وَ لِلّٰہِ الۡاَسۡمَآءُ الۡحُسۡنٰی فَادۡعُوۡہُ بِہَا ۪ وَ ذَرُوا الَّذِیۡنَ یُلۡحِدُوۡنَ فِیۡۤ اَسۡمَآئِہٖ ؕ سَیُجۡزَوۡنَ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۱﴾
وَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ فَٱدۡعُوهُ بِهَاۖ وَذَرُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ يُلۡحِدُونَ فِيٓ أَسۡمَـٰٓئِهِۦۚ سَيُجۡزَوۡنَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
c. 17:111. (close)
1076. The proper name of God is Allah; all the rest strictly speaking are His attributes. While praying one should invoke such Divine attributes as are directly related to the object of one’s prayer. (close)
1077. Deviating from the right way with respect to God’s attributes may signify that God being the Possessor of all the best attributes mentioned in the Qur’an or the Hadith, there is no need to devise other attributes for Him, which are inconsistent with His Majesty, Dignity and all-comprehensive Mercy. (close)
a. 17:111. (close)
1067. Important Words:
الاسماء الحسنی (perfect attributes). The word اسماء is the plural of اسم (for which see 1:1 & 2:32), meaning, (1) name; and (2) attribute. الحسنی which is the feminine of الاحسن means, that which is better or that which is best; the final good state or condition. So الاسماء الحسنی means, best names, or best attributes, or perfect attributes. The term is specifically used to denote the attributes of God.
یلحدون (deviate from the right way) is derived from لحد which means, he or it declined or deviated from the right course, or he or it inclined. الحد also means the same. الحد فی الدین means, he deviated or swerved from the right way with respect to religion; he impugned religion. الحد also means, he disputed or wrangled. الحد به means, he brought a reproach upon him; or he held him in light estimation; or he despised him; or he said of him what was false (Lane & Aqrab).
The proper name of God is only Allah, all the rest being, strictly speaking, not His names but attributes. The verse tells us the secret as to how our prayers can be readily accepted. While praying, we should invoke such attributes of God as are directly related to the object of our prayer. This will make our prayer more susceptible of acceptance, because, by so doing, we would excite the jealousy of God with regard to the relevant attribute of His, with the result that the prayer, if otherwise acceptable, will not be suffered to go in vain. The Quran specifically mentions as many as 69 Divine attributes, but there are others which may be inferred and yet others which are found mentioned in the Hadith.
The verse next proceeds to enjoin the believers to have nothing to do with those who devise for God attributes which are not attributable to Him. Says the verse: Leave alone those who deviate from the right way with respect to His attributes. When God possesses all the best attributes mentioned in the Quran or the Hadith, what need is there to devise other attributes for Him? Such attributes cannot be free from error. An instance of such an ill-devised attribute is عادل (Just) which Christians attribute to God. The Quran says that God certainly is not unjust but at the same time it scrupulously avoids the ascription of the attribute of عادل (Just) to Him, for the ascription of this attribute to God would imply that His justice should demand that He must always punish sinners. But He is not bound to do so, because He is Forgiving and Merciful and He can pardon any sinner. In fact, God is not like a judge bound by the Law to deal with men according to their deeds. But He is مالك or Master of His creatures and Master of His law as well. He can forgive the sins of His servants as and when He pleases. By calling God "just", the Christian Church had to enlist the aid of a so-called redeemer who, by his supposed death on the cross, should atone for the sins of men to satisfy God’s attribute of justice. (close)
وَ مِمَّنۡ خَلَقۡنَاۤ اُمَّۃٌ یَّہۡدُوۡنَ بِالۡحَقِّ وَ بِہٖ یَعۡدِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۲﴾٪
وَمِمَّنۡ خَلَقۡنَآ أُمَّةٞ يَهۡدُونَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَبِهِۦ يَعۡدِلُونَ
d. 7:160. (close)
a. 7:160. (close)
The verse does not mean that among the opponents of the Holy Prophet there were "people who guided men with truth and did justice therewith". What it means is that among God’s creatures there are men who not only themselves are rightly guided and practise justice but also enjoin others to do the same; and the verse hints that it behoves other people to follow their example. The reference obviously is to those who accepted the Holy Prophet; or the verse may refer to God-fearing people who lived before Islam. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا سَنَسۡتَدۡرِجُہُمۡ مِّنۡ حَیۡثُ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۳﴾ۚۖ
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا سَنَسۡتَدۡرِجُهُم مِّنۡ حَيۡثُ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
e. 3:12; 8:55; 68:45. (close)
b. 3:12; 7:183; 8:55. (close)
This verse speaks of the opponents of Islam. The Battle of Badr provided a good illustration of the destruction promised to them in this verse. Neither the Muslims nor the Meccans knew that a battle was about to take place. The disaster came to the Meccans as a bolt from the blue, so that when the news of the overwhelming defeat reached Mecca, the people were simply stunned to hear it. Other disasters also followed. (close)
وَ اُمۡلِیۡ لَہُمۡ ؕ۟ اِنَّ کَیۡدِیۡ مَتِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۸۴﴾
وَأُمۡلِي لَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ كَيۡدِي مَتِينٌ
f. 3:179; 68:46. (close)
a. 3:179; 68:46. (close)
1070. Important Words:
متین (mighty) is derived from متن. They say متن الشیء i.e. the thing became strong, firm or hard. متین means, strong, stout, firm or hard; possessing any quality in a strong degree (Lane). متین is also one of the attributes of God, meaning, Strong and Mighty; He Whom fatigue or weariness touches not (Aqrab).
God’s delay in punishing disbelievers does not mean that He is weak; on the contrary, being All-Powerful and having them completely in His grasp, He is never in a hurry to punish. He punishes when in His infinite wisdom He thinks fit to do so. (close)
اَوَ لَمۡ یَتَفَکَّرُوۡا ٜ مَا بِصَاحِبِہِمۡ مِّنۡ جِنَّۃٍ ؕ اِنۡ ہُوَ اِلَّا نَذِیۡرٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۸۵﴾
أَوَلَمۡ يَتَفَكَّرُواْۗ مَا بِصَاحِبِهِم مِّن جِنَّةٍۚ إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا نَذِيرٞ مُّبِينٌ
a. 23:26; 34:47; 52:30; 81:23. (close)
1078. Sahib (companion) implies a refutation of the charge of insanity brought against the Holy Prophet, as well as a veiled rebuke to the Meccans. They are told that the Holy Prophet is their companion. He has lived and moved among them and they have known him for years; so they could easily see, and indeed in their heart of hearts they are convinced, that there is nothing of insanity about him. (close)
b. 23:26; 34:47; 52:30; 81:23. (close)
1071. Important Words:
صاحب (companion) is derived from صحب which means, he was or became his companion, associate, comrade, fellow or friend. صاحب of which the plural is اصحاب or صحابة means, a companion, associate, comrade, fellow or friend; owner or master; possessor; inmate; manager or disposer; one who keeps or adheres to a thing (Lane). Figuratively the word is also used in the sense of helper.
The word صاحب (companion) meaning both a companion and a helper is not intended as a plain reference to the Holy Prophet. The word has been specially chosen to imply a refutation of the charge of insanity brought by some of his enemies against the Holy Prophet, as well as a veiled rebuke to the Meccans. They are told that the Prophet was their companion and associate. He lived and moved among them and they knew him perfectly well and, therefore, they could easily see, and indeed in their heart of hearts they knew that there was nothing of insanity about him. He was also their helper and was constantly working for their good which constituted further proof of the fact that he was not insane. That he was نذیر مبین (a plain warner) and issued his warnings in a clear and reasoned manner also pointed to the same conclusion—that he was in full possession of his senses. (close)
اَوَ لَمۡ یَنۡظُرُوۡا فِیۡ مَلَکُوۡتِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَا خَلَقَ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ۙ وَّ اَنۡ عَسٰۤی اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ قَدِ اقۡتَرَبَ اَجَلُہُمۡ ۚ فَبِاَیِّ حَدِیۡثٍۭ بَعۡدَہٗ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۶﴾
أَوَلَمۡ يَنظُرُواْ فِي مَلَكُوتِ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا خَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ مِن شَيۡءٖ وَأَنۡ عَسَىٰٓ أَن يَكُونَ قَدِ ٱقۡتَرَبَ أَجَلُهُمۡۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثِۭ بَعۡدَهُۥ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
b. 6:76; 10:102. (close)
1079. Do not the Meccans see the great and numerous changes that are taking place around them, which point to the approach of a new era? All signs point to the fact that idolatry is going to disappear from the country, giving place to Islam. The word "Kingdom" refers to the control which God exercises over heaven and earth. (close)
c. 45:7; 77:51. (close)
1080. When disbelievers are rejecting the Qur’an which is such a perfect and complete Law, what else is there for them to believe in? (close)
a. 6:76; 10:102. (close)
b. 45:7; 77:51. (close)
The verse draws the attention of the Meccans to the great and numerous changes that were taking place around them, which pointed to the approach of a new era. All signs pointed to the fact that idolatry was going to disappear from the country, giving place to Islam. The word ملکوت (kingdom) refers to the control which God exercises over heaven and earth. See also 6:76.
The words بای حدیث (in what thing) may also be rendered as "by means of what thing". In this case, the last sentence of the verse would mean that when disbelievers had reached their term, they would have no time left to believe and repent. The sentence thus constitutes a sort of exhortation to them to make haste and avail themselves of the present opportunity before it is too late.
In the former sense of the words, (i.e. as rendered in the text), the sentence would mean, "When the disbelievers are rejecting the Quran,which is such a perfect and complete Law, what else is left for them to believe in?" (close)
مَنۡ یُّضۡلِلِ اللّٰہُ فَلَا ہَادِیَ لَہٗ ؕ وَ یَذَرُہُمۡ فِیۡ طُغۡیَانِہِمۡ یَعۡمَہُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۷﴾
مَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُۥۚ وَيَذَرُهُمۡ فِي طُغۡيَٰنِهِمۡ يَعۡمَهُونَ
d. 7:179; 17:98; 18:18. (close)
e. 2:16; 6:111. (close)
c. 7:179; 17:98; 18:18. (close)
d. 2:16; 6:111. (close)
See 2:27. (close)
یَسۡـَٔلُوۡنَکَ عَنِ السَّاعَۃِ اَیَّانَ مُرۡسٰہَا ؕ قُلۡ اِنَّمَا عِلۡمُہَا عِنۡدَ رَبِّیۡ ۚ لَا یُجَلِّیۡہَا لِوَقۡتِہَاۤ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕۘؔ ثَقُلَتۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ لَا تَاۡتِیۡکُمۡ اِلَّا بَغۡتَۃً ؕ یَسۡـَٔلُوۡنَکَ کَاَنَّکَ حَفِیٌّ عَنۡہَا ؕ قُلۡ اِنَّمَا عِلۡمُہَا عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ لٰکِنَّ اَکۡثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۸﴾
يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلسَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرۡسَىٰهَاۖ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا عِلۡمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّيۖ لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقۡتِهَآ إِلَّا هُوَۚ ثَقُلَتۡ فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ لَا تَأۡتِيكُمۡ إِلَّا بَغۡتَةٗۗ يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِيٌّ عَنۡهَاۖ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا عِلۡمُهَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
f. 33:64; 78:2; 79:43. (close)
1081. Mursa is noun-infinitive or noun of time or noun of place (Lane). (close)
g. 31:35; 43:86. (close)
1082. The awarding of punishment is as painful to God as the receiving of it is to men and this is the meaning of the words, It lies heavy on the heavens and the earth; "heavens" representing God and angels, and "earth" representing human beings. (close)
a. 16:78; 54:51. (close)
1083. Hafiyy means, showing much solicitude and manifesting joy or pleasure at meeting another; going to the utmost limit in asking or inquiring; or knowing in the utmost degree (Lane). (close)
e. 33:64; 78:2; 79:43. (close)
f. 31:35; 43:86. (close)
a. 16:78; 54:51. (close)
1074. Important Words:
ایان مرساھا (when will it come to pass?) مرسی is derived from رسا. They say رساالجبل i.e. the mountain was firmly based or fixed upon the ground. رست السفینة means, the ship cast anchor and became stationary. مرسی is the noun-infinitive or a noun of time or a noun of place, meaning, the act of anchoring or the time or place of anchorage; or the time and place of becoming stationary; or of coming to pass. The expression ایان مرساھا means, when will it come to pass, or what is the time of its taking place; or when will it occur or happen? (Lane & Aqrab).
حفی (well acquainted) is derived from حفی which means, he walked barefooted; or his feet became chafed by walking much. حفی به means, he showed him much honour and kindness and affection; or he behaved towards him with solicitude and manifested joy and pleasure. حفی عنه means, he asked or inquired much respecting him; he exceeded the usual bounds in making much inquiry respecting him. So حفی means, showing much honour and solicitude and manifesting joy or pleasure at meeting another; asking or inquiring much respecting another’s state or condition; going to the utmost in asking or inquiring; or knowing in the utmost degree (Lane & Aqrab).
The reference in the opening sentence of the verse is to 7:186. When the opponents of Islam were told that their hour had already drawn near, they inquired of the Prophet the exact time when the promised hour would come. The awarding of punishment is as painful to God as the receiving of it is to men, and this is the meaning of the words, It lies heavy on the heavens and the earth. The word "heavens" here represents God and angels, while the word "earth" represents human beings.
The word حفی signifies (1) importunate in inquiring; or (2) well acquainted. The sentence would thus mean: (1) They ask thee concerning the exact time when the hour of their punishment will come to pass, as if thou wert repeatedly inquiring of God as to its time of occurrence; or (2) they ask thee about the time of the "Hour", as if thou wert well acquainted with it. In both these cases the clause would imply that the Holy Prophet neither knew when the "Hour" would come to pass nor was he very solicitous about it. (close)
قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَمۡلِکُ لِنَفۡسِیۡ نَفۡعًا وَّ لَا ضَرًّا اِلَّا مَا شَآءَ اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ لَوۡ کُنۡتُ اَعۡلَمُ الۡغَیۡبَ لَاسۡتَکۡثَرۡتُ مِنَ الۡخَیۡرِۚۖۛ وَ مَا مَسَّنِیَ السُّوۡٓءُ ۚۛ اِنۡ اَنَا اِلَّا نَذِیۡرٌ وَّ بَشِیۡرٌ لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۹﴾٪
قُل لَّآ أَمۡلِكُ لِنَفۡسِي نَفۡعٗا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَآءَ ٱللَّهُۚ وَلَوۡ كُنتُ أَعۡلَمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبَ لَٱسۡتَكۡثَرۡتُ مِنَ ٱلۡخَيۡرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ ٱلسُّوٓءُۚ إِنۡ أَنَا۠ إِلَّا نَذِيرٞ وَبَشِيرٞ لِّقَوۡمٖ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
b. 10:50; 72:22. (close)
c. 2:120; 5:20; 11:3. (close)
a. 10:50; 72:22. (close)
b. 2:120; 5:20; 11:3. (close)
By the word "good" in the sentence, I should have secured abundance of good, is meant no material good, but spiritual good. As for material good, it is well-known that it did come to the Holy Prophet, but he discarded it, praying to God in the words اللھم احیینی مسکیناوامتنی مسکینا i.e. "My God, make me live the life of a poor man and let death come to me when I am poor" (Tirmidhi). So by the word "good" is here meant, not worldly good or riches but spiritual good or the good of Islam, which the Holy Prophet so ardently desired.
The word "unseen" in the clause, If I had knowledge of the unseen, means the secret ways of purifying men’s hearts which are known to God alone (16:10). The Holy Prophet is thus represented as saying: "'If I had known the secret and hidden ways by which men’s hearts are turned to truth, I would have certainly used them and would have made all of you accept the true Faith."
The expression, and evil should not have touched me, means that in the event of my having won over all men to Islam, there would have been no war. (close)
ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَکُمۡ مِّنۡ نَّفۡسٍ وَّاحِدَۃٍ وَّ جَعَلَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَہَا لِیَسۡکُنَ اِلَیۡہَا ۚ فَلَمَّا تَغَشّٰہَا حَمَلَتۡ حَمۡلًا خَفِیۡفًا فَمَرَّتۡ بِہٖ ۚ فَلَمَّاۤ اَثۡقَلَتۡ دَّعَوَا اللّٰہَ رَبَّہُمَا لَئِنۡ اٰتَیۡتَنَا صَالِحًا لَّنَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الشّٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۰﴾
۞هُوَ ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٖ وَٰحِدَةٖ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡهَا زَوۡجَهَا لِيَسۡكُنَ إِلَيۡهَاۖ فَلَمَّا تَغَشَّىٰهَا حَمَلَتۡ حَمۡلًا خَفِيفٗا فَمَرَّتۡ بِهِۦۖ فَلَمَّآ أَثۡقَلَت دَّعَوَا ٱللَّهَ رَبَّهُمَا لَئِنۡ ءَاتَيۡتَنَا صَٰلِحٗا لَّنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلشَّـٰكِرِينَ
d. 4:2; 16:73; 39:7. (close)
e. 30:22. (close)
1084. One of the primary objects of marriage is that man and woman should be a source of comfort and solace to each other. Man is social by nature and it is his natural craving for a close companion which is supplied by marriage. (close)
c. 4:2; 16:73; 39:7. (close)
d. 30:22. (close)
By the words, a single soul, is here meant the father. The verse does not refer to Adam or for that matter to any particular man but speaks of men generally. See also 4:2.
The verse describes one of the objects of marriage, which is that man and woman may be a source of comfort and solace to each other. Man is highly social by nature, and it is his natural craving for a close companion that is supplied by marriage. Without the institution of marriage man, in most cases, would have vainly spent his whole life in search of a true and loyal companion. (close)