لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ جَہَنَّمَ مِہَادٌ وَّ مِنۡ فَوۡقِہِمۡ غَوَاشٍ ؕ وَ کَذٰلِکَ نَجۡزِی الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۴۲﴾
لَهُم مِّن جَهَنَّمَ مِهَادٞ وَمِن فَوۡقِهِمۡ غَوَاشٖۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجۡزِي ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
a. 39:17. (close)
a. 39:17. (close)
941. Important Words:
غواش (coverings) is the plural of غاشیة which is derived from غشی. They say غاشیه i.e. it covered or concealed him; or it overcame or overwhelmed him. غاشیه also means, he came to him. غاشیة (of which غواش is the plural) means, a covering; a calamity or misfortune; punishment; fire of Hell; a man’s resorters such as hangers-on, seekers of favours, servants and dependants; also visitors, guests and friends (Lane).
The word غواش rendered as "coverings" also means "servants", and "dependants". Taking the word in the latter sense, the sentence may mean that disbelievers will have their believing "servants" and "dependants" above them on the Day of Judgement. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ لَا نُکَلِّفُ نَفۡسًا اِلَّا وُسۡعَہَاۤ ۫ اُولٰٓئِکَ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡجَنَّۃِ ۚ ہُمۡ فِیۡہَا خٰلِدُوۡنَ ﴿۴۳﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ لَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا وُسۡعَهَآ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِۖ هُمۡ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ
b. 2:234, 287; 6:153; 7:43; 23:63. (close)
975. The parenthetical clause, We charge not any soul beyond its capacity, contradicts the Christian dogma that sin being ingrained in human nature, it is beyond the power of man to get rid of it. (close)
b. 2:234,287; 6:153; 7:43; 23:63. (close)
The parenthetical clause, We task not any soul beyond its capacity, contradicts the Christian dogma that sin being ingrained in human nature, it is beyond the power of man to get rid of it, and that this natural disability of man is remedied only by belief in the atonement of Jesus. The word 'task' shows that by 'good works' are meant such good works as are in the power of man to do. (close)
وَ نَزَعۡنَا مَا فِیۡ صُدُوۡرِہِمۡ مِّنۡ غِلٍّ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہِمُ الۡاَنۡہٰرُ ۚ وَ قَالُوا الۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ الَّذِیۡ ہَدٰٮنَا لِہٰذَا ۟ وَ مَا کُنَّا لِنَہۡتَدِیَ لَوۡ لَاۤ اَنۡ ہَدٰٮنَا اللّٰہُ ۚ لَقَدۡ جَآءَتۡ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ نُوۡدُوۡۤا اَنۡ تِلۡکُمُ الۡجَنَّۃُ اُوۡرِثۡتُمُوۡہَا بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾
وَنَزَعۡنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنۡ غِلّٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهِمُ ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُۖ وَقَالُواْ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِي هَدَىٰنَا لِهَٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لِنَهۡتَدِيَ لَوۡلَآ أَنۡ هَدَىٰنَا ٱللَّهُۖ لَقَدۡ جَآءَتۡ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِٱلۡحَقِّۖ وَنُودُوٓاْ أَن تِلۡكُمُ ٱلۡجَنَّةُ أُورِثۡتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ
c. 15:48. (close)
976. In fact, heavenly life begins in this very world (55:47) and he is said to be enjoying it whose heart is free from enmity, jealousy, rancour and mental disquiet. (close)
d. See 2:26. (close)
e. e10:11; 39:75. (close)
a. 15:48. (close)
b. See 2:26. (close)
c. 10:11; 39:75. (close)
943. Important Words:
غل (rancour) is from the verb غل which means, it entered (into a thing) or it caused to enter. Thus it is both transitive and intransitive. غل also means, it entered and became mixed up or confused with a thing. غل فلان کذا means, such a one took that thing secretly and concealed it. غل بصرہ means, his eye-sight deviated from the right course. غل الرجل means, the man acted unfaithfully and dishonestly. غل means, rancour or latent rancour; malevolence; malice; spite; enmity; insincerity and dishonesty (Lane & Aqrab).
The freedom of the heart from feelings of rancour and malice is indeed one of the great blessings of Heaven promised to the believers; and as true heavenly life should begin in this very world, a Muslim should always try to purge his heart of such feelings as are nothing but a source of disquiet for one who is a prey to them.
The question implied in the words, we could not have found guidance, if Allah had not guided us, is answered in the words that follow which may be expanded thus: "If Allah had not sent His Messengers, we could not have been rightly guided; for it was not possible for us to devise a Law for ourselves and without a Law we could not perform good works. Law is, therefore, not a curse but a blessing, for it enables us to reach Heaven."
The word تلکم (this) in the clause, This is the Heaven, is used to point to a thing. Heaven is here pointed out to believers, as they have not yet entered it. But they have at the same time been declared to be "the inmates of Heaven," because they have already earned it by their good works. Moreover, true heavenly life begins in this very world, although the full manifestation thereof will be in the next. See 2:26 & 55:47. (close)
وَ نَادٰۤی اَصۡحٰبُ الۡجَنَّۃِ اَصۡحٰبَ النَّارِ اَنۡ قَدۡ وَجَدۡنَا مَا وَعَدَنَا رَبُّنَا حَقًّا فَہَلۡ وَجَدۡتُّمۡ مَّا وَعَدَ رَبُّکُمۡ حَقًّا ؕ قَالُوۡا نَعَمۡ ۚ فَاَذَّنَ مُؤَذِّنٌۢ بَیۡنَہُمۡ اَنۡ لَّعۡنَۃُ اللّٰہِ عَلَی الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۴۵﴾
وَنَادَىٰٓ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ أَصۡحَٰبَ ٱلنَّارِ أَن قَدۡ وَجَدۡنَا مَا وَعَدَنَا رَبُّنَا حَقّٗا فَهَلۡ وَجَدتُّم مَّا وَعَدَ رَبُّكُمۡ حَقّٗاۖ قَالُواْ نَعَمۡۚ فَأَذَّنَ مُؤَذِّنُۢ بَيۡنَهُمۡ أَن لَّعۡنَةُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
A highly significant dialogue between the inmates of Heaven and of Hell begins from this verse.
The word, الظالمین (wrongdoers), may also be rendered as "idolaters" or "worshippers of false deities". See 31:14. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ یَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ یَبۡغُوۡنَہَا عِوَجًا ۚ وَ ہُمۡ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ کٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿ۘ۴۶﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَيَبۡغُونَهَا عِوَجٗا وَهُم بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ كَٰفِرُونَ
a. 7:87; 11:20; 14:4; 16:89. (close)
977. The expression signifies that the wrongdoers desire to corrupt true religion. They are not only themselves wicked but also try to make others like themselves and even seek to distort and tamper with religious teaching. (close)
This verse defines and qualifies the "wrongdoers" mentioned in the preceding verse. The expression, and seek to make it crooked, means that the wrongdoers desire to corrupt true religion. They are not only themselves wicked, but also try to make others so, and even seek to corrupt the religion sent for their good. They also disbelieve in the Hereafter. (close)
وَ بَیۡنَہُمَا حِجَابٌ ۚ وَ عَلَی الۡاَعۡرَافِ رِجَالٌ یَّعۡرِفُوۡنَ کُلًّۢا بِسِیۡمٰہُمۡ ۚ وَ نَادَوۡا اَصۡحٰبَ الۡجَنَّۃِ اَنۡ سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ ۟ لَمۡ یَدۡخُلُوۡہَا وَ ہُمۡ یَطۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾
وَبَيۡنَهُمَا حِجَابٞۚ وَعَلَى ٱلۡأَعۡرَافِ رِجَالٞ يَعۡرِفُونَ كُلَّۢا بِسِيمَىٰهُمۡۚ وَنَادَوۡاْ أَصۡحَٰبَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ أَن سَلَٰمٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡۚ لَمۡ يَدۡخُلُوهَا وَهُمۡ يَطۡمَعُونَ
978. A‘raf is the plural of ‘Urf which means 'an elevated place'. They say ‘Arafa ‘alal-Qaum, i.e. he was or became manager or superintendent of the affairs of the people, being acquainted with them. It is generally men of high dignity and distinguished position that are seated on elevated places. According to Hasan and Mujahid the men on the Elevated Places will be the elite among the believers or the most learned among them; according to Kirmani, they will be the Martyrs. Some others think that they will be the Prophets and this appears to be the most correct view. The men seated on the Elevated Places not only will command a better view, but, on account of their high rank and position, will also be better informed. They will know the rank and station of every person from his very appearance. It is evidently a wrong view that the men on the A‘raf (Elevated Places) will be those persons of middling ranks whose case will not have yet been decided, it being, as it were, still under consideration. There is no sense in placing such persons on elevated places while Martyrs and Prophets will be occupying lower positions. (close)
979. The words refer to would-be dwellers of Heaven who will not have yet entered it, but will be hoping to do so soon. The people on the Elevated Places will recognize them as would-be dwellers of Heaven, even though they will not have yet entered it. (close)
946. Important Words:
اعراف (elevated places) is the plural of عرف ‘urf (an elevated place) which is substantive from عرف. They say عرف الشیء i.e. he knew the thing; he was or became acquainted with the thing; he knew it by means of the five senses; or he knew it by mental perception or reflection. They say عرف علی القوم i.e. he was or became manager or superintendent of the affairs of the people, being acquainted with their circumstances. عرف (‘urf) means, goodness, favour, bounty and a thing freely given; good fellowship with others; an elevated sand; an elevated place; an elevated or overtopping back of anything high (Lane & Aqrab).
It is generally men of high dignity and distinguished position that are seated on elevated places. According to Hasan and Mujahid, the men on the elevated places will be the elite among the believers or the most learned among them; according to Kirmani, they will be the Martyrs. Some others think that they will be the Prophets and this appears to be the most correct view. The men seated on elevated places will not only command a better view, but on account of their high rank and position, will also be better informed. They will know the rank and station of every person from his very appearance.
The words, These will not have yet entered it, refer to those would-be dwellers of Heaven who will not have yet entered it, but will be hoping to do so soon. The people on the elevated places will recognize them as dwellers of Heaven even though they will not have yet entered it.
It is a commonly held, but nevertheless a wrong, view that the men on the A‘raf (elevated places) will be those middling persons whose case will not have yet been decided, it being, as it were, still under consideration. But if such had been the case, they could not have rebuked the inmates of the Fire in the manner in which they are represented to be doing in 7:49 below. There is also no sense in placing middling persons on elevated places while the true believers, including Martyrs, Prophets, etc., occupy the lower ones. (close)
وَ اِذَا صُرِفَتۡ اَبۡصَارُہُمۡ تِلۡقَآءَ اَصۡحٰبِ النَّارِ ۙ قَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجۡعَلۡنَا مَعَ الۡقَوۡمِ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۴۸﴾
۞وَإِذَا صُرِفَتۡ أَبۡصَٰرُهُمۡ تِلۡقَآءَ أَصۡحَٰبِ ٱلنَّارِ قَالُواْ رَبَّنَا لَا تَجۡعَلۡنَا مَعَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
a. 23:95. (close)
a. 23:95. (close)
The passive voice used in the words, when their eyes are turned, shows that the eyes of the men on the elevated places will be made to turn towards the inmates of Hell by some higher power, i.e. God, with some definite purpose which was to provide occasion for making certain announcements.
The last sentence of the verse spoken by the men on the elevated places, i.e. Our Lord, put us not with the unjust people, does not show that those, who will utter these words, will yet be in a state of uncertainty and that their case will not yet have been decided. They are mere words of piety or of God-fearingness that even a Prophet would utter when he sees an object of God’s punishment. (close)
وَ نَادٰۤی اَصۡحٰبُ الۡاَعۡرَافِ رِجَالًا یَّعۡرِفُوۡنَہُمۡ بِسِیۡمٰہُمۡ قَالُوۡا مَاۤ اَغۡنٰی عَنۡکُمۡ جَمۡعُکُمۡ وَ مَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾
وَنَادَىٰٓ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلۡأَعۡرَافِ رِجَالٗا يَعۡرِفُونَهُم بِسِيمَىٰهُمۡ قَالُواْ مَآ أَغۡنَىٰ عَنكُمۡ جَمۡعُكُمۡ وَمَا كُنتُمۡ تَسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ
980. The occupants of the Elevated Places, i.e. the Prophets, will call out to certain persons from among the people to whom they had been sent and whom they will recognize by their special marks and will say to them that they must have realized now the sorry end of their opposition to them. (close)
The occupants of the elevated places, i.e. the Prophets, shall call out to certain persons from among the people, to whom they had been sent and whom they will recognize by their marks, telling them to see the end of their opposition.
The particle ما (not) may also be taken in the interrogative sense, meaning "what". In that case the sentence would be rendered as, "of what avail was your multitude to you and your arrogance?" In this sense the sentence would constitute a very pointed rebuke by the Prophets to the dwellers of Hell. (close)
اَہٰۤؤُلَآءِ الَّذِیۡنَ اَقۡسَمۡتُمۡ لَا یَنَالُہُمُ اللّٰہُ بِرَحۡمَۃٍ ؕ اُدۡخُلُوا الۡجَنَّۃَ لَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ لَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ تَحۡزَنُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾
أَهَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ٱلَّذِينَ أَقۡسَمۡتُمۡ لَا يَنَالُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِرَحۡمَةٍۚ ٱدۡخُلُواْ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ لَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَلَآ أَنتُمۡ تَحۡزَنُونَ
b. 23:111. (close)
981. The reference in the word "these" is to the would-be inmates of Heaven. The Prophets will address the inmates of Hell and tell them to look at the would-be inmates of Heaven––the poor believers whom they ridiculed and looked down upon and then will ask them, "Are these the men about whom you swore that Allah would not extend mercy to them?" (close)
The reference in the word ھؤلاء (these) is to the would-be inmates of Heaven. The Prophets will address the inmates of Hell, telling them to look at the inmates of Heaven and then will ask them, "Are these the men about whom you swore that Allah would not extend mercy to them?" And then without waiting for an answer the Prophets would turn to the would-be inmates of Heaven and ask them to come forward and enter Paradise.
The words, Enter Paradise, show that the would-be inmates of Heaven had not yet entered Paradise but hope to do so soon. (close)
وَ نَادٰۤی اَصۡحٰبُ النَّارِ اَصۡحٰبَ الۡجَنَّۃِ اَنۡ اَفِیۡضُوۡا عَلَیۡنَا مِنَ الۡمَآءِ اَوۡ مِمَّا رَزَقَکُمُ اللّٰہُ ؕ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّ اللّٰہَ حَرَّمَہُمَا عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۱﴾
وَنَادَىٰٓ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ أَصۡحَٰبَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ أَنۡ أَفِيضُواْ عَلَيۡنَا مِنَ ٱلۡمَآءِ أَوۡ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ ٱللَّهُۚ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ حَرَّمَهُمَا عَلَى ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
950. Important Words:
افیضوا (pour) is derived from افاض which again is derived from فاض which means, it (water, etc.) overflowed, or poured forth from fullness. افاض means, he filled (a vessel) so that it overflowed; he made it (water, etc.) to flow or run; he poured out water, etc. (Lane).
The use of the words افیضواعلینا (pour on us) by the inmates of Hell implies that they would in a way flatter the inmates of Heaven by saying to them that they had enjoyed God’s blessings (which were virtually overflowing) to their heart’s content, and would then beg of them to give them a little of the abundant good that God had bestowed upon them. This condition of the inmates of Hell is well illustrated by the parable of Abraham and Lazarus in Luke 16:23-24. (close)