وَ لَوۡ اَنَّ اَہۡلَ الۡقُرٰۤی اٰمَنُوۡا وَ اتَّقَوۡا لَفَتَحۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ بَرَکٰتٍ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لٰکِنۡ کَذَّبُوۡا فَاَخَذۡنٰہُمۡ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡسِبُوۡنَ ﴿۹۷﴾
وَلَوۡ أَنَّ أَهۡلَ ٱلۡقُرَىٰٓ ءَامَنُواْ وَٱتَّقَوۡاْ لَفَتَحۡنَا عَلَيۡهِم بَرَكَٰتٖ مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَٰكِن كَذَّبُواْ فَأَخَذۡنَٰهُم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡسِبُونَ
c. 2:104; 5:66. (close)
a. 2:104; 5:66. (close)
In this verse the words, the people of those towns, refer to all the different peoples mentioned in the foregoing verses. The verse is thus intended to sum up the given narration with a view to introducing the case of the people of the Holy Prophet’s time.
The words لفتحنا الخ rendered as, We would have surely opened for them blessings from heaven and earth, may signify: "We would have taught them wisdom or granted them knowledge from heaven as well as from earth". By earthly wisdom or knowledge is meant that wisdom or knowledge which a person acquires from personal observation or from his fellowmen; but the wisdom or knowledge from Heaven is that wisdom or knowledge which comes directly from God. The word "blessings" may also be taken in the physical sense. In this case blessings from heaven would mean, for example, timely rains, extraordinary success, the removal of diseases, etc., while blessings from the earth would signify, for example, abundant produce of land, peace and order, etc. (close)
اَفَاَمِنَ اَہۡلُ الۡقُرٰۤی اَنۡ یَّاۡتِیَہُمۡ بَاۡسُنَا بَیَاتًا وَّ ہُمۡ نَآئِمُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۹۸﴾
أَفَأَمِنَ أَهۡلُ ٱلۡقُرَىٰٓ أَن يَأۡتِيَهُم بَأۡسُنَا بَيَٰتٗا وَهُمۡ نَآئِمُونَ
a. 7:5. (close)
b. 7:5. (close)
In this and the following verse the words اھل القری (people of these towns) refer to the people of the time of the Holy Prophet to whom the Quran now turns as a fitting sequel to the story of bygone peoples who were destroyed by God for rejecting their Prophets. The verse thus purports to warn the people of Mecca and other towns of Arabia that their turn is fast approaching and that the punishment of God may overtake them at any moment of negligence. (close)
اَوَ اَمِنَ اَہۡلُ الۡقُرٰۤی اَنۡ یَّاۡتِیَہُمۡ بَاۡسُنَا ضُحًی وَّ ہُمۡ یَلۡعَبُوۡنَ ﴿۹۹﴾
أَوَأَمِنَ أَهۡلُ ٱلۡقُرَىٰٓ أَن يَأۡتِيَهُم بَأۡسُنَا ضُحٗى وَهُمۡ يَلۡعَبُونَ
1016. The words "these towns" refer to Mecca and its sister towns of Hijaz. The meaning is "Do not the people of Mecca, etc. take a lesson from the fate of ‘Ad, Thamud, the people of Lot and from that of the people of Shu‘aib? (close)
a. 7:5. (close)
Whereas the preceding verse mentioned the time of night and sleep, the present one refers to the time of forenoon and play—both times of extreme negligence and forgetfulness. (close)
اَفَاَمِنُوۡا مَکۡرَ اللّٰہِ ۚ فَلَا یَاۡمَنُ مَکۡرَ اللّٰہِ اِلَّا الۡقَوۡمُ الۡخٰسِرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۱۰۰﴾
أَفَأَمِنُواْ مَكۡرَ ٱللَّهِۚ فَلَا يَأۡمَنُ مَكۡرَ ٱللَّهِ إِلَّا ٱلۡقَوۡمُ ٱلۡخَٰسِرُونَ
As stated under 7:98 above, the Quran mentioned the fate of peoples that had opposed the Prophets of God in times gone by in order to warn opponents of the Holy Prophet that they also could not expect to escape a similar fate if they persisted in their opposition. The Prophets who have been mentioned in the preceding verses lived either in Arabia itself or in the neighbouring countries and stories of the fate that befell their opponents were still current among the contemporaries of the Holy Prophet.
The home of the ‘Adites was in Yemen, but their conquests extended over the whole of Arabia. Arab tradition represents them as conquerors of the whole world—of Persia, India and China, but history furnishes no proof of this claim.
The territory of the tribe of Thamud lay between Medina and Syria. The Holy Prophet passed through the ruins of their dwelling places during his expedition to Tabuk. The tribe of Thamud were worshippers of idols, among them being the Lat and the ‘Uzza.
The Midianites also lived in the north of Arabia near the coast of the Red Sea. The history of all these peoples was current among the Arabs who were well-informed of their power, designs and machinations as well as of their subsequent destruction as a result of the opposition offered by them to their Prophets. The reference in the verse to the people that perish is, therefore, straight and pointed. (close)
اَوَ لَمۡ یَہۡدِ لِلَّذِیۡنَ یَرِثُوۡنَ الۡاَرۡضَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ اَہۡلِہَاۤ اَنۡ لَّوۡ نَشَآءُ اَصَبۡنٰہُمۡ بِذُنُوۡبِہِمۡ ۚ وَ نَطۡبَعُ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یَسۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۱﴾
أَوَلَمۡ يَهۡدِ لِلَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ أَهۡلِهَآ أَن لَّوۡ نَشَآءُ أَصَبۡنَٰهُم بِذُنُوبِهِمۡۚ وَنَطۡبَعُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يَسۡمَعُونَ
c. 20:129; 32:27. (close)
d. 10:75; 16:109; 45:24. (close)
a. 20:129; 32:27. (close)
b. 10:75; 16:109; 45:24. (close)
The veiled threat in the preceding verse is openly made in the present one. The enemies of Islam should either take lesson from the sad end of those gone before them and give up offering opposition to it or be prepared for a similar doom. The word یسمعون (understand) here signifies not listening but understanding (Lane). (close)
تِلۡکَ الۡقُرٰی نَقُصُّ عَلَیۡکَ مِنۡ اَنۡۢبَآئِہَا ۚ وَ لَقَدۡ جَآءَتۡہُمۡ رُسُلُہُمۡ بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِ ۚ فَمَا کَانُوۡا لِیُؤۡمِنُوۡا بِمَا کَذَّبُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَطۡبَعُ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۲﴾
تِلۡكَ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ نَقُصُّ عَلَيۡكَ مِنۡ أَنۢبَآئِهَاۚ وَلَقَدۡ جَآءَتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ فَمَا كَانُواْ لِيُؤۡمِنُواْ بِمَا كَذَّبُواْ مِن قَبۡلُۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَطۡبَعُ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
1017. The Qur’an does not give the entire history of bygone peoples but only the relevant parts of it. Nevertheless, no book of history contains more reliable information about the tribes of ‘Ad and Thamud than does the Qur’an, and students of history have admitted that what the Qur’an tells us is the only authentic and reliable information that we possess about these ancient peoples and all other stories current about them are so many myths. (close)
a. 3:185; 5:33. (close)
1018. The hearts of disbelievers are sealed up when they refuse to make use of their God-given power of reasoning and understanding. (close)
c. 3:185; 5:33. (close)
The word القری (the towns) again refers here to ancient towns fallen into ruin. The Quran reverts to their mention in order to emphasize the seriousness of a Prophet’s rejection and to introduce the narration of yet another by-gone people, the rejecters of Moses.
By using the words, some of whose news, the verse makes it clear that the Quran has not given the entire history of by-gone peoples but only the relevant parts of it. Nevertheless, no book of history contains more reliable information about the peoples of ‘Ad and Thamud than does the Quran, and students of history have admitted that what the Quran tells us is the only authentic and reliable knowledge that we possess about these ancient peoples, and all other stories current about them may be only so many myths. As regards Lot, later Jewish writers have admitted that he was a Prophet of God, as the Quran represents him to be, though the Bible does not seem to accord him this rank.
The verse hints that as the Holy Prophet represents in his person all the Prophets that have gone before him, therefore his rejecters will be visited with all the various forms of punishment that befell the rejecters of former Prophets.
The opponents of God’s Prophets are in the habit of rejecting their claims on the basis of mere hearsay and make-believe. The result of such a hasty rejection is that the hearts of the rejecters become sealed and they become deprived of the power to understand the arguments and signs which God shows to establish the truth of His Messengers. The verse thus throws light on how the hearts or minds of disbelievers are sealed. They are sealed only when disbelievers refuse to make use of their God-given power of reasoning and understanding. (close)
وَ مَا وَجَدۡنَا لِاَکۡثَرِہِمۡ مِّنۡ عَہۡدٍ ۚ وَ اِنۡ وَّجَدۡنَاۤ اَکۡثَرَہُمۡ لَفٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۳﴾
وَمَا وَجَدۡنَا لِأَكۡثَرِهِم مِّنۡ عَهۡدٖۖ وَإِن وَجَدۡنَآ أَكۡثَرَهُمۡ لَفَٰسِقِينَ
ثُمَّ بَعَثۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ مُّوۡسٰی بِاٰیٰتِنَاۤ اِلٰی فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَ مَلَا۠ئِہٖ فَظَلَمُوۡا بِہَا ۚ فَانۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ کَانَ عَاقِبَۃُ الۡمُفۡسِدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۴﴾
ثُمَّ بَعَثۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِم مُّوسَىٰ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَآ إِلَىٰ فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَمَلَإِيْهِۦ فَظَلَمُواْ بِهَاۖ فَٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ
1019. The words "after them", contradict the popular view that Shu‘aib was a contemporary and father-in-law of Moses. (close)
b. 17:102; 28:37; 43:47. (close)
1020. Zulm meaning to put a thing in the wrong place or to make a wrong use of it (Lane), the clause signifies that Pharaoh and his chiefs made wrong use of the Signs. The Signs were meant to engender fear of God in their hearts but instead they jeered and mocked at them. (close)
a. 17:102; 28:37; 43:47. (close)
The clause, Then after them We sent Moses, does not mean that Moses appeared directly or immediately after the Prophets mentioned in the preceding verses. Other Messengers may have intervened between Moses and these Prophets, of whom Shu‘aib appears to be the nearest in time to Moses. In fact, the use of the words, Then after them, in the above clause only means that Moses appeared and lived sometime after them. The expression also contradicts the popular view that Shu‘aib was a contemporary and the father-in-law of Moses.
The words ظلموا بھا (they unjustly rejected them) literally meaning "they did wrong by means of the signs, or did them wrong", really signify that "they rejected the signs and treated them as lies, or they made them the means of doing wrong to men by ridiculing them and in this way deceiving the people."
The word ظلم also means, "to put a thing in the wrong place, or to make a wrong use of a thing" (Lane). Taking the word in this sense, the clause would mean, "they made a wrong use of the signs", i.e. though the signs were meant to engender fear of God in the hearts of men, the disbelievers, instead of profiting by them, jeered and mocked at them. (close)
وَ قَالَ مُوۡسٰی یٰفِرۡعَوۡنُ اِنِّیۡ رَسُوۡلٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۵﴾ۙ
وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ يَٰفِرۡعَوۡنُ إِنِّي رَسُولٞ مِّن رَّبِّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
c. 26:17; 20:48; 43:47. (close)
a. 26:17; 20:48; 43:47. (close)
حَقِیۡقٌ عَلٰۤی اَنۡ لَّاۤ اَقُوۡلَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ اِلَّا الۡحَقَّ ؕ قَدۡ جِئۡتُکُمۡ بِبَیِّنَۃٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ فَاَرۡسِلۡ مَعِیَ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ﴿۱۰۶﴾ؕ
حَقِيقٌ عَلَىٰٓ أَن لَّآ أَقُولَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ إِلَّا ٱلۡحَقَّۚ قَدۡ جِئۡتُكُم بِبَيِّنَةٖ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ فَأَرۡسِلۡ مَعِيَ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ
1021. Haqiq means, adapted, disposed, apt, meet, right, fit or worthy (Lane). (close)
a. 20:48; 26:18. (close)
1022. When Moses went to Pharaoh his object was not so much to preach his Message to him as to call upon him to let the Israelites go with him, though ordinarily he would have preached to him also. As a matter of fact the Message of Moses was meant primarily for the Israelites, but as long as the Israelites remained mixed up with the natives of Egypt, Moses had to preach to them both. When the Israelites left the land, he had no concern with the Egyptians and confined his attention to his own kith and kin to whom he was sent. (close)
b. 20:48; 26:18. (close)
1000. Important Words:
حقیق (it is meet) is derived from حق meaning, it was or became suitable to the requirements of wisdom, justice, truth and right; or it was or became just, proper, correct, valid, established or confirmed as a truth or fact; or it became necessary, unavoidable, obligatory or due. They say یحق علیك ان تفعل کذا i.e. it is incumbent upon thee, or it behoves thee, or it is meet for thee, that thou shouldst do such a thing. Thus حقیق means, adapted, disposed, apt, meet, fit or worthy. The expression حقیق علیان لااقول would thus mean, I am disposed not to say; or it is binding or obligatory or incumbent on me that I should not say; or, as some render the expression, I am vehemently desirous that I should not say (Lane & Aqrab).
Taking the word حقیق in the sense of "desirous", the opening sentence of the verse would mean, "I am desirous that I should speak of God nothing but the truth". These words are put in the mouth of Moses as a reply also to those who accused the Holy Prophet of lying. The Prophets of God are, as it were, represented as saying that, far from speaking a lie, they are but too anxious, and desire nothing but to speak pure and unadulterated truth. Other meanings of حقیق are also equally applicable here.
When Moses went to Pharaoh, his object was not so much the preaching of his message to him as to call upon him to let the Israelites go with him, though ordinarily he would preach to him also. As a matter of fact, the message of Moses was meant primarily for the Israelites, but as long as the Israelites remained mixed up with the natives of Egypt, Moses had to preach to them both. When the Israelites left the land, he had no concern with the Egyptians and confined his attention to his own kith and kin to whom he had been sent. (close)