بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِِ

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Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani(as)Muslims who believe in the Messiah, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani (as), Love for All, Hatred for None.

CHAPTER 8

Al-Anfal

CHAPTER 9 - At-Taubah

(Revealed after Hijrah)

Title and Connection between the Two Surahs

Though, as commonly known, it is only the first of these two Surahs that is known by the name of Anfal, but to be precise the chapter Anfal comprises both the parts—the one which is known as Anfal and the other which is known as Taubah. This means that Taubah is really no separate Surah but is a part of Anfal. This is the solitary instance where a Surah has been split into parts, all the other Surahs being compact wholes. The proof of the fact that Taubah is no separate Surah but is a part of Anfal is that the portion, which is known as Taubah (Repentance) or Bara’at (Declaration of Absolution), is not prefixed by Bismillah (In the name of Allah), while, as divinely directed, the Holy Prophet invariably instructed that Bismillah be written at the head of every Surah. Tirmidhi reports Ibn ‘Abbas as saying, "I asked ‘Uthman, 'Why did you amalgamate Anfal which is a smaller Surah with Bara’at or Taubah which is a larger one and did not write Bismillah in the beginning of the latter Surah?' To this ‘Uthman replied that Anfal was the first Medinite Surah to be revealed and Taubah or Bara’at the last, and there existed such a deep and striking similarity between the subject matter of the two as to make them appear as one Surah, and since there was no instruction from the Holy Prophet as to these being two separate Surahs, I combined them into one."

The above statement makes one thing clear. It is that there is very great resemblance between the subject matter of these two Surahs and that because, unlike other Surahs, Bismillah was not revealed in the beginning of Bara’at, therefore it must form part of some other Surah. The assumption, however, that it was ‘Uthman who placed this Surahwith Anfal possesses no traditional basis, and one of the intermediate Ruvat or reporters of the above tradition seems to have erred here, because, as established by incontrovertible historical evidence, the arrangement of the Quran in its present form was effected neither by ‘Uthman nor by anybody else, but by the Holy Prophet himself, and even those who ascribe the present arrangement to the Companions of the Prophet do not ascribe it to ‘Uthman but to Abu Bakr. ‘Uthman did only this—that having satisfied himself by taking evidence from Companions of unimpeachable integrity that the copy of the Quran existing in his time was the same which had been reduced to writing and transcribed in the form of a book by the orders of Abu Bakr, he added his testimony to it and disallowed all other forms of the reading of the Quran except the one in the dialect of the Hijaz. The question which naturally arises here is that when the Quran was reduced to writing in the form of a book in the time of Abu Bakr, what was the arrangement of these Surahs in that copy. If, because of the smallness of its size, Anfal was placed by Abu Bakr among the later Surahs which are generally small in size, and if Abu Bakr also wrote Bismillah in the beginning of Taubah, and it was ‘Uthman who changed the arrangement decided upon by Abu Bakr and who dropped the Bismillah, then this important fact should have certainly been mentioned by Ibn ‘Abbas. Nay, he should have surely raised his voice against the omission of Bismillah in the beginning of Taubah and against the discrepancy in the arrangement of the Surahs. But he did nothing of the kind. This shows that the above statement, as quoted by Tirmidhi, has been attributed to Ibn ‘Abbas either owing to some misunderstanding on the part of one of the intermediary narrators or is a later interpolation. The truth is, as stated above, that Anfal and Taubah or Bara’at both make one Surah and Taubah is called a Surah, which literally means a piece, because it has been treated as a distinct portion of Anfal, otherwise it is not a Surah in the sense in which other Surahs are known by this name.

Date of Revelation

Both Anfal and Taubah or Bara’at are Medinite Surahs. Anfal was revealed about the time of the Battle of Badr in the first or second year after Hijrah. As, however, mention has been made in seven verses of this Surah of the machinations of the disbelievers which they hatched at the time of the Hijrah (Flight), some commentators have regarded those verses as of Meccan origin. But this is evidently a wrong inference, because the Quran has in similar words mentioned events in the lives of Adam, Abraham and Moses. If a particular verse can be taken to have been revealed at Mecca because it mentions some incident that occurred at Mecca, the verses which describe the events that occurred in the time of Adam or Abraham or Moses will then have to be regarded as having been revealed in the times of these Prophets, which is evidently wrong. According to Imam Bukhari, chapter Taubah or Bara’at was among the last portions of the Quran to be revealed as against chapter Anfal which was among the first to be revealed after Hijrah.

A Collective Note on both Surahs

In Anfal, the prophecy was made that God would give to Muslims a great victory and the possession of their enemies would fall into their hands. This prophecy continued to prove a constant source of mockery for disbelievers at the expense of the Faithful, because God, out of His infallible wisdom and in conformity with His eternal law, delayed its fulfilment along with the revelation of that portion of chapter Anfal which contained a mention of it. When Mecca fell and the aforesaid prophecy was fulfilled, the remaining portion of the Surah was revealed and it began with, "A declaration of complete absolution on the part of Allah and His Messenger from all obligations to the idolaters with whom you made promises. So go about in the land for four months and know that you cannot frustrate the plan of Allah and that Allah will humiliate the disbelievers." Incidentally it may be noted here that some commentators have taken the above declaration to mean that a period of four months was granted to those idolaters with whom Muslims had treaty engagements and that it was intended as a notice, after which all treaties and agreements with them were to be considered as having terminated. This interpretation of the declaration is evidently wrong; because if only a notice for the denunciation of the treaties was meant, there was no sense in combining the declaration with the injunction that they should go about the land and see for themselves that God’s purpose had prevailed. He, who is granted a limited respite, naturally makes hasty preparation to depart for a place of safety and does not go about the land seeing sights. Again, if the verse be understood to give notice of termination of existing treaties and to grant a limited respite to those idolatrous tribes who had these treaties of alliance with Muslims, how would the very next verse be explained which says that such people as have entered into treaties with Muslims are not to be expelled till the termination of their treaties. It is thus clear that the Quranic words الذین عاھدتم as used in the first verse of chapter Taubah allude to no political treaty or agreement, but only to such declarations which Muslims and disbelievers had made against each other. On the side of Islam it was declared in chapter Anfal that the possession of the disbelievers would fall in the hands of Muslims, and the disbelievers on their side had declared that Islam would be exterminated and they would capture the belongings of the Muslims. It is these opposite declarations that have been metaphorically termed as عھد or agreement, in the verse referred to above and the idolaters are told to go about in the country and see for themselves whether or not the declaration which was made in chapter Anfal about their eventual destruction had proved true. So truly speaking, chapter Bara’at constitutes only a declaration of the fulfilment of the great prophecy made in Anfal and is no separate Surah. In short, there exists a very real connection between these two Surahs which really constitute one chapter, for, as stated above, chapter Anfal was revealed at the time of the first battle of Islam, i.e. the Battle of Badr and in this chapter a clear prophecy was made of the ultimate destruction of the disbelievers. Then after the last encounter with the idolaters of Mecca, chapter Bara’at was revealed to announce the fulfilment of that prophecy and the ushering in of a new era.

Subject Matter

Chapter Anfal opens with a description of the Battle of Badr and in vv. 1-15 Muslims are told that they will win a great victory over the disbelievers and the latter’s possessions will fall into their hands, but this success and acquisition of wealth should not make them greedy of material things. These wars are the signs of God and should not be made the means of seeking worldly gains. In vv. 16-20, Muslims are told that they should fight courageously in the cause of God and should not be proud of their strength or organization, neither should they be afraid of the numbers and military prowess of their enemies, because the outcome of these wars rests solely in the hand of God. In vv. 21-28, obedience to authority is emphasized and Muslims are warned that the weakness of a few among them might injure the whole cause of Islam. In v. 29, it is pointed out that undue love of wealth and progeny is a source of weakness for the community, so Muslims should keep their love of these things within proper bounds. In vv. 30 and 31, it is explained that obedience to God’s commands will open for Muslims the avenues to success and prosperity and will protect them against the machinations and intrigues of their enemies even as God protected the Holy Prophet against the secret plots of the Meccans. In vv. 32-35, we are told that the enemy on his part is proud of his numbers and military power and believes himself to be in the right and even invokes the wrath of God upon the liar. Such a determined enemy would not easily admit defeat. The next four verses (viz. 36-39) expose the false pretensions of the disbelievers which their actions belie. This discrepancy between the words and deeds of the disbelievers shows that their faith is a mere slave of their intellect and has found no place in their heart. The next verse impresses upon Muslims the necessity of preaching the Message of Islam even in time of war. In vv. 41-46, Muslims are further encouraged with the promise that the war in which they are now engaged will not end in stalemate but will be fought to a finish. Even more wars will be fought and success will continue to attend Muslims. In vv. 47-51, obedience to authority and endurance and unity of action are enjoined on the Muslims who are warned not to get disheartened by the mischievous activities of the hypocrites.

The next ten verses deal with the sanctity of treaty obligations and Muslims are told that disbelievers will repeatedly violate their agreements during the wars but this should not incite them to a breach of their obligations, and that they should disabuse their minds of the misconception that they would, in any way, suffer by not avenging a breach of agreement by disbelievers by a corresponding violation of an obligation on their part, because if they continue to observe good morals, they are sure to win ultimately. But the observance of good morals should also be accompanied by suitable preparation for war, because this also is in accordance with the divine law. The next two verses, i.e. vv. 62 and 63, contain the injunction that if, during hostilities, disbelievers sue for peace, their offer should not be rejected. Then, if they violate the terms of peace mutually agreed upon and restart hostilities, it will be to the advantage of Muslims who will not, in any way, suffer on account of this fresh breach of trust on the part of the disbelievers. This injunction implies a hint to the Truce of Hudaibiyyah when a breach of treaty obligations by the disbelievers led to the Fall of Mecca. In vv. 64-67, it is said that God has created love and unity in the hearts of Muslims for one another. This is a divine favour which helps the believers to win victory against heavy odds. Muslims should not, therefore, become discouraged by the smallness of their numbers. In the next five verses, i.e. vv. 68-72, Muslims are told that in their wars captives will fall into their hands; they should treat them with kindness. In vv. 73-76, they are advised to behave all the more affectionately towards one another in time of war and disturbance as do the disbelievers with each other; for whereas they are under Divine grace the disbelievers are deprived of it.

The promises of victory given to Muslims in Anfal are declared to have been fulfilled in vv. 1-6 of Bara’at where it is stated that Muslims have become masters of the whole of Arabia; so the idolaters should go about the land and see for themselves whether or not the whole country has come under Muslim domination. In vv. 7-29, disbelievers are reprimanded for their repeated breach of treaties and agreements and Muslims are warned not to enter into any new treaty with them and also not to be afraid that their departure from Arabia would, in any way, adversely affect the prosperity of the country, because God Himself would provide for Muslims.

In vv. 30-37, mention is made of the Israelites, and Muslims are told that they should not think that after the conquest of Arabia wars have come to an end and that they would now be allowed to live in peace. They are told that on account of the intrigues and secret plots of Jews and Christians, a new series of wars is about to start. These people are really given to idolatry and cannot bear to see true and perfect Unity of God established in the earth. Moreover, they have become morally depraved. Islam will establish true equality and freedom. How can then a Christian government view with equanimity the establishment by its side of a government based on equality and freedom, whose proximity would make its subjects inclined to rebellion against it? So having proper regard for the things which God has declared sacred, Muslims should make suitable preparations for the impending war.

As there was an interval between the revelation of the first 37 verses of the Surah and those that follow, mention has been made in the latter verses about the fulfilment of the prophecy made in the former. In connection with this a brief description is given of the expedition to Tabuk and of the circumstances in which the prophecy referred to above was fulfilled. The hypocrites and those weak of faith among Muslims who were seized with the fear of the powerful kingdom of Kaiser are reprimanded. Their moral weakness is exposed, and Muslims are bidden not to accept their help, for even without their help, God will grant victory to them over the kingdom of the Kaiser (this subject has been dealt with in fuller detail in chapters Rum and Fath). In this connection mention is made of the intrigues of the hypocrites to injure Muslims. Towards the close of the Surah, it is emphasized that the Holy Prophet will succeed not by human aid but by the help of God, "the Lord of the Mighty Throne."

8. الانفال

یہ سورت مدینہ میں نازل ہوئی۔ بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی چھہتّر آیات ہیں۔ جنگ کے نتیجہ میں اللہ تعالیٰ جو مالی فیض عطا فرماتا ہے ان کو اَنْفَال کہا جاتا ہے۔ 

پچھلی سورۃ الاعراف (آیت: ۱۸۸) میں کفار کی طرف سے جس ساعت یا قیامت کے ظہور کا وقت پوچھا گیا تھا اس ساعت کے پہلے مظہر کا اس سورت میں تفصیل سے ذکر ہے۔ اور بتایا گیا ہے کہ اہلِ عرب پر وہ ساعت آچکی ہے جس کے نتیجہ میں کفر اور شرک کا دور ختم ہو گا۔ 

پچھلی سورت کے آخر پر یہ تنبیہ فرمائی گئی تھی کہ بہت مشکل حالات ظاہر ہونے والے ہیں اس لئے ابھی سے اللہ تعالیٰ کے حضور عاجزی سے جھکتے ہوئے خفیہ طور پر اور بلند آواز سے اس کے حضور گڑگڑاتے ہوئے دعائیں کر، کیونکہ تیری دعاؤں کے ذریعہ ہی سب مشکلات حل ہوں گی۔ 

اِس سورت کے شروع میں ہی یہ خوشخبری دیدی گئی کہ ان مشکلات کے نتیجہ میں مومنین کی غربت دور کردی جائے گی۔ پھر مشکلات کے ذکر میں سب سے پہلے جنگ بدر کا ذکر فرمایا اور جیسا کہ اس سے پہلی سورت کے آخر پر دعاؤں کی طرف خصوصی توجہ دلائی گئی تھی، ہم دیکھتے ہیں کہ جنگ بدر میں مسلمانوں کو عطا کی جانے والی فتح بھی آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی خصوصی دعاؤں ہی کے نتیجہ میں تھی ورنہ جو ۳۱۳ صحابہؓ آپؐ کے ساتھ اس جہاد میں شریک تھے ان کے مقابل پر مکہ کے مشرکین کی حملہ آور فوج سوائے روحانی پہلو کے ہر پہلو سے ان پر برتری رکھتی تھی۔ بہترین سواریاں ان کو حاصل تھیں۔ بہترین جنگی ہتھیار میسر تھے۔ تیراندازی کے فن میں ماہر دستے اُن کی فوج میں شامل تھے۔ علاوہ ازیں جنگ کے لئے جذبات کو بھڑکانے کے لئے ایسے راگ الاپنے والی ماہر عورتیں بھی تھیں جن کے نغمات کے نتیجہ میں فوجوں پر ایک قسم کی جنون کی سی کیفیت طاری ہو جاتی تھی۔ اس کے مقابل پر رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کی وہ دعائیں ہی فتحیاب ہوئیں جو آپؐ نے اپنے خیمہ میں انتہائی گریہ و زاری کے ساتھ اس حال میں کیں کہ آپؐ کے شانۂ مبارک سے چادر بار بار گرتی تھی اور حضرت ابو بکر صدیقؓ اسے سنبھالتے تھے۔ اس دعا کا معراج یہ تھا کہ آپؐ نے بار بار عرض کی: اَللّٰھُمَّ اِنْ تُھْلَکْ ھٰذِہِ الْعِصَابَۃُ مِنْ اَھْلِ الْاِسْلَامِ لَا تُعْبَدْ فِی الْاَرْضِ (مسلم۔ کتاب الجھاد)کہ جن و انس کی پیدائش کی غرض تو عبادت ہی ہے اور یہ بندے جنہیں میں نے خالصۃً تیری ہی عبادت کی تربیت دی ہے، اگر یہ مارے گئے تو پھر کبھی دنیا میں تیری سچی عبادت کرنے والی کوئی جماعت پیدا نہیں ہوگی۔ پس جنگ بدر کی فتح کا تمام تر سہرا آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کی دعاؤں ہی کے سر تھا۔ 

مزید برآں مومنین کو یہ بھی سمجھا دیا گیا کہ سچوں اور جھوٹوں کے درمیان عظیم فرق کر دینے والا ہتھیار تو تقویٰ ہی ہے۔ اگر آئندہ بھی تم دنیا کی بڑی سے بڑی طاقتوں پر غالب آنے کا گمان لئے بیٹھے ہو تو وہ صرف اس صورت میں پورا ہوگا کہ تم تقویٰ پر قائم رہو۔ 

یہاں یہ بھی سمجھا دیا گیا کہ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم اور آپؐ کے ساتھی ہرگز قِتال نہ کرتے جب تک قِتال کے ذریعہ آپؐ کا دین تبدیل کرنے کی کوشش نہ کی جاتی۔ سب سے بڑا فتنہ دنیا میں ہمیشہ اسی طرح پیدا ہوتا رہا اور پیدا ہوتا رہے گا کہ تلوار کے ذریعہ لوگوں کے دین تبدیل کرنے کی کوشش کی جاتی رہے گی۔ اس صورت میں صرف اُس وقت تک دفاع کی اجازت ہے جب تک کہ یہ فتنہ کلیۃً مٹ نہ جائے۔ 

اسی طرح بتایا کہ ثباتِ قدم کے لئے کثرت سے اللہ کے ذکر کی ضرورت ہے۔ پس ہولناک جنگوں کے دوران بھی مسلسل ذکر الٰہی بلند کرنے والوں کو یہ خوشخبری دی جا رہی ہے کہ تم ہی فلاح حاصل کروگے کیونکہ ہر فلاح ذکرِ الٰہی سے وابستہ ہے۔ 

اس سورت کی آخری دو آیات میں اس امر کا ذکر ہے کہ اگر دشمن کا دباؤ بہت بڑھ جائے اور مجبوراً تمہیں اپنے وطن سے ہجرت کرنی پڑے تو اللہ کی راہ میں یہ ہجرت قبول ہوگی اور اس کے بدلہ میں خدا تعالیٰ کی طرف سے نصرت عطا کی جائے گی اور مغفرت کے علاوہ اللہ تعالیٰ ہجرت کرنے والوں کے رزق میں بھی بہت برکت ڈالے گا۔ یہ پیشگوئی ہمیشہ بڑی شان کے ساتھ پوری ہوتی رہی ہے اور رزق میں جس برکت کا ذکر اس سورت کے شروع میں اَنْفَال عطا کیے جانے کی صورت میں کیا گیا تھا اس کی اب اَور صورتیں بھی یہاں بیان فرمادی گئیں کہ ہجرت کے نتیجہ میں مہاجرین کی رزق کی راہیں بہت کشادہ کی جائیں گی۔


[8:1]   
English
In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
اُردو
اللہ کے نام کے ساتھ جو بے انتہا رحم کرنے والا، بِن مانگے دینے والا (اور) بار بار رحم کرنے والا ہے۔

[8:2]   
English
They Ask thee concerning the spoils of war. Say, ‘The spoils belong to Allah and the Messenger. So fear Allah, and set things right among yourselves, and obey Allah and His Messenger, if you are believers.’
اُردو
وہ تجھ سے اموالِ غنیمت سے متعلق سوال کرتے ہیں۔ تو کہہ دے کہ اموالِ غنیمت اللہ اور رسول کے ہیں۔پس اللہ کا تقویٰ اختیار کرو اور اپنے درمیان اصلاح کرو اور اللہ کی اور اس کے رسول کی اطاعت کرو اگر تم مومن ہو۔

[8:3]   
English
True believers are only those whose hearts tremble when the name of Allah is mentioned, and when His Signs are recited to them they increase their faith, and who put their trust in their Lord,
اُردو
مومن صرف وہی ہیں کہ جب اللہ کا ذکر کیا جاتا ہے تو ان کے دل ڈر جاتے ہیں اور جب ان پر اُس کی آیات پڑھی جاتی ہیں تو وہ ان کو ایمان میں بڑھا دیتی ہیں اور وہ اپنے ربّ پر ہی توکل کرتے ہیں۔

[8:4]   
English
Who observe Prayer and spend out of that which We have provided for them.
اُردو
وہ لوگ جو نماز قائم کرتے ہیں اور اُس میں سے ہی جو ہم نے اُن کو عطا کیا وہ خرچ کرتے ہیں۔

[8:5]   
English
These it is who are true believers. They have grades of rank with their Lord, as well as forgiveness and an honourable provision.
اُردو
یہی ہیں جو (کھرے اور) سچے مومن ہیں۔ ان کے لئے ان کے ربّ کے حضور بڑے درجات ہیں اور مغفرت ہے اور بہت عزت والا رزق بھی۔

[8:6]   
English
As it was thy Lord Who rightfully brought thee forth from thy house, while a party of the believers were averse, therefore He helped thee against thy enemy.
اُردو
(اُن کا ایمان ایسا ہی حق ہے) جیسے تیرے ربّ نے تجھے حق کے ساتھ تیرے گھر سے نکالا تھا حالانکہ مومنوں میں سے ایک گروہ اسے یقیناً ناپسند کرتا تھا۔

[8:7]   
English
They dispute with thee concerning the truth after it has become manifest, as though they are being driven to death while they actually see it.
اُردو
وہ حق کے بارہ میں تجھ سے بحث کررہے تھے بعد اس کے کہ حق (ان پر) کھل چکا تھا۔ گویا انہیں موت کی طرف ہانک کے لے جایا جا رہا تھا اور وہ (اسے اپنی آنکھوں سے) دیکھ رہے تھے۔

[8:8]   
English
And remember the time when Allah promised you one of the two parties‡ that it should be yours, and you wished that the one without sting should be yours, but Allah desired to establish the truth by His words and to cut off the root of the disbelievers,
اُردو
اور (یاد کرو) جب اللہ تمہیں دو گروہوں میں سے ایک کا وعدہ دے رہا تھا کہ وہ تمہارے لئے ہے اور تم چاہتے تھے کہ تمہارے حصہ میں وہ آئے جس میں ضرر پہنچانے کی صلاحیت نہ ہو۔ اور اللہ چاہتا تھا کہ وہ اپنے کلمات کے ذریعہ حق کو ثابت کر دکھائے اور کافروں کی جڑ کاٹ دے۔

[8:9]   
English
That He might establish the truth and bring to naught that which is false, although the guilty might dislike it.
اُردو
تاکہ وہ حق کو ثابت کر دے اور باطل کا بطلان کردے خواہ مجرم لوگ کیسا ہی ناپسند کریں۔

[8:10]   
English
When you implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you, saying, ‘I will assist you with a thousand of the angels, following one another.’
اُردو
(یاد کرو) جب تم اپنے ربّ سے فریاد کر رہے تھے تو اس نے تمہاری التجا کو قبول کرلیا (اس وعدہ کے ساتھ) کہ میں ضرور ایک ہزار قطار در قطار فرشتوں سے تمہاری مدد کروں گا۔