ذٰلِکُمۡ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مُوۡہِنُ کَیۡدِ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹﴾
ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مُوهِنُ كَيۡدِ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
اِنۡ تَسۡتَفۡتِحُوۡا فَقَدۡ جَآءَکُمُ الۡفَتۡحُ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تَنۡتَہُوۡا فَہُوَ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تَعُوۡدُوۡا نَعُدۡ ۚ وَ لَنۡ تُغۡنِیَ عَنۡکُمۡ فِئَتُکُمۡ شَیۡئًا وَّ لَوۡ کَثُرَتۡ ۙ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿٪۲۰﴾
إِن تَسۡتَفۡتِحُواْ فَقَدۡ جَآءَكُمُ ٱلۡفَتۡحُۖ وَإِن تَنتَهُواْ فَهُوَ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡۖ وَإِن تَعُودُواْ نَعُدۡ وَلَن تُغۡنِيَ عَنكُمۡ فِئَتُكُمۡ شَيۡـٔٗا وَلَوۡ كَثُرَتۡ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
b. 32:29. (close)
1108. The disbelievers demanded from the Holy Prophet Divine judgment in the form of victory. They are told that Divine judgment has indeed come in the form they had demanded. (close)
a. 32:29. (close)
1108. Important Words:
تستفتحوا (if you sought a judgement) is derived from استفتح which again is derived from فتح which means, he opened or he unlocked. فتح الحاکم بین الناس means, the judge or magistrate judged between the people. استفتح means, he asked or sought or demanded victory; or he asked or sought or demanded judgement (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse is addressed to the disbelievers who demanded the sign of victory or God’s judgement from the Holy Prophet. They said, "If you are a true Messenger of God, why does He not help you and grant you victory?" They are here told that God’s judgement in the form of victory has indeed come and that if they now desist from fighting, it will be well for them; but if they return to war, God will show them further signs of victory and they shall be defeated and brought low in spite of their great superiority in numbers and resources, for Allah is with the believers. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ وَ لَا تَوَلَّوۡا عَنۡہُ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تَسۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿ۚۖ۲۱﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَلَا تَوَلَّوۡاْ عَنۡهُ وَأَنتُمۡ تَسۡمَعُونَ
c. 3:33; 4:60; 8:47; 24:55. (close)
a. 3:33; 4:60; 8:47; 24:55. (close)
As God was the source of all strength and the Prophet was a means thereof, so the Faithful are here enjoined to obey God and His Messenger. Muslims had by this time witnessed many signs of God; they had only just witnessed a mighty sign in the Battle of Badr. Having witnessed so many signs, it was incumbent on them to be obedient to God and His Messenger. Those who had taken part in the Battle of Badr were all true Muslims; there was no hypocrite among them except perhaps one. But in future battles, there were to be hypocrites also; hence there was the greater need for Muslims to be on their guard and to be more careful in the matter of obedience. The fact is that until the Battle of Badr, ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy, the arch-hypocrite, and his confederates had been under the delusion that Islam was only a passing show and that the little group of Muslims would soon disappear. The victory at Badr, therefore, came to them as a severe shock, and their false hopes were shattered. So from this time onward, they became increasingly more active in their machinations against Islam and the Holy Prophet. Hence, the need of an exhortation to Muslims to be ever obedient to God and His Messenger, for it was in obedience and in unity that lay the secret of their future success and prosperity. (close)
وَ لَا تَکُوۡنُوۡا کَالَّذِیۡنَ قَالُوۡا سَمِعۡنَا وَ ہُمۡ لَا یَسۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿۲۲﴾
وَلَا تَكُونُواْ كَٱلَّذِينَ قَالُواْ سَمِعۡنَا وَهُمۡ لَا يَسۡمَعُونَ
a. 2:94; 4:47. (close)
a. 2:94; 4:47. (close)
True Muslims are here warned against following the example of hypocrites, who say they listen but they listen not. (close)
اِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَآبِّ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ الصُّمُّ الۡبُکۡمُ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾
۞إِنَّ شَرَّ ٱلدَّوَآبِّ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلصُّمُّ ٱلۡبُكۡمُ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعۡقِلُونَ
b. 8:56; 98:7. (close)
b. 8:56; 98:7. (close)
The verse primarily refers to the hypocrites. They have ears but they listen not to the Word of God, so truly speaking they are deaf; they have tongues, but they do not seek after and inquire about the truth, so they are dumb; they have hearts, but they do not ponder over the truth, so they have no sense and do not understand. Indeed, if the gifts of hearing and of speaking and of thinking are taken away from man, he is left no better than a beast. Nay, he virtually becomes "the worst of beasts" for, in spite of possessing the faculty and power of hearing and speaking and thinking, he does not use these powers. (close)
وَ لَوۡ عَلِمَ اللّٰہُ فِیۡہِمۡ خَیۡرًا لَّاَسۡمَعَہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَوۡ اَسۡمَعَہُمۡ لَتَوَلَّوۡا وَّ ہُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾
وَلَوۡ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ فِيهِمۡ خَيۡرٗا لَّأَسۡمَعَهُمۡۖ وَلَوۡ أَسۡمَعَهُمۡ لَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعۡرِضُونَ
1109. The expression "makes them hear" means that if in their present condition God should force them to accept the truth, they would in their heart of hearts remain unconverted and would never become true Muslims. (close)
The expression اسمعھم (made them hear) in the first place mean that if God had known any good in them, He would have made them hear and accept the truth. The verse thus shows that it is only those whose hearts are wholly corrupt that are caused or allowed to go astray by God. Those in whose hearts there is any good are always led by God to the acceptance of the truth.
The second clause of the verse indicates that while Allah makes good men accept and follow guidance, He never forces anyone to go astray. The expression اسمعھم (made them hear) in the second place, therefore, means that if in their present condition God should force them to accept the truth, the result would be that their hearts would remain unconverted and they would never become true Muslims. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اسۡتَجِیۡبُوۡا لِلّٰہِ وَ لِلرَّسُوۡلِ اِذَا دَعَاکُمۡ لِمَا یُحۡیِیۡکُمۡ ۚ وَ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَحُوۡلُ بَیۡنَ الۡمَرۡءِ وَ قَلۡبِہٖ وَ اَنَّہٗۤ اِلَیۡہِ تُحۡشَرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱسۡتَجِيبُواْ لِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُمۡ لِمَا يُحۡيِيكُمۡۖ وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَحُولُ بَيۡنَ ٱلۡمَرۡءِ وَقَلۡبِهِۦ وَأَنَّهُۥٓ إِلَيۡهِ تُحۡشَرُونَ
c. 4:60; 8:47; 24:55. (close)
1109A. The pronoun "he" refers to the Messenger, for it is the Messenger who actually calls. Calling by God is also through His Messenger. Or, "he" may be taken to refer to both Allah and the Messenger separately, i.e. when Allah calls you or when the Messenger calls you. (close)
1110. The giving of life to the dead when ascribed to a Prophet of God should be taken in its metaphorical or spiritual sense. (close)
1110A. The words "Allah comes in between a man and his heart" signify that man (or his ego) has no control over his heart, so he cannot make it obey his dictates. The words may also mean that one should hasten to listen and respond to Divine Call because if one delays doing so, unforeseen circumstances may intervene to make one’s heart hard or rusty and then one may refuse to listen to it. (close)
Though the verse enjoins the Faithful to respond to both Allah and His Messenger, it does not say "when they (Allah and His Messenger) call you" but simply "when he calls you." The pronoun "he" obviously refers to the Messenger, for it is the Messenger who actually calls. Calling by God is also through His Messenger. Or the singular pronoun "he" may be taken to refer to both Allah and the Messenger taken separately, i.e. when Allah calls you or when the Messenger calls you.
The words, that he may give you life, embody a great truth. The calling of the Messenger is always for the purpose of giving life to those who believe. It must, however, be remembered that when the quickening of, or the giving of life to, the dead is ascribed to a Prophet of God, the words should be taken not in their physical but in their spiritual sense.
The words, know that Allah comes in between a man and his heart, are important. There are two powers in men, firstly, the will-power of the "I". This power has its seat in the mind and has, therefore, been referred to in the verse as "man". The second power lies in the heart. The "I" or the will-power, or in other words "the man," issues its command and it is for the heart to obey it. But an unpurified heart does not always obey the command emanating from the mind. The words, Allah comes in between a man and his heart, therefore, signify that God has His position between the "I" and the heart. Man has not the power to purify his heart, i.e. he cannot make it obey the dictates of the "I", for he has no control over it. But God controls the heart and can purify it. So we should obey God that He may purify our heart and make it follow the will of the "I". The expression is figurative and means that it is God alone Who can make the dictates of the "I" have the desired effect on the heart.
The verse also hints that one should always hasten to hear and obey a good call; for if one delays doing so, the law of God, meant for those who hesitate to accept the truth and keep back from it, is likely to come in, and make the heart rusty, with the result that it becomes all the more disinclined to accept the truth. (close)
وَ اتَّقُوۡا فِتۡنَۃً لَّا تُصِیۡبَنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ خَآصَّۃً ۚ وَ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ﴿۲۶﴾
وَٱتَّقُواْ فِتۡنَةٗ لَّا تُصِيبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنكُمۡ خَآصَّةٗۖ وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ
a. 11:114. (close)
1111. It is not enough to make ourselves good. We are not safe unless we also reform our environment. A house surrounded by a raging fire is likely to fall a victim to it any moment. (close)
1114. Important Words:
فتنة (affliction). See 2:192.
The verse embodies a great and important truth. It is not enough that you should become good yourselves. If you are surrounded by wicked and ungodly persons, you cannot escape the contagion and its consequences. Thus, even a good man may sometimes be overtaken by Divine punishment, if he is living among wicked people and does not shun their society. Hence, we should not only try to lead righteous lives ourselves, but should also endeavour to make others do the same. We should not only reform ourselves but try to reform the society in which we move and the people among whom we live. We cannot long enjoy safety if the houses surrounding ours are on fire. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرُوۡۤا اِذۡ اَنۡتُمۡ قَلِیۡلٌ مُّسۡتَضۡعَفُوۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ تَخَافُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّتَخَطَّفَکُمُ النَّاسُ فَاٰوٰٮکُمۡ وَ اَیَّدَکُمۡ بِنَصۡرِہٖ وَ رَزَقَکُمۡ مِّنَ الطَّیِّبٰتِ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۷﴾
وَٱذۡكُرُوٓاْ إِذۡ أَنتُمۡ قَلِيلٞ مُّسۡتَضۡعَفُونَ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ تَخَافُونَ أَن يَتَخَطَّفَكُمُ ٱلنَّاسُ فَـَٔاوَىٰكُمۡ وَأَيَّدَكُم بِنَصۡرِهِۦ وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتِ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ
1112. Muslims are here told that as God had saved them when they were weak in the land and were surrounded by strong and mischievous people, so they should strive to protect the weak when they are in power. The verse implies a prophecy that Muslims will soon attain political power. (close)
b. 7:87. (close)
Muslims are here told that as God saved them when they were weak in the land and were surrounded by wicked and mischievous people, so they should strive to save those who are weak and surrounded by dangers. The verse also hints that as Muslims will soon prosper and attain power, they should never forget the days of hardships through which they have passed, i.e. in the days of their power, they should never oppress the weak creatures of God but should always treat them with justice and mercy. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَخُوۡنُوا اللّٰہَ وَ الرَّسُوۡلَ وَ تَخُوۡنُوۡۤا اَمٰنٰتِکُمۡ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۸﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَخُونُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ وَتَخُونُوٓاْ أَمَٰنَٰتِكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ
1113. The verse speaks of man’s two loyalties—his loyalty to God (and his Messenger) which is absolute and eternal because God is our Creator and Nourisher; and his loyalty to his fellow-beings which springs from the obligations he owes to them. (close)
The verse enjoins Muslims not to act faithlessly with regard to either the commandments of God or the rights of one another. Indeed, a Muslim should always be true to God and true to his fellow beings.
It is significant that when speaking of being true to God, the verse directly says, prove not false to Allah, but when speaking of men the words used are, prove not false to your trusts.
This is to point out that whereas faithfulness to God is absolute and eternal, being based on the very creation of man, faithfulness to man springs from the trusts and obligations that he may form or enter into. (close)