وَ بَیۡنَہُمَا حِجَابٌ ۚ وَ عَلَی الۡاَعۡرَافِ رِجَالٌ یَّعۡرِفُوۡنَ کُلًّۢا بِسِیۡمٰہُمۡ ۚ وَ نَادَوۡا اَصۡحٰبَ الۡجَنَّۃِ اَنۡ سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ ۟ لَمۡ یَدۡخُلُوۡہَا وَ ہُمۡ یَطۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾
وَبَيۡنَهُمَا حِجَابٞۚ وَعَلَى ٱلۡأَعۡرَافِ رِجَالٞ يَعۡرِفُونَ كُلَّۢا بِسِيمَىٰهُمۡۚ وَنَادَوۡاْ أَصۡحَٰبَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ أَن سَلَٰمٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡۚ لَمۡ يَدۡخُلُوهَا وَهُمۡ يَطۡمَعُونَ
978. A‘raf is the plural of ‘Urf which means 'an elevated place'. They say ‘Arafa ‘alal-Qaum, i.e. he was or became manager or superintendent of the affairs of the people, being acquainted with them. It is generally men of high dignity and distinguished position that are seated on elevated places. According to Hasan and Mujahid the men on the Elevated Places will be the elite among the believers or the most learned among them; according to Kirmani, they will be the Martyrs. Some others think that they will be the Prophets and this appears to be the most correct view. The men seated on the Elevated Places not only will command a better view, but, on account of their high rank and position, will also be better informed. They will know the rank and station of every person from his very appearance. It is evidently a wrong view that the men on the A‘raf (Elevated Places) will be those persons of middling ranks whose case will not have yet been decided, it being, as it were, still under consideration. There is no sense in placing such persons on elevated places while Martyrs and Prophets will be occupying lower positions. (close)
979. The words refer to would-be dwellers of Heaven who will not have yet entered it, but will be hoping to do so soon. The people on the Elevated Places will recognize them as would-be dwellers of Heaven, even though they will not have yet entered it. (close)
946. Important Words:
اعراف (elevated places) is the plural of عرف ‘urf (an elevated place) which is substantive from عرف. They say عرف الشیء i.e. he knew the thing; he was or became acquainted with the thing; he knew it by means of the five senses; or he knew it by mental perception or reflection. They say عرف علی القوم i.e. he was or became manager or superintendent of the affairs of the people, being acquainted with their circumstances. عرف (‘urf) means, goodness, favour, bounty and a thing freely given; good fellowship with others; an elevated sand; an elevated place; an elevated or overtopping back of anything high (Lane & Aqrab).
It is generally men of high dignity and distinguished position that are seated on elevated places. According to Hasan and Mujahid, the men on the elevated places will be the elite among the believers or the most learned among them; according to Kirmani, they will be the Martyrs. Some others think that they will be the Prophets and this appears to be the most correct view. The men seated on elevated places will not only command a better view, but on account of their high rank and position, will also be better informed. They will know the rank and station of every person from his very appearance.
The words, These will not have yet entered it, refer to those would-be dwellers of Heaven who will not have yet entered it, but will be hoping to do so soon. The people on the elevated places will recognize them as dwellers of Heaven even though they will not have yet entered it.
It is a commonly held, but nevertheless a wrong, view that the men on the A‘raf (elevated places) will be those middling persons whose case will not have yet been decided, it being, as it were, still under consideration. But if such had been the case, they could not have rebuked the inmates of the Fire in the manner in which they are represented to be doing in 7:49 below. There is also no sense in placing middling persons on elevated places while the true believers, including Martyrs, Prophets, etc., occupy the lower ones. (close)
وَ اِذَا صُرِفَتۡ اَبۡصَارُہُمۡ تِلۡقَآءَ اَصۡحٰبِ النَّارِ ۙ قَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجۡعَلۡنَا مَعَ الۡقَوۡمِ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۴۸﴾
۞وَإِذَا صُرِفَتۡ أَبۡصَٰرُهُمۡ تِلۡقَآءَ أَصۡحَٰبِ ٱلنَّارِ قَالُواْ رَبَّنَا لَا تَجۡعَلۡنَا مَعَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
a. 23:95. (close)
a. 23:95. (close)
The passive voice used in the words, when their eyes are turned, shows that the eyes of the men on the elevated places will be made to turn towards the inmates of Hell by some higher power, i.e. God, with some definite purpose which was to provide occasion for making certain announcements.
The last sentence of the verse spoken by the men on the elevated places, i.e. Our Lord, put us not with the unjust people, does not show that those, who will utter these words, will yet be in a state of uncertainty and that their case will not yet have been decided. They are mere words of piety or of God-fearingness that even a Prophet would utter when he sees an object of God’s punishment. (close)
وَ نَادٰۤی اَصۡحٰبُ الۡاَعۡرَافِ رِجَالًا یَّعۡرِفُوۡنَہُمۡ بِسِیۡمٰہُمۡ قَالُوۡا مَاۤ اَغۡنٰی عَنۡکُمۡ جَمۡعُکُمۡ وَ مَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾
وَنَادَىٰٓ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلۡأَعۡرَافِ رِجَالٗا يَعۡرِفُونَهُم بِسِيمَىٰهُمۡ قَالُواْ مَآ أَغۡنَىٰ عَنكُمۡ جَمۡعُكُمۡ وَمَا كُنتُمۡ تَسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ
980. The occupants of the Elevated Places, i.e. the Prophets, will call out to certain persons from among the people to whom they had been sent and whom they will recognize by their special marks and will say to them that they must have realized now the sorry end of their opposition to them. (close)
The occupants of the elevated places, i.e. the Prophets, shall call out to certain persons from among the people, to whom they had been sent and whom they will recognize by their marks, telling them to see the end of their opposition.
The particle ما (not) may also be taken in the interrogative sense, meaning "what". In that case the sentence would be rendered as, "of what avail was your multitude to you and your arrogance?" In this sense the sentence would constitute a very pointed rebuke by the Prophets to the dwellers of Hell. (close)
اَہٰۤؤُلَآءِ الَّذِیۡنَ اَقۡسَمۡتُمۡ لَا یَنَالُہُمُ اللّٰہُ بِرَحۡمَۃٍ ؕ اُدۡخُلُوا الۡجَنَّۃَ لَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ لَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ تَحۡزَنُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾
أَهَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ٱلَّذِينَ أَقۡسَمۡتُمۡ لَا يَنَالُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِرَحۡمَةٍۚ ٱدۡخُلُواْ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ لَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَلَآ أَنتُمۡ تَحۡزَنُونَ
b. 23:111. (close)
981. The reference in the word "these" is to the would-be inmates of Heaven. The Prophets will address the inmates of Hell and tell them to look at the would-be inmates of Heaven––the poor believers whom they ridiculed and looked down upon and then will ask them, "Are these the men about whom you swore that Allah would not extend mercy to them?" (close)
The reference in the word ھؤلاء (these) is to the would-be inmates of Heaven. The Prophets will address the inmates of Hell, telling them to look at the inmates of Heaven and then will ask them, "Are these the men about whom you swore that Allah would not extend mercy to them?" And then without waiting for an answer the Prophets would turn to the would-be inmates of Heaven and ask them to come forward and enter Paradise.
The words, Enter Paradise, show that the would-be inmates of Heaven had not yet entered Paradise but hope to do so soon. (close)
وَ نَادٰۤی اَصۡحٰبُ النَّارِ اَصۡحٰبَ الۡجَنَّۃِ اَنۡ اَفِیۡضُوۡا عَلَیۡنَا مِنَ الۡمَآءِ اَوۡ مِمَّا رَزَقَکُمُ اللّٰہُ ؕ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّ اللّٰہَ حَرَّمَہُمَا عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۱﴾
وَنَادَىٰٓ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ أَصۡحَٰبَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ أَنۡ أَفِيضُواْ عَلَيۡنَا مِنَ ٱلۡمَآءِ أَوۡ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ ٱللَّهُۚ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ حَرَّمَهُمَا عَلَى ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
950. Important Words:
افیضوا (pour) is derived from افاض which again is derived from فاض which means, it (water, etc.) overflowed, or poured forth from fullness. افاض means, he filled (a vessel) so that it overflowed; he made it (water, etc.) to flow or run; he poured out water, etc. (Lane).
The use of the words افیضواعلینا (pour on us) by the inmates of Hell implies that they would in a way flatter the inmates of Heaven by saying to them that they had enjoyed God’s blessings (which were virtually overflowing) to their heart’s content, and would then beg of them to give them a little of the abundant good that God had bestowed upon them. This condition of the inmates of Hell is well illustrated by the parable of Abraham and Lazarus in Luke 16:23-24. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّخَذُوۡا دِیۡنَہُمۡ لَہۡوًا وَّ لَعِبًا وَّ غَرَّتۡہُمُ الۡحَیٰوۃُ الدُّنۡیَا ۚ فَالۡیَوۡمَ نَنۡسٰہُمۡ کَمَا نَسُوۡا لِقَآءَ یَوۡمِہِمۡ ہٰذَا ۙ وَ مَا کَانُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا یَجۡحَدُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ دِينَهُمۡ لَهۡوٗا وَلَعِبٗا وَغَرَّتۡهُمُ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنۡيَاۚ فَٱلۡيَوۡمَ نَنسَىٰهُمۡ كَمَا نَسُواْ لِقَآءَ يَوۡمِهِمۡ هَٰذَا وَمَا كَانُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا يَجۡحَدُونَ
a. 5:58; 6:71. (close)
982. The disbelievers were convinced in their heart of hearts of the truth of Islam but, as they took their religion for a pastime, they refused to listen to the dictates of reason and to the voice of their conscience. So God will ignore them as they refused to believe that they will ever meet their Creator and they will have to render account of their deeds to Him. (close)
b. 45:35. (close)
a. 5:58; 6:71. (close)
This verse qualifies the word "disbelievers" occurring in the preceding verse. The disbelievers spoken of at the end of that verse were convinced in their hearts of the truth of Islam but, as they took their religion as a pastime, they refused to listen to the dictates of reason and the voice of their conscience. So God forgot them even as they had forgotten the meeting of their Lord. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ جِئۡنٰہُمۡ بِکِتٰبٍ فَصَّلۡنٰہُ عَلٰی عِلۡمٍ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾
وَلَقَدۡ جِئۡنَٰهُم بِكِتَٰبٖ فَصَّلۡنَٰهُ عَلَىٰ عِلۡمٍ هُدٗى وَرَحۡمَةٗ لِّقَوۡمٖ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
c. 6:115; 10:58; 12:112; 16:90; 29:52. (close)
a. 6:115; 10:58; 12:112; 16:90; 29:52. (close)
The Book referred to in this verse is the Quran. It embodies three distinct things:
(1) "Knowledge" essential for recognizing and knowing God;
(2) "Guidance" properly to discharge the duties due to God and to observe the rights of man; and
(3) "God’s mercy" descending on the Faithful. (close)
ہَلۡ یَنۡظُرُوۡنَ اِلَّا تَاۡوِیۡلَہٗ ؕ یَوۡمَ یَاۡتِیۡ تَاۡوِیۡلُہٗ یَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ نَسُوۡہُ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ قَدۡ جَآءَتۡ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالۡحَقِّ ۚ فَہَلۡ لَّنَا مِنۡ شُفَعَآءَ فَیَشۡفَعُوۡا لَنَاۤ اَوۡ نُرَدُّ فَنَعۡمَلَ غَیۡرَ الَّذِیۡ کُنَّا نَعۡمَلُ ؕ قَدۡ خَسِرُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ وَ ضَلَّ عَنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۵۴﴾
هَلۡ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا تَأۡوِيلَهُۥۚ يَوۡمَ يَأۡتِي تَأۡوِيلُهُۥ يَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ نَسُوهُ مِن قَبۡلُ قَدۡ جَآءَتۡ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِٱلۡحَقِّ فَهَل لَّنَا مِن شُفَعَآءَ فَيَشۡفَعُواْ لَنَآ أَوۡ نُرَدُّ فَنَعۡمَلَ غَيۡرَ ٱلَّذِي كُنَّا نَعۡمَلُۚ قَدۡ خَسِرُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ وَضَلَّ عَنۡهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ
d. 2:211; 6:159. (close)
983. For the sake of convenience the word Ta’wil has been rendered here as fulfilment of warning. See also 372. (close)
a. 26:103; 35:38; 39:59. (close)
b. 2:211; 6:159. (close)
c. 26:103; 35:38; 39:59. (close)
953. Important Words:
تاویل (fulfilment) means, revealing, disclosing, or expounding; interpretation; and issue, result or final sequel. The words ھل ینظرون الا تاویله mean, do they wait for aught save the result to which their case will come by the appearance of the promises and threats which it (the Book) has foretold (Lane). See also 3:8. For the sake of convenience the word has been rendered here as "fulfilment of warnings".
The verse constitutes at once a rebuke and a warning to the disbelievers. What are they waiting for, asks the verse, after they have been given such a Perfect Book as the Quran and such a Perfect Exemplar as the Holy Prophet, except that God’s promised punishment should overtake them? (close)
اِنَّ رَبَّکُمُ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ فِیۡ سِتَّۃِ اَیَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسۡتَوٰی عَلَی الۡعَرۡشِ ۟ یُغۡشِی الَّیۡلَ النَّہَارَ یَطۡلُبُہٗ حَثِیۡثًا ۙ وَّ الشَّمۡسَ وَ الۡقَمَرَ وَ النُّجُوۡمَ مُسَخَّرٰتٍۭ بِاَمۡرِہٖ ؕ اَلَا لَہُ الۡخَلۡقُ وَ الۡاَمۡرُ ؕ تَبٰرَکَ اللّٰہُ رَبُّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۵۵﴾
إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٖ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِۖ يُغۡشِي ٱلَّيۡلَ ٱلنَّهَارَ يَطۡلُبُهُۥ حَثِيثٗا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ وَٱلنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَٰتِۭ بِأَمۡرِهِۦٓۗ أَلَا لَهُ ٱلۡخَلۡقُ وَٱلۡأَمۡرُۗ تَبَارَكَ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
b. 10:4; 11:8; 25:60; 32:5; 41:10-13; 50:39; 57:5. (close)
984. Ayyam is the plural of Yaum which denotes time absolutely (1:4); or it may signify an indefinite period, or a stage in the development of a thing. It is not possible to surmise and define the length of this period. It may be "a thousand years" (22:48), or "fifty thousand years" (70:5). But the word Yaum definitely does not refer here or in any other verse of the Qur’an as the period of time determined by the rotation of the earth on its axis. God has not disclosed to us the extent of all His days. If some of God’s days extend over a thousand years and others over fifty thousand years, there may be still others which extend over millions or billions of years. Science has disclosed the fact that it took the heavens and the earth millions of years to be evolved into their present shape. A vision of the eminent Muslim scholar, Muhyud-Din Ibn-e- ‘Arabi, leads one to a similar conclusion. Thus we cannot definitely determine the length of the "six days" during which the creation of the heavens and the earth was completed. God brings about different changes in different periods, some taking a thousand years, others fifty thousand years and yet others even a longer period. All that we can say is that the creation of the heavens and the earth took six long cycles to become perfect and complete. (close)
985. See 54. (close)
986. ‘Arsh (Throne) represents God’s transcendent attributes (Sifate- Tanzihiyyah), i.e. such attributes as are not found in any other being. The four attributes of God mentioned in Surah Ikhlas are His transcendent attributes. These attributes are eternal and unchangeable and are manifested through God’s attributes of similitude (Sifate-Tashbihiyyah), i.e. such attributes as are found more or less in other beings also. These latter attributes are said to be the bearers of the ‘Arsh. They are Rabbul-‘Alamin, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim and Maliki Yaumid-Din. That ‘Arsh represents the transcendent attributes of God is also clear from 23:117 which shows that the "Unity of God" and His ‘Arsh are intimately connected, for it is the transcendent attributes which constitute the real proof of Divine Unity, other attributes of God being shared by man in different degrees. The words, "Settled Himself on the Throne" signify that after the creation of the physical universe the transcendent attributes of God and His attributes of similitude came into operation and all the affairs of the world began to be conducted through the set laws of nature and became in perfect working order. See also 'The Larger Edition of the Commentary,' pp. 973-976. (close)
a. 13:4; 36:38. (close)
987. The distinction between Khalq (creation) and Amr (command) is that while the former word generally means, the measuring out or evolving of a thing out of pre-existing matter, the latter means, bringing into being without matter by uttering the simple command word "be." The clause, His is the creation and the command, may also mean that God has not only created the universe but He also exercises authority and command over it. Amr also means, the making of laws. (close)
a. 10:4; 11:8; 25:60; 32:5; 41:10-13; 50:39; 57:5. (close)
b. 13:4; 36:38. (close)
954. Important Words:
عرش (Throne) is substantive from the verb عرش which means, he constructed or built a shed or a building, etc. عرش البیتmeans, he built or constructed the house. عرش بالمکان means, he put up, or lodged, in the house. The saying من العرش الی الفرشmeans, from the highest sphere to the lowness of the earth. عرش means, a shed or building constructed for shade; a house in an absolute sense; a dwelling or a place of abode; the wood upon which one stands when drawing water; the roof of a house or the like; the throne or the seat of a king; the means of support of a thing or an affair; might or power; regal power; sovereignty; dominion. The expression استوی علی العرش means, He (God) reigned as King; He settled Himself on the Throne; He was or became established on the Throne of Power and Majesty (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:30 & 6:142.
The word یوم (day) also means "time" absolutely (1:4); and it is in this sense that the word has been used in the present verse. It is difficult to say how long these six periods of time were in which, according to this verse, the heavens and the earth were created. They may have extended over hundreds of thousands of years. The word ایام (days) evidently is not used here in the sense of ordinary days of 24 hours, because such days are determined by the rising and setting of the sun and the sun itself, being a part of this universe, came into existence simultaneously with it.
The word ثم (then) shows that after completing the creation of the heavens and the earth in six "days" or six "periods", God settled Himself on the Throne on the seventh day. As the Arabic word سبع (seven) is generally used as a symbol of perfection, the expression would signify that on the seventh day when God became established on the Throne of His Power and Majesty, the universe became in perfect working order.
The "night and day" mentioned in the clause, He makes the night cover the day, have been mentioned here as symbolizing sin and virtue. In fact, the phenomenon of sin in a perfectly ordered universe is explainable only by the phenomenon of night. Just as that part of the earth which is hidden from the sun is covered by darkness; similarly, when a man turns away from God, he becomes involved in the darkness of sin; but when he turns his face towards God, the day dawns for him and he basks in the light of truth and righteousness.
The words, He makes the night cover the day which pursues it swiftly, are explained in 2:165 by the expression "the alternation of night and day." The clause may also imply that it is God’s سنة or practice that after a period of darkness He brings a period of light so that mankind may not suffer.
By using the word مسخرات (all made subservient) with respect to the sun, the moon and the stars, the verse reminds us that it was not in the power of man to make all these planets serve him and that it is God alone Who has placed them at his service. Therefore, if, in spite of these great favours, he would not listen to God’s voice, he would be marked as a transgressor and consequently merit His punishment.
The distinction between خلق (the creation) and امر (the command) is that while the former generally means, the measuring out or evolving of a thing out of pre-existing matter, the latter means, bringing into being without matter by uttering the simple command "Be". The clause, His is the creation and the command, may also mean that God has not only created the universe but also exercises authority and command over it.
For the words, He settled Himself on the Throne, see under 10:4 where the expressions "Divine Throne", and "God’s settling on it" have been fully dealt with. (close)
اُدۡعُوۡا رَبَّکُمۡ تَضَرُّعًا وَّ خُفۡیَۃً ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَا یُحِبُّ الۡمُعۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۵۶﴾
ٱدۡعُواْ رَبَّكُمۡ تَضَرُّعٗا وَخُفۡيَةًۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُعۡتَدِينَ
b. 6:64; 7:206. (close)
a. 6:64; 7:206. (close)
For an explanation of the words, in humility and in secret, see 6:64. (close)