اِذۡ یُغَشِّیۡکُمُ النُّعَاسَ اَمَنَۃً مِّنۡہُ وَ یُنَزِّلُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً لِّیُطَہِّرَکُمۡ بِہٖ وَ یُذۡہِبَ عَنۡکُمۡ رِجۡزَ الشَّیۡطٰنِ وَ لِیَرۡبِطَ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِکُمۡ وَ یُثَبِّتَ بِہِ الۡاَقۡدَامَ ﴿ؕ۱۲﴾
إِذۡ يُغَشِّيكُمُ ٱلنُّعَاسَ أَمَنَةٗ مِّنۡهُ وَيُنَزِّلُ عَلَيۡكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءٗ لِّيُطَهِّرَكُم بِهِۦ وَيُذۡهِبَ عَنكُمۡ رِجۡزَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ وَلِيَرۡبِطَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُمۡ وَيُثَبِّتَ بِهِ ٱلۡأَقۡدَامَ
a. 3:155. (close)
1101. The reference in the verse is to the Battle of Badr. (close)
1102. The word Shaitan may also signify pangs of thirst and is called Shaitanul-Falat, i.e. devil of the desert. See 2535. The enemy had taken possession of water and the Muslims naturally feared that lack of it might prove a source of great hardship for them. The word may also signify the friends and associates of Satan. (close)
1103. The Muslims had encamped at a sandy place and the Meccan army on hard ground. Timely rain made the former place firm and the latter slippery. (close)
b. 3:155. (close)
1102. Important Words:
رجز (filth) is derived from رجز. They say رجز الناقة i.e. the she-camel had the disease of convulsive motion in the legs or thighs. رجزت الریح means, the wind was continuous or lasting. رجز means, commotion or agitation or convulsion; consecutiveness of motion; punishment that agitates by its vehemence and occasions vehement consecutive commotions; conduct that leads to punishment; sin; uncleanness or filth; polytheism or worship of idols; the Devil and his suggestions; plague or pestilence (Lane).
Before a battle, especially an important one, begins, there is generally great uneasiness and disquietude among the contestants; their hearts throb with anxiety, and sleep vanishes. So the verse mentions the coming of sleep on the battlefield of Badr as a sign of God’s favour. God caused sleep to come upon Muslims with the result that their anxiety was removed, that they were inspired with a feeling of confidence and security and that it had a soothing effect on their minds. This mental state proved highly helpful and materially contributed to their success.
The second favour mentioned in the verse pertains to the falling of rain. God caused rain to fall, which, as the verse points out, served four useful purposes: Firstly, it purified the Muslims because, seeing this token of God’s help, their faith in God was strengthened, with the result that their hearts, being filled with faith, were purified. Secondly, it dispelled from them the filth of Satan, i.e. thirst. In the Quran, thirst has been figuratively described as a pang due to Satan or the Devil; for instance, it is related that when Job was stricken with the pangs of thirst, he prayed to God, saying: Satan has smitten me with affliction and torment (38:42), whereupon God accepted his prayer, saying: Strike thy riding beast with thy foot. Here is cool water to wash with and a drink (38:43). So the removal of “the filth of Satan” signifies removal of thirst or the pangs of extreme thirst. The word "Satan" may also signify "those who are of Satan," i.e. the friends or associates of Satan. Taken in this sense, the clause would mean: "God dispelled from you the attack of the wicked people," the hint being that the rain proved a means of dispelling the attack of the Quraish, inasmuch as it rendered the hard ground occupied by the Meccan army slippery, thus preventing the enemy from making a successful attack on the Muslims. Thirdly, the rain strengthened the hearts of the Faithful. This was due to their faith being reinforced by witnessing signs of God’s special assistance. Fourthly, the rain helped to make the steps of the Muslims firm for, as mentioned in books of history, the ground occupied by the Muslims was sandy, so the rain made it hard, and the Muslims were able to tread it with firm steps. All these factors contributed to the success of the Muslims.
The reader should note the beautiful order in the words of this verse. It begins with the purification of the heart (the first purpose served by the rain) and ends with the establishing of the steps and making them firm (the fourth purpose served by the rain), i.e. the favour of God descended on the heart and then, as it were, travelled down to the feet. (close)
اِذۡ یُوۡحِیۡ رَبُّکَ اِلَی الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اَنِّیۡ مَعَکُمۡ فَثَبِّتُوا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا ؕ سَاُلۡقِیۡ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوا الرُّعۡبَ فَاضۡرِبُوۡا فَوۡقَ الۡاَعۡنَاقِ وَ اضۡرِبُوۡا مِنۡہُمۡ کُلَّ بَنَانٍ ﴿ؕ۱۳﴾
إِذۡ يُوحِي رَبُّكَ إِلَى ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ أَنِّي مَعَكُمۡ فَثَبِّتُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْۚ سَأُلۡقِي فِي قُلُوبِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ٱلرُّعۡبَ فَٱضۡرِبُواْ فَوۡقَ ٱلۡأَعۡنَاقِ وَٱضۡرِبُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ كُلَّ بَنَانٖ
1104. The upper part of the neck which is just below the head and is considered to be most vulnerable for dealing an effective blow with the sword. (close)
1103. Important Words:
فوق (upper part) is derived from فاق. They say فاقھم i.e. he was or became above them. So فوق means, the location or place that is above or over a person or a thing. They say فوقه رأسه i.e. his upper part is his head (Lane).
This verse shows that the angels are, as it were, intermediaries between God and men. It is through them that God’sassistance comes to men.
The verse also hints that there are some angels whose function is to strengthen the hearts of good men and make them firm, while there are others who are deputed to cast terror into the hearts of wicked men. So God bade the former class of angels to strengthen the hearts of the believers and told them that He would cast terror into the hearts of the disbelievers through the other class of angels.
God instructed the believers to strike the disbelievers at "the upper parts of their necks" because the upper part of the neck, i.e. that which is just below the head, is considered to be the best point for dealing an effective blow with the sword. This order related to such of the enemy as deserved to be killed and without killing whom the Muslims could not defend themselves. The striking on the “finger-tips” was meant to incapacitate the enemy and make them unfit for fighting. This order thus related to those of the enemy who, so far as possible, were to be spared with the infliction of minimum injury. Both these orders were faithfully carried out, for although the Muslims were very weak at Badr, they were able to kill seventy of the disbelievers, mostly leaders, and take as many prisoners, while the enemy could kill only fourteen of them. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ شَآقُّوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یُّشَاقِقِ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ﴿۱۴﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ شَآقُّواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥۚ وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ
b. 8:46; 47:5. (close)
a. 4:116; 47:33; 59:5. (close)
ذٰلِکُمۡ فَذُوۡقُوۡہُ وَ اَنَّ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابَ النَّارِ ﴿۱۵﴾
ذَٰلِكُمۡ فَذُوقُوهُ وَأَنَّ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ
a. 22:23; 34:43. (close)
In this verse God refers to two punishments for disbelievers, one in this life, and the other in the life to come. When the threat with regard to the punishment of this life had come to pass, it was quite reasonable to expect that the threat with regard to the punishment in the next life would also come to pass. Similarly, God had made two promises to believers: firstly, the promise of victory and success in this life; secondly, the promise of bliss in the life to come. When the former had been fulfilled in a most amazing manner, the latter would also be similarly fulfilled. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا لَقِیۡتُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا زَحۡفًا فَلَا تُوَلُّوۡہُمُ الۡاَدۡبَارَ ﴿ۚ۱۶﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ زَحۡفٗا فَلَا تُوَلُّوهُمُ ٱلۡأَدۡبَارَ
b. 8:46; 47:5 (close)
1105. The Muslims must fight to the bitter end. They must win or die; there is no third course open to them. (close)
1105. Important Words:
زحفا (advancing in force) is derived from زحف i.e. he walked, marched or went on foot little by little; he crept or crawled along; or he went leisurely or heavily; or he walked or moved with an effort; or he dragged himself along upon the ground. They say زحف العسکر meaning, the army moved heavily on account of its great numbers. زحف means, an army or military force marching slowly or heavily by reason of their multitude; a numerous army (Lane & Aqrab).
The word زحفا (advancing in force) qualifies and refers to the believers and not the disbelievers, as supposed by some commentators. The following verse, as well as the wording of the present one, makes the reference positively clear.
When a Muslim army (not a small detachment) meets the enemy, they are strictly forbidden to flee from the field of battle. They must fight and go on fighting till they win or die; there is no third course open to them. This command constitutes a great secret of success, besides being a sure source of self-discipline. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یُّوَلِّہِمۡ یَوۡمَئِذٍ دُبُرَہٗۤ اِلَّا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ اَوۡ مُتَحَیِّزًا اِلٰی فِئَۃٍ فَقَدۡ بَآءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ مَاۡوٰٮہُ جَہَنَّمُ ؕ وَ بِئۡسَ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۱۷﴾
وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمۡ يَوۡمَئِذٖ دُبُرَهُۥٓ إِلَّا مُتَحَرِّفٗا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوۡ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَىٰ فِئَةٖ فَقَدۡ بَآءَ بِغَضَبٖ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَأۡوَىٰهُ جَهَنَّمُۖ وَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
1106. The verse defines and describes the circumstances in which an apparent retreat or withdrawal of a Muslim force against the enemy is permitted: (a) As war strategy or battle manoeuvre when a fighting force shifts its position to beguile the enemy or to occupy a better position; (b) when a part of the army decides to fall back to join the main body or another Muslim force before giving battle to the enemy. (close)
1106. Important Words:
متحیزا (turning) is derived from تحیز which is derived from حاز. They say حازہ i.e. he drew, collected or gathered it together. حاز الابل means, he drove the camels. تحیز or تحوز means, he or it writhed or twisted about and turned over and over; or he or it was restless, not remaining still on the ground; or he withdrew or retired to a distance; or he drew back. تحیز الیھم means, he turned or withdrew or retired or joined himself to them (company of men). تحیز also means, he turned aside or withdrew to his place or his proper place. حیز means, a place in which a thing is; the proper or natural place of a thing; the container or receptacle of anything (Lane).
فئة (company) is derived either from فاو i.e. he struck or smote or clove, or from فاء i.e. he returned, or he returned to a good state or condition. The word فئة means, a party, division or distinct body; or a company or congregated body of men; or a party or division of men; or a company of soldiers who fight in the rear of another party or company and to whom the latter has recourse in the case of fear or defeat; or a company of men who (in war) have recourse for aid, one to another (Lane).
The verse is important inasmuch as it defines and describes the circumstances in which an apparent retreat or withdrawal of a Muslim force against an enemy force is allowable. Such a retreat is allowed only on two distinct conditions: firstly, as a war strategy or a battle manoeuvre when a fighting force shifts its position not to fly but to hoodwink the enemy or to occupy a better position; secondly, when a force decides to fall back to join the main army or another Muslim force before giving battle to the enemy. No other retreat or withdrawal is allowed. Muslims must either win or die. Those who turn their backs incur the wrath of God and "Hell shall be their abode."
The words, and Hell shall be his abode, have a double significance: (1) that those who turn back from the battlefield, except in the circumstances stated above, shall be awarded the punishment of Hellfire in the Hereafter; (2) that although such runaways think that by turning back from the field of battle they will find security from danger, the truth is that they will thereby be running into the very jaws of fire, for such ignom-inious defeat will embolden the enemy against them and will open the doors of their persecution wider still.
A fight that begins with a single individual, (a Divine Messenger), arrayed against the entire forces of the world, cannot possibly allow at a later stage the retreat of a believing party against a disbelieving host on the basis of disparity in numbers. Where true faith comes in, numbers do not and indeed cannot count. It must be a fight to the finish, for what does a believer await except one of the two good things—victory or martyrdom (9:52)? (close)
فَلَمۡ تَقۡتُلُوۡہُمۡ وَلٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ قَتَلَہُمۡ ۪ وَ مَا رَمَیۡتَ اِذۡ رَمَیۡتَ وَ لٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ رَمٰی ۚ وَ لِیُبۡلِیَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ مِنۡہُ بَلَآءً حَسَنًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۸﴾
فَلَمۡ تَقۡتُلُوهُمۡ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَتَلَهُمۡۚ وَمَا رَمَيۡتَ إِذۡ رَمَيۡتَ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ رَمَىٰ وَلِيُبۡلِيَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ مِنۡهُ بَلَآءً حَسَنًاۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٞ
1107. The victory at Badr really was not due to any skill or prowess on the part of the Muslims. They were too few, too weak and too ill-equipped to win a victory against a numerically vastly superior and much better equipped and trained army. The throwing of a handful of pebbles and sand by the Holy Prophet bears a remarkable resemblance to the striking of the waters of the sea by Moses with the rod. Just as in the latter case the act of Moses was, as it were, a signal for the wind to blow and the tide to return which led to the drowning of Pharaoh and his hosts in the sea, so was the throwing of a handful of pebbles by the Holy Prophet a signal for a strong wind to blow, which led to the destruction of Abu Jahl (to whom the Holy Prophet had referred as the Pharaoh of his people) and his host in the desert. In both cases the operation of the forces of nature coincided with the acts of the two Prophets under special Divine decree. (close)
a. 33:12. (close)
1107. Important Words:
لیبلی (that He might confer). یبلی is derived from ابلا which is derived from بلاء . They say بلاہ or ابتلاہ i.e. he tried, proved or tested him with something good or evil. ابلاہ اللّٰه بلاء حسنا means, God did to him a good deed. ابلیته معروفا means, I conferred upon him a favour or benefit. بلاء means, the act of trying or testing; a trial or a test; an affliction of any kind by which one’s patience or any other virtue is tried or proved or tested; a benefit, favour or blessing; grief; imposition of a difficult or troublesome thing. بلاء حسن means, a great benefit or favour or blessing of God or a good gift of God. الابتلاءsignifies trying, proving or testing with something; seeking and desiring; choosing or selecting (Lane).
The words, So you killed them not, but it was Allah Who killed them, signify that the victory at Badr was not due to any effort on the part of the Muslims; it was purely an act of God. Thus, as enjoined in the preceding verse, there is no justification for Muslims to flee from a battlefield.
The Battle of Badr, fought in the second year of Hijrah, began with single combats; then there was a general attack. At this juncture the Holy Prophet took a handful of pebbles and cast them towards the enemy. That was a token for the help of God to come, just as striking the water of the sea with the rod by Moses was a signal for God’s aid to arrive. When the Holy Prophet cast the pebbles, there rose a strong gale which, blowing directly in the direction of the enemy, blinded their eyes with sand and thus contributed to their discomfiture and the victory of the Muslims. It is to this incident that the words, it was Allah Who threw, refer, hinting that really it was the hand of God, and not the hand of the Prophet, which cast the pebbles, and that the victory was due to the fact that God had come to the help of the Muslims.
The reader should note that while speaking of the Companions of the Holy Prophet in the words, you killed them not, the verse ascribes no act to the Companions, but simply denies their having killed the enemy, whereas in the case of the throwing of the pebbles by the Holy Prophet the verse says, thou threwest not when thou didst throw, but it was Allah Who threw, thus hinting that although victory came from God, yet the Holy Prophet also had a share in the affair. He contributed his share in the form of earnest prayers which drew the help of God.
The throwing of a handful of pebbles and sand by the Holy Prophet bears a remarkable resemblance to the striking of the waters by Moses with the rod. Just as in the latter case the act of Moses was a signal for the wind to blow, which led to the drowning of Pharaoh and his hosts in the sea, similarly, the throwing of a handful of pebbles by the Holy Prophet was a signal for a strong wind to blow which led to the destruction of Abu Jahl (of whom the Holy Prophet spoke as the Pharaoh of his people) and his host in the desert. Again, after the Battle of Badr, the bodies of Abu Jahl and other leaders of the Quraish were cast into the bottom of a pit or an old well, and thus the similarity of the fate of Abu Jahl with that of Pharaoh was completed; for, just as the latter together with his host was drowned into the depths of the sea, so was the former with his comrades cast into the bottom of a well.
The reference in the words, Allah is All-Hearing All-Knowing, is to the prayers of the Holy Prophet which God heard and accepted and in response to which He conferred such a signal victory on the Muslims. (close)
ذٰلِکُمۡ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مُوۡہِنُ کَیۡدِ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹﴾
ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مُوهِنُ كَيۡدِ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
اِنۡ تَسۡتَفۡتِحُوۡا فَقَدۡ جَآءَکُمُ الۡفَتۡحُ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تَنۡتَہُوۡا فَہُوَ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تَعُوۡدُوۡا نَعُدۡ ۚ وَ لَنۡ تُغۡنِیَ عَنۡکُمۡ فِئَتُکُمۡ شَیۡئًا وَّ لَوۡ کَثُرَتۡ ۙ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿٪۲۰﴾
إِن تَسۡتَفۡتِحُواْ فَقَدۡ جَآءَكُمُ ٱلۡفَتۡحُۖ وَإِن تَنتَهُواْ فَهُوَ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡۖ وَإِن تَعُودُواْ نَعُدۡ وَلَن تُغۡنِيَ عَنكُمۡ فِئَتُكُمۡ شَيۡـٔٗا وَلَوۡ كَثُرَتۡ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
b. 32:29. (close)
1108. The disbelievers demanded from the Holy Prophet Divine judgment in the form of victory. They are told that Divine judgment has indeed come in the form they had demanded. (close)
a. 32:29. (close)
1108. Important Words:
تستفتحوا (if you sought a judgement) is derived from استفتح which again is derived from فتح which means, he opened or he unlocked. فتح الحاکم بین الناس means, the judge or magistrate judged between the people. استفتح means, he asked or sought or demanded victory; or he asked or sought or demanded judgement (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse is addressed to the disbelievers who demanded the sign of victory or God’s judgement from the Holy Prophet. They said, "If you are a true Messenger of God, why does He not help you and grant you victory?" They are here told that God’s judgement in the form of victory has indeed come and that if they now desist from fighting, it will be well for them; but if they return to war, God will show them further signs of victory and they shall be defeated and brought low in spite of their great superiority in numbers and resources, for Allah is with the believers. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ وَ لَا تَوَلَّوۡا عَنۡہُ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تَسۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿ۚۖ۲۱﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَلَا تَوَلَّوۡاْ عَنۡهُ وَأَنتُمۡ تَسۡمَعُونَ
c. 3:33; 4:60; 8:47; 24:55. (close)
a. 3:33; 4:60; 8:47; 24:55. (close)
As God was the source of all strength and the Prophet was a means thereof, so the Faithful are here enjoined to obey God and His Messenger. Muslims had by this time witnessed many signs of God; they had only just witnessed a mighty sign in the Battle of Badr. Having witnessed so many signs, it was incumbent on them to be obedient to God and His Messenger. Those who had taken part in the Battle of Badr were all true Muslims; there was no hypocrite among them except perhaps one. But in future battles, there were to be hypocrites also; hence there was the greater need for Muslims to be on their guard and to be more careful in the matter of obedience. The fact is that until the Battle of Badr, ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy, the arch-hypocrite, and his confederates had been under the delusion that Islam was only a passing show and that the little group of Muslims would soon disappear. The victory at Badr, therefore, came to them as a severe shock, and their false hopes were shattered. So from this time onward, they became increasingly more active in their machinations against Islam and the Holy Prophet. Hence, the need of an exhortation to Muslims to be ever obedient to God and His Messenger, for it was in obedience and in unity that lay the secret of their future success and prosperity. (close)