وَ قَاسَمَہُمَاۤ اِنِّیۡ لَکُمَا لَمِنَ النّٰصِحِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۲﴾
وَقَاسَمَهُمَآ إِنِّي لَكُمَا لَمِنَ ٱلنَّـٰصِحِينَ
فَدَلّٰٮہُمَا بِغُرُوۡرٍ ۚ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَۃَ بَدَتۡ لَہُمَا سَوۡاٰتُہُمَا وَ طَفِقَا یَخۡصِفٰنِ عَلَیۡہِمَا مِنۡ وَّرَقِ الۡجَنَّۃِ ؕ وَ نَادٰٮہُمَا رَبُّہُمَاۤ اَلَمۡ اَنۡہَکُمَا عَنۡ تِلۡکُمَا الشَّجَرَۃِ وَ اَقُلۡ لَّکُمَاۤ اِنَّ الشَّیۡطٰنَ لَکُمَا عَدُوٌّ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۲۳﴾
فَدَلَّىٰهُمَا بِغُرُورٖۚ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا ٱلشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتۡ لَهُمَا سَوۡءَٰتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخۡصِفَانِ عَلَيۡهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِۖ وَنَادَىٰهُمَا رَبُّهُمَآ أَلَمۡ أَنۡهَكُمَا عَن تِلۡكُمَا ٱلشَّجَرَةِ وَأَقُل لَّكُمَآ إِنَّ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنَ لَكُمَا عَدُوّٞ مُّبِينٞ
a. 2:37; 20:122. (close)
958. The word Sayyi’ah which means, any evil, foul, unseemly or abominable saying or habit or action which one would like to hide; shame; nakedness (Lane), is used here in the sense of "object of shame" or "weakness," because no man’s nakedness is hidden from him. Some of Adam’s weaknesses were indeed hidden from him and he came to realize them when his enemy lured him away from his position of security. Every person has certain weaknesses which are hidden even from himself, but which become exposed at time of strain and stress, or when he is tempted and tried. So it was when Adam was tempted and deceived by Satan that he became aware of some of his natural weaknesses. The Qur’an does not say that the weaknesses of Adam and his wife became known to other people, but that they only themselves became conscious of them. (close)
959. Waraq, meaning, the prime and freshness of a thing; the young lads of a community (Lisan) signifies that when Satan succeeded in causing a split in Adam’s community and some of its weaker members had gone out of its fold, he gathered together the Auraq (leaves) of the Garden, i.e. the youth of the community, and began to reunite and reorganize his people with their help. It is generally the youth who, being mostly free from preconceived ideas and prejudices, follow and help the Prophets of God (10:84). The being whom the Qur’an has represented as having refused to submit to Adam is called Iblis, while the person who tempted him is called Satan. This distinction is observed not only in the verse under comment, but in all the relevant verses throughout the Qur’an. This shows that, so far as this narrative is concerned, Satan and Iblis were two different persons. In fact, the word Shaitan (Satan) is applied not only to evil spirits but also to those human beings who, on account of their evil nature and wicked deeds, become, as it were, Satan incarnate. The Shaitan who tempted Adam and caused him to slip was not an invisible evil spirit but a wicked man of flesh and blood, a devil from among human beings, a manifestation of Satan and an agent of Iblis. He was a member of the family which Adam had been bidden to avoid. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that his name was Harith, (Tirmidhi, ch. on Tafsir) which is further evidence of his being a human being and not an evil spirit. (close)
b. 2:169, 209; 6:143; 12:6; 20:118; 28:16; 35:7; 36:61. (close)
924. Important Words:
دلھما (caused them to fall into disobedience) is derived from دلی or دلا. They say دلاالدلو i.e. he pulled or drew the bucket (of water) out of the well. دلاحاجته means, he sought or demanded the object of his want. ادلی الدلو means, he let down the bucket into the well to draw out water with it. دلی الشیء means, he let down the thing or he let it fall or he made it hang down. It also means, he brought or drew the thing near to another. دلاه بغرور means, he caused him to fall into disobedience by deceit; or he excited his cupidity with deceit and guile; or he caused him to fall into that which he desired without his knowledge and so exposed him to loss or injury (Lane). The expression, as used in this verse, shows that Satan deceived Adam and drew him and his wife to himself or to the forbidden tree by deceitful talk and thus caused them to fall into disobedience, while they knew not.
ورق (leaves) is both singular and plural and is noun from the verb ورق. They say ورق الشجر i.e. the tree put forth its leaves. اورق الرجل means, the man became rich; his wealth and money increased. ورق, therefore, means, leaves, foliage, parchment; sheet of paper; thin plate of metal; minted silver coins; the prime and freshness of a thing; the young lads of a community; any animal having life (Aqrab, Lane & Lisan).
Every person has certain weaknesses which are hidden even from himself but which become exposed at a time of strain and stress or when he is tempted and tried. For instance, some men are cowardly, but they are not generally conscious of their cowardice. When however, they encounter a danger, and their heart fails them, they realize their weakness. So it was when Adam was tempted and deceived by Satan that he became aware of his natural weaknesses. The Quran does not say that the weaknesses of Adam and his wife became known to other people, but that they became known to themselves.
The word سوأة (treated under 7:21 above) is not used here in the sense of "nakedness" but rather of "objects of shame" or "weakness", because no man’s nakedness is hidden from him. Some of Adam’s weaknesses were indeed hidden from him and he came to realize them when his enemy lured him away from his position of security. Before this he did his work, aided and helped by Divine grace which kept covered his failings and weaknesses; but when he allied himself with the family against which he had been warned, he was exposed and he realized, to his sorrow, how weak he was.
As Satan had succeeded in causing a split in the community and some of the weaker members had gone out of its fold, Adam gathered together the اوراق (leaves) of the garden, i.e. the youth of the community and began to reunite and reorganize his people with their help. It is generally the young men who, being mostly free from bias and regardless of dangers, follow and help the Prophets of God. Speaking of Moses, the Quran says: And none obeyed Moses, save some youths from among his people, because of the fear of Pharaoh and their chiefs (10:84).
It must be noted here that the being whom the Quran has represented as having refused to submit to Adam is called Iblis, while the person who tempted him is called Satan. This distinction is observed not only in the verse under comment, but in all the relevant verses throughout the Quran. This shows that, so far as this narrative is concerned, Satan and Iblis were two different persons. In fact, the word Shaitan (Satan) is applied not only to evil spirits but to certain human beings also who, on account of their evil nature and wicked deeds, become, as it were, fiends incarnate. Just as a man can advance in virtue and piety so as to become like an angel, similarly he may become morally so depraved and degenerate as to be called a devil. Thus the Shaitan, who tempted Adam and caused him to slip, was not an invisible evil spirit but a wicked man of flesh and blood, a devil from among human beings, a manifestation of Satan, and an agent of Iblis. He was a member of the family which Adam had been bidden to avoid. The Holy Prophettells us that his name was Harith, literally meaning a farmer, (Tirmidhi, ch. on Tafsir) which is further evidence of his being a human being and not an evil spirit. See also 2:15 & 2:37.
Adam’s error lay in taking this man-devil for a well-wisher, although God had warned him against having anything to do with him. (close)
قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمۡنَاۤ اَنۡفُسَنَا ٜ وَ اِنۡ لَّمۡ تَغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَ تَرۡحَمۡنَا لَنَکُوۡنَنَّ مِنَ الۡخٰسِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾
قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمۡنَآ أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمۡ تَغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَتَرۡحَمۡنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡخَٰسِرِينَ
b. 2:38. (close)
960. Adam soon realized his error and hastened to turn to God in repentance. In fact, Adam’s error lay in taking this man-devil for a well-wisher, although God had warned him against having anything to do with him. (close)
a. 2:38. (close)
Adam did not long remain in error. He soon realized his mistake and hastened to turn to God in repentance. (close)
قَالَ اہۡبِطُوۡا بَعۡضُکُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۚ وَ لَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرٌّ وَّ مَتَاعٌ اِلٰی حِیۡنٍ ﴿۲۵﴾
قَالَ ٱهۡبِطُواْ بَعۡضُكُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوّٞۖ وَلَكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرّٞ وَمَتَٰعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٖ
c. 2:37, 39; 20:124. (close)
961. The verse shows that Adam was commanded to emigrate from the land of his birth because enmity and hatred had sprung up between different members of his community. This constitutes a further evidence of the fact that the "Garden" which Adam was commanded to leave was not Paradise. It appears that Adam emigrated from Mesopotamia, the land of his birth, to a neighbouring land. The emigration was perhaps a temporary one and he may have returned to his native land not long after. Indeed, the words, a provision for a time, contain a veiled hint at the emigration being a temporary one. Adam is warned in this verse to be careful in future; for it was in his native land that he was now to live forever. (close)
b. 2:37, 39; 20:124. (close)
The verse shows that Adam was commanded to migrate from the land of his birth because enmity and hatred had sprung up between different members of his community. This constitutes a further evidence of the fact that "the garden" which Adam was bidden to leave was not the Heaven or Paradise of the Quran, because, as the Quran itself tells us, Paradise is a place from which nobody is ever turned out (15:49), nor can Satan deceive or even approach anyone there. It appears that Adam migrated from Mesopotamia, the land of his birth, to a neighbouring land. The migration was perhaps a temporary one, and Adam may have returned to his native land not long after. Indeed, the words, a provision for a time, contain a veiled hint at the migration being a temporary one. (close)
قَالَ فِیۡہَا تَحۡیَوۡنَ وَ فِیۡہَا تَمُوۡتُوۡنَ وَ مِنۡہَا تُخۡرَجُوۡنَ ﴿٪۲۶﴾
قَالَ فِيهَا تَحۡيَوۡنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنۡهَا تُخۡرَجُونَ
d. 20:56; 71:18-19. (close)
962. Taken in a general sense the verse hints that no human being can ascend to the heavens with his physical body. Man must live and die on this earth. (close)
c. 20:56; 71:18-19. (close)
Adam is warned in this verse to be careful in future; for it was in his native land that he was now to live forever.
Taken in the general sense, the verse also hints that no human being can ascend into the heavens with his physical body. Man must live and die on the earth. (close)
یٰبَنِیۡۤ اٰدَمَ قَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَیۡکُمۡ لِبَاسًا یُّوَارِیۡ سَوۡاٰتِکُمۡ وَ رِیۡشًا ؕ وَ لِبَاسُ التَّقۡوٰی ۙ ذٰلِکَ خَیۡرٌ ؕ ذٰلِکَ مِنۡ اٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَذَّکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۷﴾
يَٰبَنِيٓ ءَادَمَ قَدۡ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكُمۡ لِبَاسٗا يُوَٰرِي سَوۡءَٰتِكُمۡ وَرِيشٗاۖ وَلِبَاسُ ٱلتَّقۡوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيۡرٞۚ ذَٰلِكَ مِنۡ ءَايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
963. It was with the apparel of piety that Adam covered his "nakedness" in the "Garden". (close)
928. Important Words:
ریش (elegant dress) is the substantive from راش. They say راشه i.e. he feathered it, namely an arrow; he fed him and gave him drink and clad him; he strengthened and aided him; he helped him to obtain his subsistence; He (God) restored him from a state of poverty to a state of wealth or competence; he did good to him. ریش means, feathers; plumage of birds; clothing; or superb or fine clothing; wealth; the means of subsistence; household goods or furniture (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse mentions two objects which our dress is meant to serve, viz. (1) to cover our nakedness and (2) to serve as a decoration and embellishment and make us look elegant. With these two objects of clothing before us it is indeed regrettable that clothing has continued to be progressively discarded by women in the west and this moral disease is now fast spreading in the east as well.
The words, the raiment of righteousness, explain the real significance of the words ریش (elegant dress). We are told that the apparel of piety is, in fact, the really fine raiment for man. Ordinary dress covers our physical nakedness, while the apparel of piety covers our spiritual and moral nakedness, and it was with this very apparel of piety that Adam covered his "nakedness" in the garden. He prayed to God Who heard his supplication and turned to him with mercy and forgiveness (7:24).
The verse beautifully reminds us that when we consider it to be so necessary to have good clothing to cover our physical nakedness and use elegant dress to look graceful, we should all the more be anxious to cover our moral and spiritual nakedness, which can only be done by prayer and by asking God’s forgiveness and mercy as Adam did. (close)
یٰبَنِیۡۤ اٰدَمَ لَا یَفۡتِنَنَّکُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ کَمَاۤ اَخۡرَجَ اَبَوَیۡکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡجَنَّۃِ یَنۡزِعُ عَنۡہُمَا لِبَاسَہُمَا لِیُرِیَہُمَا سَوۡاٰتِہِمَا ؕ اِنَّہٗ یَرٰٮکُمۡ ہُوَ وَ قَبِیۡلُہٗ مِنۡ حَیۡثُ لَا تَرَوۡنَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّا جَعَلۡنَا الشَّیٰطِیۡنَ اَوۡلِیَآءَ لِلَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۲۸﴾
يَٰبَنِيٓ ءَادَمَ لَا يَفۡتِنَنَّكُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ كَمَآ أَخۡرَجَ أَبَوَيۡكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنۡهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوۡءَٰتِهِمَآۚ إِنَّهُۥ يَرَىٰكُمۡ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُۥ مِنۡ حَيۡثُ لَا تَرَوۡنَهُمۡۗ إِنَّا جَعَلۡنَا ٱلشَّيَٰطِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
964. The Evil Spirit, called Shaitan, and those of his kind are generally invisible to the eye. They exercise their influence imperceptibly and search for the hidden weaknesses of man in order to confirm him in his evil ways. God has created Satan only as a trial for men––Satan serves the purpose of a hurdle in the spiritual race in which man is engaged. Hurdles are meant not to block but to make the competitors in the race more vigilant and to redouble their efforts. The careless and the negligent, who stumble over hurdles and thus lose the race, have themselves to blame and not the person or persons who put them in their way in order to try and prove their mettle. (close)
a. 2:258; 3:176; 16:101. (close)
The Evil One called شیطان (Shaitan) and those of his kind, are generally invisible to the human eye. They exercise their influence imperceptibly and search for the hidden weaknesses of man in order to expose him and confirm him in his evil ways. Shaitan is a descriptive name, meaning "one who has become removed from God." It is only by being removed away from God that one perishes. For a detailed explanation of the word see 2:37.
The expression, We have made satans friends for those who believe not, shows that Satan and his associates exercise their pernicious influence only on those who are already evilly disposed. (close)
وَ اِذَا فَعَلُوۡا فَاحِشَۃً قَالُوۡا وَجَدۡنَا عَلَیۡہَاۤ اٰبَآءَنَا وَ اللّٰہُ اَمَرَنَا بِہَا ؕ قُلۡ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَاۡمُرُ بِالۡفَحۡشَآءِ ؕ اَتَقُوۡلُوۡنَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾
وَإِذَا فَعَلُواْ فَٰحِشَةٗ قَالُواْ وَجَدۡنَا عَلَيۡهَآ ءَابَآءَنَا وَٱللَّهُ أَمَرَنَا بِهَاۗ قُلۡ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِۖ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
a. 16:91. (close)
b. 16:91. (close)
This verse, applied generally, gives an apposite description of those who follow Satan as stated in the preceding verse. It may also particularly apply to Christians who allege that Adam sinned and that it is from him that sin came as a heritage to his posterity who, therefore, cannot get rid of it. The Quran condemns this doctrine most forcibly; firstly because it is simply absurd and foolish, and secondly because the Quran exonerates Adam from the charge of having committed a sin.
By saying, Allah has enjoined it upon us, disbelievers mean that it is God Who has given them the power to commit sins or that He it is Who has created Satan that leads them astray. They thus seek to absolve themselves of the responsibility of their evil deeds. The latter part of the verse embodies an effective answer to this lame excuse. God never enjoins foul deeds, says the verse. As for Satan, the people do not understand the object of his creation. Satan is only a trial for men. He serves the purpose of a hurdle in a hurdle race. The hurdles are placed there not to block our progress but to make us vigilant and to cause us to increase our efforts. The careless and negligent person who stumbles over a hurdle and thus loses the race should blame himself and not the person who puts it in his way in order to try and prove his mettle. (close)
قُلۡ اَمَرَ رَبِّیۡ بِالۡقِسۡطِ ۟ وَ اَقِیۡمُوۡا وُجُوۡہَکُمۡ عِنۡدَ کُلِّ مَسۡجِدٍ وَّ ادۡعُوۡہُ مُخۡلِصِیۡنَ لَہُ الدِّیۡنَ ۬ؕ کَمَا بَدَاَکُمۡ تَعُوۡدُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۳۰﴾
قُلۡ أَمَرَ رَبِّي بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۖ وَأَقِيمُواْ وُجُوهَكُمۡ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسۡجِدٖ وَٱدۡعُوهُ مُخۡلِصِينَ لَهُ ٱلدِّينَۚ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمۡ تَعُودُونَ
b. 4:59; 16:91; 57:26. (close)
965. When the time of Prayer approaches and Muslims are about to go to a mosque, they should concentrate all their attention on God, taking their mind away from the cares of the world. The ablution performed before every Prayer serves the useful purpose of turning the believer’s thoughts towards God and putting him in the right state for Prayer. (close)
966. The words, As He brought you into being, so shall you return, mean that just as our bodies gradually develop in the wombs of our mothers, so will our souls pass through a similar process of development after death. (close)
a. 4:59; 16:91; 57:26. (close)
931. Important Words:
مسجد (time and place of worship) is derived from سجد i.e. he prostrated himself; or he bent himself down towards the ground and put his forehead on it; he lowered his head and bent himself; he was lowly, humble or submissive. مسجد means, a place in which one performs the act of سجدة i.e. the act of prostrating before God; a place in which one performs acts of worship or devotion; a place in which a person says his Prayers; a house of Prayer; a mosque or a Muslim temple (Lane). Being اسم ظرف the word may also mean, time of worship.
We are told in this verse that when the time of Prayer approaches and we are about to go to a mosque, we should fix our attention aright, setting our face to God and taking our minds away from the cares and thoughts of the world. The ablution performed before every Prayer also serves the useful purpose of turning our thoughts towards God and putting us in the right state for Prayers.
The words, As He brought you into being, so shall you return, are important because they point to the great truth that just as our bodies gradually develop in the wombs of our mothers, so will our souls pass through a similar process of develop-ment after our death. We should, therefore, be very careful about our souls. (close)
فَرِیۡقًا ہَدٰی وَ فَرِیۡقًا حَقَّ عَلَیۡہِمُ الضَّلٰلَۃُ ؕ اِنَّہُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّیٰطِیۡنَ اَوۡلِیَآءَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ یَحۡسَبُوۡنَ اَنَّہُمۡ مُّہۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۳۱﴾
فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلضَّلَٰلَةُۚ إِنَّهُمُ ٱتَّخَذُواْ ٱلشَّيَٰطِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَيَحۡسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهۡتَدُونَ
c. 16:37; 22:19. (close)
b. 16:37; 22:19. (close)