اَوَ عَجِبۡتُمۡ اَنۡ جَآءَکُمۡ ذِکۡرٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ عَلٰی رَجُلٍ مِّنۡکُمۡ لِیُنۡذِرَکُمۡ ؕ وَ اذۡکُرُوۡۤا اِذۡ جَعَلَکُمۡ خُلَفَآءَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ قَوۡمِ نُوۡحٍ وَّ زَادَکُمۡ فِی الۡخَلۡقِ بَصۜۡطَۃً ۚ فَاذۡکُرُوۡۤا اٰلَآءَ اللّٰہِ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۷۰﴾
أَوَعَجِبۡتُمۡ أَن جَآءَكُمۡ ذِكۡرٞ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٖ مِّنكُمۡ لِيُنذِرَكُمۡۚ وَٱذۡكُرُوٓاْ إِذۡ جَعَلَكُمۡ خُلَفَآءَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ قَوۡمِ نُوحٖ وَزَادَكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡخَلۡقِ بَصۜۡطَةٗۖ فَٱذۡكُرُوٓاْ ءَالَآءَ ٱللَّهِ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ
e. 7:64; 10:3; 38:5; 50:3. (close)
f. 6:166; 7:75, 130; 10:15. (close)
997. The Adites were a very prosperous and powerful people. (close)
997A. The words also mean that He increased your posterity. (close)
a. 7:64; 10:3; 38:5; 50:3. (close)
b. 6:166; 7:75, 130; 10:15. (close)
968. Important Words:
خلفاء (inheritors of God’s favours) is the plural of خلیفة which is verbal adjective from خلف meaning, he came after, followed, succeeded another, or remained after another. خلفه also means, he was or became his successor, vicegerent or substitute. خلف الرجل means, he lived after the man and took his place. خلیفة means, a successor; vicegerent; lieutenant; substitute; deputy; one who has been appointed to take the place of him who has been before him; the supreme ruler or sovereign who supplies the place of him who has been before him; the Successor of a Prophet (Lane and Aqrab). In the text the word خلفاء has been rendered as "inheritors of His favours", signifying that just as Noah and his people inherited God’s favours in their time, Hud and his people, who came after them, were also inheritors of God’s favours. See also 2:31.
بصطة (abundantly) is the same as بسطة which is the noun-infinitive from بسط. They say بسطه i.e. he spread it or spread it out; he expanded it; he extended it; he made it wide or ample. بسطة or بصطة means, width or ampleness; length or height; increase or excess; excellence or perfection in body; knowledge or mental powers (Lane and Aqrab).
See note on 7:64 above.
The ‘Adites were a ruling nation. They were a mighty and powerful people. Their rule extended over vast territories. They were the first Arab nation to wield temporal power in Arabia. (close)
قَالُوۡۤا اَجِئۡتَنَا لِنَعۡبُدَ اللّٰہَ وَحۡدَہٗ وَ نَذَرَ مَا کَانَ یَعۡبُدُ اٰبَآؤُنَا ۚ فَاۡتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَاۤ اِنۡ کُنۡتَ مِنَ الصّٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۷۱﴾
قَالُوٓاْ أَجِئۡتَنَا لِنَعۡبُدَ ٱللَّهَ وَحۡدَهُۥ وَنَذَرَ مَا كَانَ يَعۡبُدُ ءَابَآؤُنَا فَأۡتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَآ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰدِقِينَ
a. 10:79; 11:63, 88. (close)
a. 10:79; 11:63,88. (close)
Being unable to meet the arguments of Hud, disbelievers took a new line and declared that they would rather die than give up the faith of their fathers. That it was the threatened punishment of God that they challenged Hud to bring upon them is clear from the reply which he gave them and which is contained in the words: Indeed there have already fallen on you punishment and wrath from your Lord, occurring in the following verse. (close)
قَالَ قَدۡ وَقَعَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ رِجۡسٌ وَّ غَضَبٌ ؕ اَتُجَادِلُوۡنَنِیۡ فِیۡۤ اَسۡمَآءٍ سَمَّیۡتُمُوۡہَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ وَ اٰبَآؤُکُمۡ مَّا نَزَّلَ اللّٰہُ بِہَا مِنۡ سُلۡطٰنٍ ؕ فَانۡتَظِرُوۡۤا اِنِّیۡ مَعَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡمُنۡتَظِرِیۡنَ ﴿۷۲﴾
قَالَ قَدۡ وَقَعَ عَلَيۡكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ رِجۡسٞ وَغَضَبٌۖ أَتُجَٰدِلُونَنِي فِيٓ أَسۡمَآءٖ سَمَّيۡتُمُوهَآ أَنتُمۡ وَءَابَآؤُكُم مَّا نَزَّلَ ٱللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلۡطَٰنٖۚ فَٱنتَظِرُوٓاْ إِنِّي مَعَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡمُنتَظِرِينَ
b. 3:152; 7:34; 22:72; 53:24. (close)
c. 10:21, 103; 11:123. (close)
b. 3:152; 7:34; 22:72; 53:24. (close)
c. 10:21,103; 11:123. (close)
This verse shows that one may follow one’s forefathers only if one has the support of reason and not otherwise. Blind and unthinking following is condemned. (close)
فَاَنۡجَیۡنٰہُ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ مَعَہٗ بِرَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنَّا وَ قَطَعۡنَا دَابِرَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا وَ مَا کَانُوۡا مُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿٪۷۳﴾
فَأَنجَيۡنَٰهُ وَٱلَّذِينَ مَعَهُۥ بِرَحۡمَةٖ مِّنَّا وَقَطَعۡنَا دَابِرَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَاۖ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُؤۡمِنِينَ
d. 7:65; 26:120, 121. (close)
d. 7:165; 26:120,121. (close)
The word دابر (last remnant) also means "root" (see 6:46), in which case it may be taken to signify leaders of a community, i.e. those who lead and organize opposition to a Prophet and devise plans to compass his ruin. The tribe of ‘Ad was destroyed by a furious wind, (see 69:7). (close)
وَ اِلٰی ثَمُوۡدَ اَخَاہُمۡ صٰلِحًا ۘ قَالَ یٰقَوۡمِ اعۡبُدُوا اللّٰہَ مَا لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اِلٰہٍ غَیۡرُہٗ ؕ قَدۡ جَآءَتۡکُمۡ بَیِّنَۃٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ ؕ ہٰذِہٖ نَاقَۃُ اللّٰہِ لَکُمۡ اٰیَۃً فَذَرُوۡہَا تَاۡکُلۡ فِیۡۤ اَرۡضِ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا تَمَسُّوۡہَا بِسُوۡٓءٍ فَیَاۡخُذَکُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۷۴﴾
وَإِلَىٰ ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمۡ صَٰلِحٗاۚ قَالَ يَٰقَوۡمِ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنۡ إِلَٰهٍ غَيۡرُهُۥۖ قَدۡ جَآءَتۡكُم بَيِّنَةٞ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡۖ هَٰذِهِۦ نَاقَةُ ٱللَّهِ لَكُمۡ ءَايَةٗۖ فَذَرُوهَا تَأۡكُلۡ فِيٓ أَرۡضِ ٱللَّهِۖ وَلَا تَمَسُّوهَا بِسُوٓءٖ فَيَأۡخُذَكُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٞ
e. 11:62; 27:46. (close)
998. The Thamud tribe lived in the western parts of Arabia, having spread from Aden northward to Syria. They lived shortly before the time of Ishmael. Their territory was adjacent to that of ‘Ad, but they lived mostly in the hills. (close)
999. The Prophet Salih lived after Hud and was probably a contemporary of Abraham. (close)
a. 7:78; 11:65; 17:60; 26:156; 54:28; 91:14. (close)
1000. The camel formed the chief means of conveyance in those parts and it was on his she-camel that the Prophet Salih used to travel from place to place to preach his Message. Placing obstruction in the way of the free movements of the she-camel or doing it harm was tantamount to obstructing the work with which God had entrusted Salih. There was nothing unusual about the she-camel itself. It was an ordinary animal. The sanctity that attached to it was that God had declared it to be a Sign and a symbol of the sanctity and inviolability of the person of the Prophet Salih, and so doing an injury to it was tantamount to doing an injury to Salih himself and to hampering his work. (close)
1001. The words do not mean that she was to be allowed to graze in any field she entered. The meaning is that no obstruction was to be put in her way and that she was to be permitted to proceed to any place to which Salih might choose to go. The declaration by Salih about the free movements of his she- camel was in harmony with a time-honoured Arab custom. (close)
a. 11:62; 27:46. (close)
b. 7:78; 11:65; 17:60; 26:156; 54:28; 91:14. (close)
972. Important Words:
ثمود (Thamud) was the name of a tribe that lived after ‘Ad. The name may have been derived from the Arabic root ثمد. They say ثمدہ i.e. he dug out a hole in the earth so that water might collect in it (Aqrab). The tribe Thamud lived in the western part of Arabia, having spread from Aden northward to Syria. They lived shortly before the time of Ishmael. Their territory was adjacent to that of ‘Ad, but they lived mostly in the hills. For a fuller note on the subject see 11:62.
صالح (Salih) is an Arabic word being derived from صلح i.e. he was or became good or righteous. صالح means, a righteous person. See 2:12, 161. The Prophet Salih lived after Hud and was probably a contemporary of Abraham.
The camel formed the chief means of conveyance in Arabia, and it was on his she-camel that the Prophet Salih used to travel from place to place to preach his message. So he told his people that placing obstruction in the way of the free movements of the she-camel or doing harm to it would be tantamount to obstructing the work with which God had entrusted him, and that if they did not stand out of her way, God’s punishment would surely descend upon them. Thus it was that the she-camel was meant as a sign for the tribe of Thamud. There was nothing unusual about the camel itself. It was an ordinary animal. The sanctity that attached to it was that God had declared it to be a sign and a symbol of the sanctity and inviolability of the person of the Prophet Salih and doing an injury to it was declared to be tantamount to doing an injury to Salih himself and to hampering his work.
The words, leave her that she may feed in Allah’s earth, do not mean that she was to be allowed to graze in any field she pleased. What is meant is only that no obstruction was to be put in her way, and that she was to be permitted to proceed to any place to which Salih might choose to go. The declaration by Salih about the free movement of his she-camel was also in harmony with a time-honoured Arab custom. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرُوۡۤا اِذۡ جَعَلَکُمۡ خُلَفَآءَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ عَادٍ وَّ بَوَّاَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ تَتَّخِذُوۡنَ مِنۡ سُہُوۡلِہَا قُصُوۡرًا وَّ تَنۡحِتُوۡنَ الۡجِبَالَ بُیُوۡتًا ۚ فَاذۡکُرُوۡۤا اٰلَآءَ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا تَعۡثَوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُفۡسِدِیۡنَ ﴿۷۵﴾
وَٱذۡكُرُوٓاْ إِذۡ جَعَلَكُمۡ خُلَفَآءَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ عَادٖ وَبَوَّأَكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِن سُهُولِهَا قُصُورٗا وَتَنۡحِتُونَ ٱلۡجِبَالَ بُيُوتٗاۖ فَٱذۡكُرُوٓاْ ءَالَآءَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا تَعۡثَوۡاْ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُفۡسِدِينَ
b. 6:166; 7:70, 130; 10:15. (close)
c. 15:83; 26:150. (close)
1002. The words, you build palaces in its plains, refer to the winter residences of the tribe, while the expression, and you hew the mountains into dwellings, allude to their summer resorts in the hills. The tribe of Thamud were a cultured people––industrious, wealthy and resourceful. Judged by the standards of their time, they led a luxurious and comfortable life, going up to the hills in the hot season and spending their winter in the plains. (close)
a. 6:166; 7:70,130; 10:15. (close)
b. 15:83; 26:150. (close)
973. Important Words:
بواکم (assigned you an abode). بوا is derived from باء which means, he returned. بواہ منزلا means, he lodged him in an abode. بوأله منزلا means, he prepared for him an abode and assigned or gave him a place therein (Lane).
The words, you build palaces in its plains, refer to the winter residences of the tribe, while the expression, and you hew the mountains into houses, allude to their summer residences in the hills. The tribe of Thamud were a cultured people—industrious, wealthy and resourceful. Judged by the standards of that time, they led a luxurious and comfortable life, going up the hills in the hot season and spending their winters in the plains. (close)
قَالَ الۡمَلَاُ الَّذِیۡنَ اسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا مِنۡ قَوۡمِہٖ لِلَّذِیۡنَ اسۡتُضۡعِفُوۡا لِمَنۡ اٰمَنَ مِنۡہُمۡ اَتَعۡلَمُوۡنَ اَنَّ صٰلِحًا مُّرۡسَلٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّہٖ ؕ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّا بِمَاۤ اُرۡسِلَ بِہٖ مُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۷۶﴾
قَالَ ٱلۡمَلَأُ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ مِن قَوۡمِهِۦ لِلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتُضۡعِفُواْ لِمَنۡ ءَامَنَ مِنۡهُمۡ أَتَعۡلَمُونَ أَنَّ صَٰلِحٗا مُّرۡسَلٞ مِّن رَّبِّهِۦۚ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا بِمَآ أُرۡسِلَ بِهِۦ مُؤۡمِنُونَ
1003. Mala’a-hu means, he filled it. Mala’ul-Qaum means, the leaders of the people; its wealthy members (Aqrab). They are so called because with their presence in an assembly it seems to be full. (close)
974. Important Words:
الملاء (chief men). See 2:247.
When the so-called leaders of his tribe found, to their mortification, that Salih stood firm as a rock in his convictions and no amount of persuasion could make him swerve from his purpose, they began to harass his followers, but these too they found bold and firm. (close)
قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ اسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡۤا اِنَّا بِالَّذِیۡۤ اٰمَنۡتُمۡ بِہٖ کٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿۷۷﴾
قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَكۡبَرُوٓاْ إِنَّا بِٱلَّذِيٓ ءَامَنتُم بِهِۦ كَٰفِرُونَ
The words, Verily, we do disbelieve in that in which you believe, in popular parlance signify a typical form of arrogant but veiled threat generally held out by rich and powerful people to the weaker and poorer section of society. The words may be interpreted as: "How dare you, weak and poor as you are, accept a teaching which we, your betters and superiors, have thought fit to reject?" (close)
فَعَقَرُوا النَّاقَۃَ وَ عَتَوۡا عَنۡ اَمۡرِ رَبِّہِمۡ وَ قَالُوۡا یٰصٰلِحُ ائۡتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَاۤ اِنۡ کُنۡتَ مِنَ الۡمُرۡسَلِیۡنَ ﴿۷۸﴾
فَعَقَرُواْ ٱلنَّاقَةَ وَعَتَوۡاْ عَنۡ أَمۡرِ رَبِّهِمۡ وَقَالُواْ يَٰصَٰلِحُ ٱئۡتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَآ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُرۡسَلِينَ
a. See 7:74. (close)
a. See 7:74. (close)
976. Important Words:
عقروا (hamstrung) is derived from عقر. They say عقره i.e. he wounded him, or he wounded him much; he hacked or hamstrung it (a beast); he struck or cut its (an animal’s) leg with a sword, etc.; he stabbed an animal, etc.; he killed, slew or destroyed. عقربی means, he detained or restrained me. عقر and عقرت mean, he or she was barren and produced no issue (Lane).
The reference in the pronoun "that" in the clause, bring us that, is to the punishment mentioned in 7:74 above. The she-camel was held out as a sign, and that sign was to be witnessed on her being obstructed by disbelievers. They not only hindered the free movement of the she-camel but even wounded and killed her which amounted to an open challenge to Salih to do his worst,—to call upon his God to send down the threatened punishment upon them. (close)
فَاَخَذَتۡہُمُ الرَّجۡفَۃُ فَاَصۡبَحُوۡا فِیۡ دَارِہِمۡ جٰثِمِیۡنَ ﴿۷۹﴾
فَأَخَذَتۡهُمُ ٱلرَّجۡفَةُ فَأَصۡبَحُواْ فِي دَارِهِمۡ جَٰثِمِينَ
b. 7:92; 11:68; 15:84; 26:159. (close)
a. 7:92; 11:68; 15:84; 26:159. (close)
977. Important Words:
الرجفة (earthquake) is derived from رجف which means, it was or became in a state of motion, commotion, convulsion or disturbance or in a state of violent motion, etc. رجفة means, commotion or convulsion, particularly an earthquake; a violent earthquake; a vehement cry from heaven; any punishment that befalls a people (Lane).
اصبحوا (lay) is derived from اصبح which again is derived from صبح. They say صبح القوم i.e. he came to the people in the morning. اصبح means: (1) he entered upon the time of morning; (2) he became; or he entered upon a certain state. اصبح زید عالماmeans, Zaid became learned. So جاثمین اصبحوا means, they became prostrate, i.e. they lay prostrate; or they entered upon the time of morning, while they lay prostrate (Lane & Aqrab).
جاثمین (prostrate on the ground) is the plural of جاثم which is the active participle from جثم which means, she clove to the ground, or he fell upon his breast; or he kept to his place, not quitting it. So جاثم means, one who, or that which, cleaves to the ground or falls upon his or its breast. It also means motionless or dead (Lane & Aqrab).
According to the different meanings of the word جثم given under Important Words, the verse would mean that (1) they were crushed to death by the earthquake and lay prostrate; (2) when the earthquake overtook them, they were terrified and fell prostrate on the ground, praying to God for deliverance. (close)