Introduction of Al-Anfal
(Revealed after Hijrah)
Though, as commonly known, it is only the first of these two Surahs that is known by the name of Anfal, but to be precise the chapter Anfal comprises both the parts—the one which is known as Anfal and the other which is known as Taubah. This means that Taubah is really no separate Surah but is a part of Anfal. This is the solitary instance where a Surah has been split into parts, all the other Surahs being compact wholes. The proof of the fact that Taubah is no separate Surah but is a part of Anfal is that the portion, which is known as Taubah (Repentance) or Bara’at (Declaration of Absolution), is not prefixed by Bismillah (In the name of Allah), while, as divinely directed, the Holy Prophet invariably instructed that Bismillah be written at the head of every Surah. Tirmidhi reports Ibn ‘Abbas as saying, "I asked ‘Uthman, 'Why did you amalgamate Anfal which is a smaller Surah with Bara’at or Taubah which is a larger one and did not write Bismillah in the beginning of the latter Surah?' To this ‘Uthman replied that Anfal was the first Medinite Surah to be revealed and Taubah or Bara’at the last, and there existed such a deep and striking similarity between the subject matter of the two as to make them appear as one Surah, and since there was no instruction from the Holy Prophet as to these being two separate Surahs, I combined them into one."
The above statement makes one thing clear. It is that there is very great resemblance between the subject matter of these two Surahs and that because, unlike other Surahs, Bismillah was not revealed in the beginning of Bara’at, therefore it must form part of some other Surah. The assumption, however, that it was ‘Uthman who placed this Surahwith Anfal possesses no traditional basis, and one of the intermediate Ruvat or reporters of the above tradition seems to have erred here, because, as established by incontrovertible historical evidence, the arrangement of the Quran in its present form was effected neither by ‘Uthman nor by anybody else, but by the Holy Prophet himself, and even those who ascribe the present arrangement to the Companions of the Prophet do not ascribe it to ‘Uthman but to Abu Bakr. ‘Uthman did only this—that having satisfied himself by taking evidence from Companions of unimpeachable integrity that the copy of the Quran existing in his time was the same which had been reduced to writing and transcribed in the form of a book by the orders of Abu Bakr, he added his testimony to it and disallowed all other forms of the reading of the Quran except the one in the dialect of the Hijaz. The question which naturally arises here is that when the Quran was reduced to writing in the form of a book in the time of Abu Bakr, what was the arrangement of these Surahs in that copy. If, because of the smallness of its size, Anfal was placed by Abu Bakr among the later Surahs which are generally small in size, and if Abu Bakr also wrote Bismillah in the beginning of Taubah, and it was ‘Uthman who changed the arrangement decided upon by Abu Bakr and who dropped the Bismillah, then this important fact should have certainly been mentioned by Ibn ‘Abbas. Nay, he should have surely raised his voice against the omission of Bismillah in the beginning of Taubah and against the discrepancy in the arrangement of the Surahs. But he did nothing of the kind. This shows that the above statement, as quoted by Tirmidhi, has been attributed to Ibn ‘Abbas either owing to some misunderstanding on the part of one of the intermediary narrators or is a later interpolation. The truth is, as stated above, that Anfal and Taubah or Bara’at both make one Surah and Taubah is called a Surah, which literally means a piece, because it has been treated as a distinct portion of Anfal, otherwise it is not a Surah in the sense in which other Surahs are known by this name.
Both Anfal and Taubah or Bara’at are Medinite Surahs. Anfal was revealed about the time of the Battle of Badr in the first or second year after Hijrah. As, however, mention has been made in seven verses of this Surah of the machinations of the disbelievers which they hatched at the time of the Hijrah (Flight), some commentators have regarded those verses as of Meccan origin. But this is evidently a wrong inference, because the Quran has in similar words mentioned events in the lives of Adam, Abraham and Moses. If a particular verse can be taken to have been revealed at Mecca because it mentions some incident that occurred at Mecca, the verses which describe the events that occurred in the time of Adam or Abraham or Moses will then have to be regarded as having been revealed in the times of these Prophets, which is evidently wrong. According to Imam Bukhari, chapter Taubah or Bara’at was among the last portions of the Quran to be revealed as against chapter Anfal which was among the first to be revealed after Hijrah.
In Anfal, the prophecy was made that God would give to Muslims a great victory and the possession of their enemies would fall into their hands. This prophecy continued to prove a constant source of mockery for disbelievers at the expense of the Faithful, because God, out of His infallible wisdom and in conformity with His eternal law, delayed its fulfilment along with the revelation of that portion of chapter Anfal which contained a mention of it. When Mecca fell and the aforesaid prophecy was fulfilled, the remaining portion of the Surah was revealed and it began with, "A declaration of complete absolution on the part of Allah and His Messenger from all obligations to the idolaters with whom you made promises. So go about in the land for four months and know that you cannot frustrate the plan of Allah and that Allah will humiliate the disbelievers." Incidentally it may be noted here that some commentators have taken the above declaration to mean that a period of four months was granted to those idolaters with whom Muslims had treaty engagements and that it was intended as a notice, after which all treaties and agreements with them were to be considered as having terminated. This interpretation of the declaration is evidently wrong; because if only a notice for the denunciation of the treaties was meant, there was no sense in combining the declaration with the injunction that they should go about the land and see for themselves that God’s purpose had prevailed. He, who is granted a limited respite, naturally makes hasty preparation to depart for a place of safety and does not go about the land seeing sights. Again, if the verse be understood to give notice of termination of existing treaties and to grant a limited respite to those idolatrous tribes who had these treaties of alliance with Muslims, how would the very next verse be explained which says that such people as have entered into treaties with Muslims are not to be expelled till the termination of their treaties. It is thus clear that the Quranic words الذین عاھدتم as used in the first verse of chapter Taubah allude to no political treaty or agreement, but only to such declarations which Muslims and disbelievers had made against each other. On the side of Islam it was declared in chapter Anfal that the possession of the disbelievers would fall in the hands of Muslims, and the disbelievers on their side had declared that Islam would be exterminated and they would capture the belongings of the Muslims. It is these opposite declarations that have been metaphorically termed as عھد or agreement, in the verse referred to above and the idolaters are told to go about in the country and see for themselves whether or not the declaration which was made in chapter Anfal about their eventual destruction had proved true. So truly speaking, chapter Bara’at constitutes only a declaration of the fulfilment of the great prophecy made in Anfal and is no separate Surah. In short, there exists a very real connection between these two Surahs which really constitute one chapter, for, as stated above, chapter Anfal was revealed at the time of the first battle of Islam, i.e. the Battle of Badr and in this chapter a clear prophecy was made of the ultimate destruction of the disbelievers. Then after the last encounter with the idolaters of Mecca, chapter Bara’at was revealed to announce the fulfilment of that prophecy and the ushering in of a new era.
Chapter Anfal opens with a description of the Battle of Badr and in vv. 1-15 Muslims are told that they will win a great victory over the disbelievers and the latter’s possessions will fall into their hands, but this success and acquisition of wealth should not make them greedy of material things. These wars are the signs of God and should not be made the means of seeking worldly gains. In vv. 16-20, Muslims are told that they should fight courageously in the cause of God and should not be proud of their strength or organization, neither should they be afraid of the numbers and military prowess of their enemies, because the outcome of these wars rests solely in the hand of God. In vv. 21-28, obedience to authority is emphasized and Muslims are warned that the weakness of a few among them might injure the whole cause of Islam. In v. 29, it is pointed out that undue love of wealth and progeny is a source of weakness for the community, so Muslims should keep their love of these things within proper bounds. In vv. 30 and 31, it is explained that obedience to God’s commands will open for Muslims the avenues to success and prosperity and will protect them against the machinations and intrigues of their enemies even as God protected the Holy Prophet against the secret plots of the Meccans. In vv. 32-35, we are told that the enemy on his part is proud of his numbers and military power and believes himself to be in the right and even invokes the wrath of God upon the liar. Such a determined enemy would not easily admit defeat. The next four verses (viz. 36-39) expose the false pretensions of the disbelievers which their actions belie. This discrepancy between the words and deeds of the disbelievers shows that their faith is a mere slave of their intellect and has found no place in their heart. The next verse impresses upon Muslims the necessity of preaching the Message of Islam even in time of war. In vv. 41-46, Muslims are further encouraged with the promise that the war in which they are now engaged will not end in stalemate but will be fought to a finish. Even more wars will be fought and success will continue to attend Muslims. In vv. 47-51, obedience to authority and endurance and unity of action are enjoined on the Muslims who are warned not to get disheartened by the mischievous activities of the hypocrites.
The next ten verses deal with the sanctity of treaty obligations and Muslims are told that disbelievers will repeatedly violate their agreements during the wars but this should not incite them to a breach of their obligations, and that they should disabuse their minds of the misconception that they would, in any way, suffer by not avenging a breach of agreement by disbelievers by a corresponding violation of an obligation on their part, because if they continue to observe good morals, they are sure to win ultimately. But the observance of good morals should also be accompanied by suitable preparation for war, because this also is in accordance with the divine law. The next two verses, i.e. vv. 62 and 63, contain the injunction that if, during hostilities, disbelievers sue for peace, their offer should not be rejected. Then, if they violate the terms of peace mutually agreed upon and restart hostilities, it will be to the advantage of Muslims who will not, in any way, suffer on account of this fresh breach of trust on the part of the disbelievers. This injunction implies a hint to the Truce of Hudaibiyyah when a breach of treaty obligations by the disbelievers led to the Fall of Mecca. In vv. 64-67, it is said that God has created love and unity in the hearts of Muslims for one another. This is a divine favour which helps the believers to win victory against heavy odds. Muslims should not, therefore, become discouraged by the smallness of their numbers. In the next five verses, i.e. vv. 68-72, Muslims are told that in their wars captives will fall into their hands; they should treat them with kindness. In vv. 73-76, they are advised to behave all the more affectionately towards one another in time of war and disturbance as do the disbelievers with each other; for whereas they are under Divine grace the disbelievers are deprived of it.
The promises of victory given to Muslims in Anfal are declared to have been fulfilled in vv. 1-6 of Bara’at where it is stated that Muslims have become masters of the whole of Arabia; so the idolaters should go about the land and see for themselves whether or not the whole country has come under Muslim domination. In vv. 7-29, disbelievers are reprimanded for their repeated breach of treaties and agreements and Muslims are warned not to enter into any new treaty with them and also not to be afraid that their departure from Arabia would, in any way, adversely affect the prosperity of the country, because God Himself would provide for Muslims.
In vv. 30-37, mention is made of the Israelites, and Muslims are told that they should not think that after the conquest of Arabia wars have come to an end and that they would now be allowed to live in peace. They are told that on account of the intrigues and secret plots of Jews and Christians, a new series of wars is about to start. These people are really given to idolatry and cannot bear to see true and perfect Unity of God established in the earth. Moreover, they have become morally depraved. Islam will establish true equality and freedom. How can then a Christian government view with equanimity the establishment by its side of a government based on equality and freedom, whose proximity would make its subjects inclined to rebellion against it? So having proper regard for the things which God has declared sacred, Muslims should make suitable preparations for the impending war.
As there was an interval between the revelation of the first 37 verses of the Surah and those that follow, mention has been made in the latter verses about the fulfilment of the prophecy made in the former. In connection with this a brief description is given of the expedition to Tabuk and of the circumstances in which the prophecy referred to above was fulfilled. The hypocrites and those weak of faith among Muslims who were seized with the fear of the powerful kingdom of Kaiser are reprimanded. Their moral weakness is exposed, and Muslims are bidden not to accept their help, for even without their help, God will grant victory to them over the kingdom of the Kaiser (this subject has been dealt with in fuller detail in chapters Rum and Fath). In this connection mention is made of the intrigues of the hypocrites to injure Muslims. Towards the close of the Surah, it is emphasized that the Holy Prophet will succeed not by human aid but by the help of God, "the Lord of the Mighty Throne."
یہ سورت مدینہ میں نازل ہوئی۔ بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی چھہتّر آیات ہیں۔ جنگ کے نتیجہ میں اللہ تعالیٰ جو مالی فیض عطا فرماتا ہے ان کو اَنْفَال کہا جاتا ہے۔ پچھلی سورۃ الاعراف (آیت: ۱۸۸) میں کفار کی طرف سے جس ساعت یا قیامت کے ظہور کا وقت پوچھا گیا تھا اس ساعت کے پہلے مظہر کا اس سورت میں تفصیل سے ذکر ہے۔ اور بتایا گیا ہے کہ اہلِ عرب پر وہ ساعت آچکی ہے جس کے نتیجہ میں کفر اور شرک کا دور ختم ہو گا۔ پچھلی سورت کے آخر پر یہ تنبیہ فرمائی گئی تھی کہ بہت مشکل حالات ظاہر ہونے والے ہیں اس لئے ابھی سے اللہ تعالیٰ کے حضور عاجزی سے جھکتے ہوئے خفیہ طور پر اور بلند آواز سے اس کے حضور گڑگڑاتے ہوئے دعائیں کر، کیونکہ تیری دعاؤں کے ذریعہ ہی سب مشکلات حل ہوں گی۔ اِس سورت کے شروع میں ہی یہ خوشخبری دیدی گئی کہ ان مشکلات کے نتیجہ میں مومنین کی غربت دور کردی جائے گی۔ پھر مشکلات کے ذکر میں سب سے پہلے جنگ بدر کا ذکر فرمایا اور جیسا کہ اس سے پہلی سورت کے آخر پر دعاؤں کی طرف خصوصی توجہ دلائی گئی تھی، ہم دیکھتے ہیں کہ جنگ بدر میں مسلمانوں کو عطا کی جانے والی فتح بھی آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی خصوصی دعاؤں ہی کے نتیجہ میں تھی ورنہ جو ۳۱۳ صحابہؓ آپؐ کے ساتھ اس جہاد میں شریک تھے ان کے مقابل پر مکہ کے مشرکین کی حملہ آور فوج سوائے روحانی پہلو کے ہر پہلو سے ان پر برتری رکھتی تھی۔ بہترین سواریاں ان کو حاصل تھیں۔ بہترین جنگی ہتھیار میسر تھے۔ تیراندازی کے فن میں ماہر دستے اُن کی فوج میں شامل تھے۔ علاوہ ازیں جنگ کے لئے جذبات کو بھڑکانے کے لئے ایسے راگ الاپنے والی ماہر عورتیں بھی تھیں جن کے نغمات کے نتیجہ میں فوجوں پر ایک قسم کی جنون کی سی کیفیت طاری ہو جاتی تھی۔ اس کے مقابل پر رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کی وہ دعائیں ہی فتحیاب ہوئیں جو آپؐ نے اپنے خیمہ میں انتہائی گریہ و زاری کے ساتھ اس حال میں کیں کہ آپؐ کے شانۂ مبارک سے چادر بار بار گرتی تھی اور حضرت ابو بکر صدیقؓ اسے سنبھالتے تھے۔ اس دعا کا معراج یہ تھا کہ آپؐ نے بار بار عرض کی: اَللّٰھُمَّ اِنْ تُھْلَکْ ھٰذِہِ الْعِصَابَۃُ مِنْ اَھْلِ الْاِسْلَامِ لَا تُعْبَدْ فِی الْاَرْضِ (مسلم۔ کتاب الجھاد)کہ جن و انس کی پیدائش کی غرض تو عبادت ہی ہے اور یہ بندے جنہیں میں نے خالصۃً تیری ہی عبادت کی تربیت دی ہے، اگر یہ مارے گئے تو پھر کبھی دنیا میں تیری سچی عبادت کرنے والی کوئی جماعت پیدا نہیں ہوگی۔ پس جنگ بدر کی فتح کا تمام تر سہرا آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کی دعاؤں ہی کے سر تھا۔ مزید برآں مومنین کو یہ بھی سمجھا دیا گیا کہ سچوں اور جھوٹوں کے درمیان عظیم فرق کر دینے والا ہتھیار تو تقویٰ ہی ہے۔ اگر آئندہ بھی تم دنیا کی بڑی سے بڑی طاقتوں پر غالب آنے کا گمان لئے بیٹھے ہو تو وہ صرف اس صورت میں پورا ہوگا کہ تم تقویٰ پر قائم رہو۔ یہاں یہ بھی سمجھا دیا گیا کہ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم اور آپؐ کے ساتھی ہرگز قِتال نہ کرتے جب تک قِتال کے ذریعہ آپؐ کا دین تبدیل کرنے کی کوشش نہ کی جاتی۔ سب سے بڑا فتنہ دنیا میں ہمیشہ اسی طرح پیدا ہوتا رہا اور پیدا ہوتا رہے گا کہ تلوار کے ذریعہ لوگوں کے دین تبدیل کرنے کی کوشش کی جاتی رہے گی۔ اس صورت میں صرف اُس وقت تک دفاع کی اجازت ہے جب تک کہ یہ فتنہ کلیۃً مٹ نہ جائے۔ اسی طرح بتایا کہ ثباتِ قدم کے لئے کثرت سے اللہ کے ذکر کی ضرورت ہے۔ پس ہولناک جنگوں کے دوران بھی مسلسل ذکر الٰہی بلند کرنے والوں کو یہ خوشخبری دی جا رہی ہے کہ تم ہی فلاح حاصل کروگے کیونکہ ہر فلاح ذکرِ الٰہی سے وابستہ ہے۔ اس سورت کی آخری دو آیات میں اس امر کا ذکر ہے کہ اگر دشمن کا دباؤ بہت بڑھ جائے اور مجبوراً تمہیں اپنے وطن سے ہجرت کرنی پڑے تو اللہ کی راہ میں یہ ہجرت قبول ہوگی اور اس کے بدلہ میں خدا تعالیٰ کی طرف سے نصرت عطا کی جائے گی اور مغفرت کے علاوہ اللہ تعالیٰ ہجرت کرنے والوں کے رزق میں بھی بہت برکت ڈالے گا۔ یہ پیشگوئی ہمیشہ بڑی شان کے ساتھ پوری ہوتی رہی ہے اور رزق میں جس برکت کا ذکر اس سورت کے شروع میں اَنْفَال عطا کیے جانے کی صورت میں کیا گیا تھا اس کی اب اَور صورتیں بھی یہاں بیان فرمادی گئیں کہ ہجرت کے نتیجہ میں مہاجرین کی رزق کی راہیں بہت کشادہ کی جائیں گی۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. See 1:1. (close)
a. See 1:1. (close)
See 1:1. (close)
یَسۡـَٔلُوۡنَکَ عَنِ الۡاَنۡفَالِ ؕ قُلِ الۡاَنۡفَالُ لِلّٰہِ وَ الرَّسُوۡلِ ۚ فَاتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَصۡلِحُوۡا ذَاتَ بَیۡنِکُمۡ ۪ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗۤ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۲﴾
يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلۡأَنفَالِۖ قُلِ ٱلۡأَنفَالُ لِلَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِۖ فَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَصۡلِحُواْ ذَاتَ بَيۡنِكُمۡۖ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥٓ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
1092. Anfal are such spoils and gains as come as a Divine gift without the Muslims having laboured for them (Mufradat). The verse does not relate to the division of spoils for which see 8:42. It relates only to the attainment of gains and spoils which fell into the hands of Muslims after the victory at Badr. (close)
b. 3:33; 4:60; 8:47; 9:71; 24:55. (close)
1092A. Important Words:
انفال (spoils) is the plural of النفل which is derived from نفل. They say نفل الرجل فلانا i.e. the man gave to such a one a gift for which he expected no return. نفل الامام الجند means, the leader allotted the spoils to the soldiers. نفله النفل or انفله النفل means, he gave him the spoils of war. نفله also means, he gave him more than his portion or more than his due. انفله (of which the plural is النوافل means, spoils of war; gift or a voluntary gift; something done or recommended to be done voluntarily without its being obligatory; a grandchild, because he or she is over and above one’s own children. نفل —nafal (of which the plural is انفال) means, spoils of war; a free gift; something extra or additional or in excess. النفل—nafl (of which the plural is النوافل) means, an act performed voluntarily, without its being obligatory (Aqrab). النفل (plural انفال) also means, such spoil or gain as comes in the form of God’s favour without one having laboured for it or deserved it (Mufradat).
This verse does not relate to the division of spoils. The law with regard to that is to be found in 8:42 below. The present verse relates only to the attainment of gains and spoils and not to their division. It was revealed after the Battle of Badr. Before that battle, God had promised the Muslims victory over one of the two parties of idolaters, either the caravan which was returning from Syria under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, or the Meccan army that had, under the leadership of Abu Jahl, marched out of Mecca to fight the Muslims. The Muslims were very weak at that time; and, considering their extreme weakness, they naturally asked whether, in spite of the great disparity in numbers and resources between them and their enemy, they were to gain victory over the enemy and win spoils. The question was similar to that of Zachariah who, when given the glad tidings of a son, asked: My Lord, how shall I have a son, when old age has overtaken me, and my wife is barren (3:41)? The question asked by Muslims in the verse under comment pertained not only to the encounter which took place at Badr but also to subsequent encounters which were sure to take place between the two parties. The Quran answers the question by saying, the spoils belong to Allah and the Messenger, meaning that God has decreed that Muslims should secure victories against their enemy and nothing can stop it.
The words: So fear Allah and set things right among yourselves and obey Allah and His Messenger, signify that though victories and spoils will come, yet there are three conditions for the fulfilment of this promise of victory. The first condition requires Muslims to be God-fearing; the second lays down that their mutual relations should be cordial and they should live at peace and amity with one another; the third calls upon them to obey God and follow the instructions of the Holy Prophet. If Muslims fulfilled these three conditions, God would undoubtedly fulfil His promise of victory. (close)
اِنَّمَا الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اِذَا ذُکِرَ اللّٰہُ وَجِلَتۡ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ وَ اِذَا تُلِیَتۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ اٰیٰتُہٗ زَادَتۡہُمۡ اِیۡمَانًا وَّ عَلٰی رَبِّہِمۡ یَتَوَکَّلُوۡنَ ۚ﴿ۖ۳﴾
إِنَّمَا ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ ٱللَّهُ وَجِلَتۡ قُلُوبُهُمۡ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ءَايَٰتُهُۥ زَادَتۡهُمۡ إِيمَٰنٗا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمۡ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ
c. 22:36. (close)
d. 9:124. (close)
a. 22:36. (close)
b. 9:124. (close)
The preceding verse ended with the words, if you are believers, and the present fittingly describes a sure sign of true belief necessary for the fulfilment of the promise of victory contained in the previous verse. If a person claims to be a believer in God, but in practical life the name of God means nothing to him and quickens no chords in his heart, his belief is not a true one. Belief should be something real and living. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ یُقِیۡمُوۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ مِمَّا رَزَقۡنٰہُمۡ یُنۡفِقُوۡنَ ؕ﴿۴﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقۡنَٰهُمۡ يُنفِقُونَ
e. 5:56; 9:71; 27:4; 31:5; 73:21. (close)
f. See 2:4. (close)
c. 5:56; 9:71; 27:4; 31:5; 73:21. (close)
d. See 2:4. (close)
This and the previous verse mention some of the qualities of true believers to whom God has promised victory in 8:2 above. God will grant them victories, provided they, on their part, answer the description given in these verses. See also 2:4. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ حَقًّا ؕ لَہُمۡ دَرَجٰتٌ عِنۡدَ رَبِّہِمۡ وَ مَغۡفِرَۃٌ وَّ رِزۡقٌ کَرِیۡمٌ ۚ﴿۵﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ حَقّٗاۚ لَّهُمۡ دَرَجَٰتٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ وَمَغۡفِرَةٞ وَرِزۡقٞ كَرِيمٞ
g. 8:75. (close)
a. 8:75. (close)
The verse declares that only those who possess the qualities, mentioned in the foregoing two verses, are true believers in the sight of God, and then proceeds to say that true believers never go unrewarded. They will surely attain three things: (1) grades of rank with their Lord; (2) forgiveness of sins; and (3) an honourable provision.
The verse also hints that the booty obtained during the war need not be consigned to flames, as the Law of Moses enjoined, but may be gladly consumed, for spoils lawfully obtained form "an honourable prov-ision." (close)
کَمَاۤ اَخۡرَجَکَ رَبُّکَ مِنۡۢ بَیۡتِکَ بِالۡحَقِّ ۪ وَ اِنَّ فَرِیۡقًا مِّنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ لَکٰرِہُوۡنَ ۙ﴿۶﴾
كَمَآ أَخۡرَجَكَ رَبُّكَ مِنۢ بَيۡتِكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقٗا مِّنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ لَكَٰرِهُونَ
1093. The particle kama ordinarily meaning "just as" or "like unto" is also sometimes used in the sense of "as" or "since" or "because" (Muhit). If, the particle is taken in its ordinary sense of "just as," then the verse could be rendered as: "God grants victories and spoils to His servants and bestows on them honourable provision just as He did when He brought thee forth from thy house, etc." (close)
1094. Bil Haqqi means, for a righteous purpose. The verse relates to the Battle of Badr. (close)
1095. When Muslims marched out from Medina, as they did not know that they would have to fight a well-equipped Meccan army, they did not come fully prepared for fighting. So when on the way they learnt that they would have to fight the Meccan army they anxiously asked the Holy Prophet why he had not informed them of the real state of affairs so that they should have come fully prepared to meet the enemy. Thus their anxiety was not for their own sake but for the safety of the Holy Prophet. In their unpreparedness they were averse to exposing him to danger. This is clear from the verse "brought thee forth" and not "brought you forth," which signifies that God, in pursuance of Whose command the Holy Prophet had not informed the believers of the encounter with the Meccan army, would not leave him unprotected. The Muslims were not afraid of fighting. They were averse to it because they did not like to shed human blood and because also the person of the Holy Prophet had become exposed to danger. (close)
1096. Important Words:
The particle کما (as) ordinarily meaning "just as" or "like unto" is also sometimes used in the sense of "as" or "since" or "because." The Arabs say کما تطیع اللّٰہ ید خلك الجنة i.e. as you obey Allah, so He will make you enter Heaven (Muhit).
There has been much difference of opinion about the significance of the word کما (as) occurring in the beginning of this verse and briefly treated under Important Words above. Preferably the word has been used here in the sense of "as" or "since" in which case the words نصرك علی اعدائك (therefore He helped thee against thy enemies) would be taken to be understood at the end of the verse, as shown in the text. If, however, the word is taken in its ordinary sense of "just as," then the verse would be interpreted as providing an illustration of how God grants victories to His servants and bestows spoils and honourable provision on them (see the promises contained in 8:2, 5 above). In this case the verse could be rendered as: "God grants victories and spoils to His servants and bestows on them honourable provision just as He did when He brought thee forth from thy house, etc."
The expression بالحق (rightfully) refers to the fact that it was by Divine command, and under Divine revelation, that the Holy Prophet went forth from Medina to meet the enemy.
The verse thus signifies that, as the Holy Prophet had come forth by God’s own command, and under His special revelation, therefore God could not forsake him; so He helped him against the enemy.
The verse relates to the Battle of Badr. When Muslims came forth from Medina, they did not know that they would have to fight a Meccan army. So they did not come fully prepared for battle. Hence, when, on the way, the Holy Prophet revealed to them the fact that they would have to fight the Meccan army, they asked him why he had not told them so at Medina, so that they might have come prepared to meet the enemy. Their anxiety was not for themselves but for the Holy Prophet, whom they loved more than their lives. Hence, in their condition of unpreparedness, they were unwilling to expose him to danger. That the Muslims were anxious for the sake of the Holy Prophet and not for themselves and that it was his going forth that they did not like is clear from the verse itself which uses the words "brought thee forth" and not "brought you forth." The verse thus implies that when the Companions of the Holy Prophet were so anxious about their beloved Master—God, Whose Messenger he was—could not leave him unprotected; His love for him was certainly greater than that of his Companions. (close)
یُجَادِلُوۡنَکَ فِی الۡحَقِّ بَعۡدَ مَا تَبَیَّنَ کَاَنَّمَا یُسَاقُوۡنَ اِلَی الۡمَوۡتِ وَ ہُمۡ یَنۡظُرُوۡنَ ؕ﴿۷﴾
يُجَٰدِلُونَكَ فِي ٱلۡحَقِّ بَعۡدَ مَا تَبَيَّنَ كَأَنَّمَا يُسَاقُونَ إِلَى ٱلۡمَوۡتِ وَهُمۡ يَنظُرُونَ
1096. The verse does not refer to Muslims as wrongly understood by some Commentators, but to disbelievers. There is absolutely no evidence in history to show that the Holy Prophet’s Companions ever disputed with him with regard to fighting the enemy. On the contrary, it is related that when before the Battle of Badr he consulted them, they all expressed their complete readiness and even eagerness to accompany him and fight the enemy wherever he might take them (Hisham). Even the disbelievers who came out to fight the Muslims admitted that the latter looked like so many "seekers after death" on the field of battle (Tabari). The verse only signifies that as the enemies of Islam abhorred the truth as one abhors death, so, as a result of this, they were going to be punished with death. (close)
This verse refers not to the Companions of the Holy Prophet, as wrongly understood by some commentators, but to his enemies. There is absolutely no evidence in history to show that the Holy Prophet’s Companions disputed with him with regard to fighting the enemy. On the contrary, it is expressly related that when before the Battle of Badr he consulted them, they all expressed their readiness and even eagerness to accompany him and fight the enemy wherever he might take them (Hisham, ii. 13). Even the disbelievers who came out to fight the Muslims admitted that the latter looked like so many "seekers after death" on the field of battle (Tabari). What the verse, therefore, means is simply this that as the enemies of Islam abhorred the truth as one abhors death, so, as a result of this, they were going to be punished with death itself. (close)
وَ اِذۡ یَعِدُکُمُ اللّٰہُ اِحۡدَی الطَّآئِفَتَیۡنِ اَنَّہَا لَکُمۡ وَ تَوَدُّوۡنَ اَنَّ غَیۡرَ ذَاتِ الشَّوۡکَۃِ تَکُوۡنُ لَکُمۡ وَ یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یُّحِقَّ الۡحَقَّ بِکَلِمٰتِہٖ وَ یَقۡطَعَ دَابِرَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ۙ﴿۸﴾
وَإِذۡ يَعِدُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ إِحۡدَى ٱلطَّآئِفَتَيۡنِ أَنَّهَا لَكُمۡ وَتَوَدُّونَ أَنَّ غَيۡرَ ذَاتِ ٱلشَّوۡكَةِ تَكُونُ لَكُمۡ وَيُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُحِقَّ ٱلۡحَقَّ بِكَلِمَٰتِهِۦ وَيَقۡطَعَ دَابِرَ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
a. 8:43. (close)
1097. The "two parties" refer to (1) the well-equipped Meccan army that had come fully prepared to fight the Muslims, and (2) the Meccan caravan which was returning from the north and proceeding to Mecca and was lightly armed. (close)
1098. The Muslims naturally wanted to meet the caravan which was lightly armed but God’s design was to bring about an encounter with the fully equipped Meccan army. His object in doing so was to establish the Truth by His words and to cut off the root of the disbelievers. See also 3:14 and 8:42-45. (close)
1098. Important Words:
الشوکة (sting) is derived from شاك. They say شاکنی الشوك i.e. the thorn hurt or wounded me or it pierced my body. الشوکة is both the noun-infinitive from شاك and the singular of الشوك (thorns, spines, etc.). الشوکة means, thorn; sting; point of a spear, etc.; any weapon or weapons; sharpness of weapons; strength or might or vehemence thereof in war and fighting (Lane & Aqrab).
The "two parties" mentioned in the verse refer to (1) the Meccan army that had come forth to fight the Muslims, and (2) the Meccan caravan that was returning from the north and proceeding home. The former, besides being much larger in number, was heavily armed and very well-equipped; while the caravan was only lightly armed. Both belonged to Mecca and were equally hostile to Islam.
The verse signifies that as Allah had already made a promise to the Holy Prophet that He would give victory to Muslims over one of the two Meccan parties, viz. the caravan or the army, so against all hope He granted them victory in fulfilment of His promise. This shows that while yet at Medina, the Holy Prophet had been informed by God of the possible attack by the Meccan army, for without this Allah could not refer to "one of the two parties," but that the Holy Prophet kept the matter secret. The words, thy Lord Who rightfully brought thee forth from thy house, while a party of the believers were averse (8:6 above), also show that at Medina the Holy Prophet had undoubtedly received Divine revelation informing him of the coming attack by the enemy and that it was God Who had ordered the Holy Prophet to come forth. The above-quoted words also hint that the Holy Prophet kept this information secret, revealing it to only a few of his chosen comrades.
The words غیر ذات الشوکة (without sting) imply that the Muslims wanted to meet the party that was without sting, (i.e. the caravan) which they could easily overcome but that God desired to bring about an encounter with the army which could not be easily conquered, and His object in doing so was to establish the truth by His words and to cut off the root of the disbelievers, so that the prophecies with regard to the destruction of the enemy might be fulfilled that day, and their fulfilment against all hope might become the means of establishing the truth of Islam. For a more detailed account of the Battle of Badr see notes on 3:14 & 8:42-45. (close)
لِیُحِقَّ الۡحَقَّ وَ یُبۡطِلَ الۡبَاطِلَ وَ لَوۡ کَرِہَ الۡمُجۡرِمُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۹﴾
لِيُحِقَّ ٱلۡحَقَّ وَيُبۡطِلَ ٱلۡبَٰطِلَ وَلَوۡ كَرِهَ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ
b. 10:83. (close)
a. 10:83. (close)
The words, establish the truth, used in the preceding verse have been repeated here for the sake of emphasis and for vividly contrasting the idea contained in these words with that of those that follow, i.e. bring to naught that which is false. (close)
اِذۡ تَسۡتَغِیۡثُوۡنَ رَبَّکُمۡ فَاسۡتَجَابَ لَکُمۡ اَنِّیۡ مُمِدُّکُمۡ بِاَلۡفٍ مِّنَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ مُرۡدِفِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
إِذۡ تَسۡتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمۡ فَٱسۡتَجَابَ لَكُمۡ أَنِّي مُمِدُّكُم بِأَلۡفٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ مُرۡدِفِينَ
1099. See 934. (close)
1099A. Following one another. (close)
b. 3:124. (close)
1100. Important Words:
تستغیثون (you implored the assistance) is derived from غاث. They say غاثه, or اغاثه i.e. he helped, assisted or succoured him; He (God) removed from him trouble or affliction. غوث or غواث means, a cry for aid or succour. غیاث means, aid or succour; deliverance from difficulty or distress. استغاثه means, he sought or desired aid or succour of him; or he called for his aid or succour or assistance (Lane & Aqrab).
مردفین (following one another) is derived from اردف which is derived from ردف. They say اردفه i.e. he rode behind him on the same beast; or it followed or came after him or it. اردف signifies the same as ردف. They say اردفه امر i.e. an event happened to him afterwards; or an event came upon him suddenly and unexpectedly so as to overwhelm him. اردف الشیء بشیء means, he made the thing follow another thing. ردیف means, one who rides behind another on the same beast; a star which is rising when its opposite star is setting or vice versa. ردف means, sequence or consequence of a thing or event; followers or assistants or auxiliaries; night and day following each other; the star that follows another star. So مردفین means, following one another (Lane & Aqrab).
For the advent of angels, see 3:125-127 and 6:159. Also see 2:31. (close)