Introduction of `Abasa
(Revealed before Hijrah)
This Surah, like the two preceding it, with whose subject matter it has a close association, is among those Surahswhich were revealed at Mecca in the early years of the Call. Nöldeke and Muir, besides Muslim scholars, subscribe to this view. The Surah takes its title from the opening verse and deals with an incident in the Holy Prophet’s life which, though of not much historical importance, contains a lesson of abiding moral significance.
Towards the end of the preceding chapter, the Holy Prophet was told that his duty was confined to conveying the Divine Message to his people. In the present Surah he is enjoined to be more careful of and pay greater attention to the poor, God-fearing believers who were likely to profit from his preachings more than the conceited and arrogant disbelievers. Moreover, in the previous Surah, it was stated that the knowledge about "the Hour," rested with God; in this Surah it is added that the people who will bring about in themselves a moral resurrection ("the Hour") spoken of in the preceding Surah were known only to God. They are those poor people who are small in the eyes of proud and worldly-minded disbelievers but are great in the sight of God and who in fact, possess all the qualities of leadership.
The Surah begins to deal with the incident of ‘Abdullah bin Ummi Maktum, a poor blind man, and proceeds to teach the lesson, viz. that it is not worldly riches and social status which determine the real worth of a person but the goodness of heart and willingness on his part to listen to truth and accept it. The Surah also constitutes an eloquent commentary on the Holy Prophet’s regard for the susceptibilities of the poor and oppressed people, and proceeds to say that the Quran will raise them to great eminence. It further says that being the Last Divine Message for mankind it will be respected and read all over the world and will continue to be protected and preserved. The disbelievers are then warned that they are rejecting this great and glorious Divine Message—the Quran—to their own spiritual detriment, and are so foolish as not to understand that God who created man from an insignificant fluid and then endowed him with great natural powers and faculties and made excellent provision for his physical sustenance, could not have ignored to make similar provision for his moral and spiritual development. He has made this provision by the revelation of His Word for their guidance. The Surah ends on a note of warning to disbelievers that if they rejected the Quranic Message and persisted in opposition to the Prophet they will have to face a day of reckoning when misery, shame and ignominy will be their lot. The righteous believers, however, will reside in "Gardens of Bliss," their faces beaming with divine joy and happiness.
یہ ابتدائی دَور کی مکی سورت ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی تینتالیس آیات ہیں۔
اس سورت میں بھی آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کے زمانہ کے ایک متکبر منکر کا ذکر ہے جو آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم سے سوال کرنے کے لئے آیا تھا۔ چونکہ آنحضور صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو بے انتہا خواہش تھی کہ کسی طرح کوئی ہدایت پاجائے اس لئے اس کے تکبر کے باوجود اس کی طرف کمال شفقت سے متوجہ رہے یہاں تک کہ ایک نابینا مومن آپؐ سے کوئی سوال کرنے کے لئے حاضر ہوا تو آنحضور صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم نے اس وقت اس کی دخل اندازی پسندنہ فرمائی۔ لیکن اس کے نتیجہ میں اپنی ناپسندیدگی کا اظہار اس رنگ میں فرمایا کہ وہ شخص جو مباحثہ کر رہا تھا وہ تو دیکھ سکتا تھا لیکن اس نابینا کی دل شکنی نہیں ہوسکتی تھی کیونکہ اسے کچھ پتہ نہ تھا۔ اس ذکر کے بعد اللہ تعالیٰ یہ نصیحت فرماتا ہے کہ جو اخلاص اور شوق سے تیرے پاس آئے اس سے کبھی غافل نہ ہو اور جو تکبر سے کام لینے والا جستجو کے لئے حاضر ہو خواہ وہ دنیا کا بڑا آدمی ہو اس کو مفلوک الحال مخلص پر کسی نوع کی ترجیح نہ دے۔ اس کے بعد قرآن کریم کی عظمتِ شان کا بیان شروع ہو جاتا ہے کہ یہ کتاب کس طرح کائنات کی ابتدائی تخلیق کے رازوں سے بھی پردہ اٹھاتی ہے اور اس کے اختتام اور یوم آخرت میں ہونے والے عظیم واقعات کا بھی ذکر کرتی ہے۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See 1:1. (close)
عَبَسَ وَ تَوَلّٰۤی ۙ﴿۲﴾
3250. The verse refers to a well-known historical incident. As the Holy Prophet was engaged one day in a talk with some of the Quraish chiefs about some matters of belief, there came up ‘Abdullah ibn Umm-e-Maktum and, thinking that the Holy Prophet’s precious time and energy were being wasted on the confirmed leaders of disbelief, he sought to divert his attention and asked to be enlightened on some religious questions. The Holy Prophet disliked the intrusion, and showed his displeasure by turning aside from ‘Abdullah (Tabari & Bayan). While it showed the Holy Prophet’s solicitude for the spiritual well- being of the Quraish leaders in that he continued his discourse with them and paid no heed to ‘Abdullah’s interruption, the incident constituted also an evidence of his great regard for the tender susceptibilities of the blind man, because he merely turned his face away from him—an act which the latter could not see—and did not say even a word of reproach or disapprobation to him for his inopportune and rash interruption, thus taking scrupulous care not to wound his self-respect and tender susceptibilities. The verse thus throws a flood of light on the very high moral stature of the Holy Prophet; and instead of implying any Divine reproach or rebuke, as some Commentators seem to think, enjoins him and, in reality through him, his followers, to have due regard for the tender susceptibilities of the poor and the humble. (close)
b. 74:23. (close)
The verse refers to a well-known historical incident. As the Holy Prophet was engaged one day in a talk with some of the Quraish Chiefs about some matters of belief, there came up ‘Abdullah bin Ummi Maktum and, thinking that the Holy Prophet’s precious time and energy were being wasted on the confirmed leaders of disbelief, he sought to divert his attention and asked to be enlightened on some religious questions. The Holy Prophet disliked the intrusion, and showed his displeasure by turning aside from ‘Abdullah (Tabari and Bayan). The incident, while it showed the Holy Prophet’s solicitude for the spiritual well-being of the Quraish leaders, in that he continued his discourse with them and paid no heed to ‘Abdullah’s interruption was evidence of his great regard for the tender susceptibilities of the poor blind man, inasmuch as the Prophet merely turned his face from ‘Abdullah, an act which the latter could not see, not saying even a word of reproach or disapprobation to him for his inopportune and rash interruption. The verse thus throws a flood of light on the moral stature of the Holy Prophet; and instead of implying a reproach or rebuke, as some commentators seem to think, enjoins him and, through him, his followers, to have due regard for the tender susceptibilities of the poor, the humble, and the downtrodden.
The words "he frowned and turned aside," according to most commentators of the Quran refer to the Holy Prophet, but more correctly they seem to refer to the arrogant attitude of the conceited Quraish leader with whom the Holy Prophet was engaged in conversation and who turned away his face disdainfully, thinking how a humble and lowly person could dare interfere in the talk he was having with the Prophet. (close)
اَنۡ جَآءَہُ الۡاَعۡمٰی ؕ﴿۳﴾
أَن جَآءَهُ ٱلۡأَعۡمَىٰ
وَ مَا یُدۡرِیۡکَ لَعَلَّہٗ یَزَّکّٰۤی ۙ﴿۴﴾
وَمَا يُدۡرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُۥ يَزَّكَّىٰٓ
3251. The pronoun "thee" in the verse may be applied, as is done in the text, to the Holy Prophet and the pronoun "he" to the Quraish leader. (close)
The pronoun "thee" has been taken as applying to the Holy Prophet and the pronoun "he" to the Quraish leader with whom the Holy Prophet was holding conversation. But "thee" may more appropriately be applied lo those carping critics who, being hypersensitive, would not relish the attitude of the Holy Prophet on that occasion which was the only right and correct attitude for him to adopt. (close)
اَوۡ یَذَّکَّرُ فَتَنۡفَعَہُ الذِّکۡرٰی ؕ﴿۵﴾
أَوۡ يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنفَعَهُ ٱلذِّكۡرَىٰٓ
اَمَّا مَنِ اسۡتَغۡنٰی ۙ﴿۶﴾
أَمَّا مَنِ ٱسۡتَغۡنَىٰ
4573. Important Words:
استغنی (is disdainfully indifferent) is derived from غنی which means, he became rich. استغنی means, he wanted to be rich. استغنی عنه به means, he became indifferent after he got what he desired. The verse thus means, he desires wealth, or he is indifferent or careless (Lane & Aqrab).
See a collective note, on this and the following six verses, on v. 11 below. (close)
فَاَنۡتَ لَہٗ تَصَدّٰی ؕ﴿۷﴾
فَأَنتَ لَهُۥ تَصَدَّىٰ
3252. Tasadda la-hu means, he addressed or applied or directed himself or his regard or attention or mind to him or it; he wanted; he inclined towards him or it (Lane), (close)
4574. Important Words:
تصدی (thou dost pay attention) is derived from صد . They say تصدی له i.e. he addressed or applied or directed himself or his regard or attention or mind to him or it; and he asked him or petitioned him for a thing that he wanted; he inclined towards him or it; he raised head towards him or it (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
وَ مَا عَلَیۡکَ اَلَّا یَزَّکّٰی ؕ﴿۸﴾
وَمَا عَلَيۡكَ أَلَّا يَزَّكَّىٰ
3253. The verse constitutes an effective justification of the Holy Prophet’s attitude towards ‘Abdullah ibn Umm-e-Maktum. It purports to say that the Holy Prophet was not responsible if the Quraish leader did not benefit by his talk. His attitude of seeming indifference towards ‘Abdullah or of deference towards the Quraish leader proceeded from no consideration of any personal interest. It was solely dictated by the commandments of the Shari‘ah about behaving kindly and courteously towards one’s visitors. (close)
The verse seems to constitute an effective justification of the Holy Prophet’s attitude towards ‘Abdullah bin Ummi Maktum. It purports to say that it would have brought no good to the Holy Prophet if ‘Abdullah or, for that matter, the Quraish leader did or did not benefit by his talk. Thus the attitude of fancied indifference towards ‘Abdullah or of deference towards the Quraish leader shown by the Holy Prophet proceeded from no consideration of any personal interest. The Holy Prophet’s reaction was solely due to compliance with the commandments of the Shari‘ah about behaving kindly and courteously towards one’s guests and visitors. (close)
وَ اَمَّا مَنۡ جَآءَکَ یَسۡعٰی ۙ﴿۹﴾
وَأَمَّا مَن جَآءَكَ يَسۡعَىٰ
وَ ہُوَ یَخۡشٰی ۙ﴿۱۰﴾