or not. (close)
سَآءَ مَثَلَاۨ الۡقَوۡمُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ کَانُوۡا یَظۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷۸﴾
سَآءَ مَثَلًا ٱلۡقَوۡمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا وَأَنفُسَهُمۡ كَانُواْ يَظۡلِمُونَ
a. 3:12; 7:183; 8:55. (close)
a. 3:12; 7:183; 8:55. (close)