وَ اِذۡ قَالُوا اللّٰہُمَّ اِنۡ کَانَ ہٰذَا ہُوَ الۡحَقَّ مِنۡ عِنۡدِکَ فَاَمۡطِرۡ عَلَیۡنَا حِجَارَۃً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ اَوِ ائۡتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ اَلِیۡمٍ ﴿۳۳﴾
وَإِذۡ قَالُواْ ٱللَّهُمَّ إِن كَانَ هَٰذَا هُوَ ٱلۡحَقَّ مِنۡ عِندِكَ فَأَمۡطِرۡ عَلَيۡنَا حِجَارَةٗ مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ أَوِ ٱئۡتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٖ
1117. It was almost in these words that Abu Jahl prayed in the battlefield of Badr (Bukhari, ch. on Tafsir). The prayer was literally fulfilled. Abu Jahl along with many other leaders of the Quraish was killed and their bodies were thrown into a pit. (close)
This was the prayer which Abu Jahl, the leader of the disbelievers, offered to God at Badr and it was accepted. He prayed on that memorable day that God might destroy him and his party if the Prophet was in the right (Bukhari, ch. on Tafsir). Strange to say, not only were Abu Jahl and his companions punished at Badr by God but, as prayed for by Abu Jahl, even stones were rained down upon them; for, when at the throwing of a handful of pebbles by the Holy Prophet (8:18), there arose a strong wind, it literally rained upon the disbelieving host hard pebbles from the desert. (close)
وَ مَا کَانَ اللّٰہُ لِیُعَذِّبَہُمۡ وَ اَنۡتَ فِیۡہِمۡ ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ اللّٰہُ مُعَذِّبَہُمۡ وَ ہُمۡ یَسۡتَغۡفِرُوۡنَ ﴿۳۴﴾
وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمۡ وَأَنتَ فِيهِمۡۚ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ مُعَذِّبَهُمۡ وَهُمۡ يَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَ
1118. The Meccans were punished after the Holy Prophet left Mecca. The Divine Messengers serve as a kind of shield against heavenly visitations. (close)
a. 11:4. (close)
The verse embodies two basic protections against Divine punishment: (1) a people are not punished when they have a God’s Messenger living among them; and (2) they are not punished when they are seeking forgiveness of God. At the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet was not "among" the disbelievers, for the believers and the disbelievers formed two distinct and opposite parties. At Mecca, however, he was "among" them, for both he and his opponents lived under the same conditions and the same laws. Nor did the Quraish of Mecca enjoy the second protection at the Battle of Badr for, instead of asking forgiveness of God, they prayed that if Islam was a true religion, God might destroy them with a grievous punishment. The verse, therefore, hints that the Battle of Badr was the proper occasion for punishing the enemies of Islam. (close)
وَ مَا لَہُمۡ اَلَّا یُعَذِّبَہُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ ہُمۡ یَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنِ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَرَامِ وَ مَا کَانُوۡۤا اَوۡلِیَآءَہٗ ؕ اِنۡ اَوۡلِیَآؤُہٗۤ اِلَّا الۡمُتَّقُوۡنَ وَ لٰکِنَّ اَکۡثَرَہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۳۵﴾
وَمَا لَهُمۡ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَهُمۡ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوٓاْ أَوۡلِيَآءَهُۥٓۚ إِنۡ أَوۡلِيَآؤُهُۥٓ إِلَّا ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكۡثَرَهُمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
b. 22:26. (close)
c. 10:63-64. (close)
a. 22:26. (close)
b. 10:63, 64. (close)
The verse purports to say that when the Quraish did not enjoy either of the two basic protections against Divine punishment (see preceding verse), they were being rightly punished for their false beliefs and wicked deeds. The verse also says that the Quraish have no right to act as guardians of the Sacred Mosque. As guardians thereof, they ought to have been worshippers of the One True God; but they have put idols even in the Sacred Mosque; hence, far from having any right to act as its guardians, they deserve to be expelled therefrom and punished for the sacrilege.
The words, Its true guardians are only those who are righteous, contain a prophecy to the effect that Muslims would soon become guardians of the Sacred Mosque, the words, most of them know not, signifying that although most of the disbelievers do not at present think this announcement to be true, yet it would surely come to pass. (close)
وَ مَا کَانَ صَلَاتُہُمۡ عِنۡدَ الۡبَیۡتِ اِلَّا مُکَآءً وَّ تَصۡدِیَۃً ؕ فَذُوۡقُوا الۡعَذَابَ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَکۡفُرُوۡنَ ﴿۳۶﴾
وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُهُمۡ عِندَ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ إِلَّا مُكَآءٗ وَتَصۡدِيَةٗۚ فَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡفُرُونَ
1124. Important Words:
مکاء (whistling) is the noun-infinitive from مکا (with واو as the last root letter). They say مکا الرجل i.e. the man whistled with his mouth; or he brought together his fingers and blew through them, producing a whistling sound (Aqrab).
تصدیة (clapping of hands) is derived from صدی (sadda). They say صدی بیدیه i.e. he clapped with his hands. So تصدیة means, clapping with the hands. الصدی means, the sound or cry returned by a mountain, etc., when one shouts at it; echo (Lane under صدی). Some authorities derive the word تصدیة from the root صد (he turned away), the word الصد signifying the face or front of the hand (Lane under صد).
The verse describes the sacrilegious use of the Sacred Mosque by idolaters. Instead of using it for worship and devotion, they used it for talking and gossiping and for whistling and the clapping of hands.
The words, And their prayer at the House is nothing but whistling, etc. mean: (1) that even their acts of worship consisted of nothing but whistling, etc.; or (2) instead of praying and performing acts of devotion, they passed their time in whistling, etc. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا یُنۡفِقُوۡنَ اَمۡوَالَہُمۡ لِیَصُدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ فَسَیُنۡفِقُوۡنَہَا ثُمَّ تَکُوۡنُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ حَسۡرَۃً ثُمَّ یُغۡلَبُوۡنَ ۬ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اِلٰی جَہَنَّمَ یُحۡشَرُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۷﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُنفِقُونَ أَمۡوَٰلَهُمۡ لِيَصُدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۚ فَسَيُنفِقُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ حَسۡرَةٗ ثُمَّ يُغۡلَبُونَۗ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ يُحۡشَرُونَ
1119. These words embody a prophecy that the wealth which the disbelievers were spending in wars against Islam would prove a source of great sorrow and grief for them in that their efforts to destroy it would come to naught and their sons by accepting Islam would spend it to further its cause. (close)
a. 3:13. (close)
The verse embodies two prophecies concerning disbelievers, firstly, that the wealth which the disbelievers were spending in their war against Islam would prove of no avail and would become a source of grief for them and they would suffer defeat; secondly, that in the life to come they would be put in Hell as a result of their evil deeds. The first prophecy which related to the present life was clearly fulfilled, thus serving as evidence of the fact that the second prophecy, i.e. the one with regard to the life to come, would also similarly come true. (close)
لِیَمِیۡزَ اللّٰہُ الۡخَبِیۡثَ مِنَ الطَّیِّبِ وَ یَجۡعَلَ الۡخَبِیۡثَ بَعۡضَہٗ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ فَیَرۡکُمَہٗ جَمِیۡعًا فَیَجۡعَلَہٗ فِیۡ جَہَنَّمَ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡخٰسِرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۳۸﴾
لِيَمِيزَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبِ وَيَجۡعَلَ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ بَعۡضَهُۥ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٖ فَيَرۡكُمَهُۥ جَمِيعٗا فَيَجۡعَلَهُۥ فِي جَهَنَّمَۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡخَٰسِرُونَ
b. 3:180. (close)
The words, separate the bad from the good, refer to the first part of the previous verse, giving the reason for the defeat and failure of the disbelievers. God would cause their war against Islam to end in their defeat so that He might distinguish the righteous from the unrighteous. Similarly, the latter part of this verse, viz. put the bad, one upon another, and heap them up all together, and then cast them into Hell, corresponds to the latter part of the previous verse, viz. that the disbelievers shall be gathered into Hell. The words, heap them up all together, imply that as the disbelievers made a common cause against Islam, they would, as it were, all be heaped up into a bundle and then thrown into the fire of Hell as one huge piece of fuel. (close)
قُلۡ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اِنۡ یَّنۡتَہُوۡا یُغۡفَرۡ لَہُمۡ مَّا قَدۡ سَلَفَ ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّعُوۡدُوۡا فَقَدۡ مَضَتۡ سُنَّتُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۳۹﴾
قُل لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِن يَنتَهُواْ يُغۡفَرۡ لَهُم مَّا قَدۡ سَلَفَ وَإِن يَعُودُواْ فَقَدۡ مَضَتۡ سُنَّتُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ
After the Battle of Badr, in which the opponents of Islam suffered a crushing defeat, they are once more invited to desist from fighting, and it is promised to them that if they cease hostilities against Islam, their past offences will be forgiven them. But they are at the same time warned that if they return to war, they will meet the same fate which the former opponents of truth met. See also 8:20 above. (close)
وَ قَاتِلُوۡہُمۡ حَتّٰی لَا تَکُوۡنَ فِتۡنَۃٌ وَّ یَکُوۡنَ الدِّیۡنُ کُلُّہٗ لِلّٰہِ ۚ فَاِنِ انۡتَہَوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ بِمَا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ بَصِیۡرٌ ﴿۴۰﴾
وَقَٰتِلُوهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتۡنَةٞ وَيَكُونَ ٱلدِّينُ كُلُّهُۥ لِلَّهِۚ فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوۡاْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٞ
c. 2:194. (close)
1120. Muslims were enjoined to fight till religious persecution had ceased and men were free to practise the religion of their choice. Islam undoubtedly is the greatest upholder of freedom of conscience (2:194). (close)
a. 2:194. (close)
The verse shows that fighting was to be continued only so long as there was persecution and men were not free to profess the religion they liked. If the opponents of Islam desisted from
fighting, Muslims were also to desist. Islam fought only to defend itself and to establish freedom of conscience. See also 2:194.
The words, Allah is Watchful, imply that Muslims should not feel afraid that the disbelievers may desist only ostensibly and temporarily, and that they may attack the Muslims again when a favourable opportunity offered itself. God was Watchful of all that they do, and He would surely help Muslims, if the disbelievers acted faithlessly towards them. (close)
وَ اِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مَوۡلٰٮکُمۡ ؕ نِعۡمَ الۡمَوۡلٰی وَ نِعۡمَ النَّصِیۡرُ ﴿۴۱﴾
وَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَوۡلَىٰكُمۡۚ نِعۡمَ ٱلۡمَوۡلَىٰ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلنَّصِيرُ
a. 3:151; 22:79; 47:12. (close)
1121. The words mean, "If they refuse to accept the offer of peace made to them and start hostilities again." (close)
The words, if they turn their backs, mean, "if they turn their backs and refuse to accept the offer that was being made to them," i.e. if they return to hostilities. Thus God here promises to help Muslims if the enemy should again resort to war. Such promises (which always proved true) could only be given by the All-Powerful God, and they served as unmistakable evidence of the fact that the Quran was the Word of God and not the fabrication of man. (close)
وَ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّمَا غَنِمۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ فَاَنَّ لِلّٰہِ خُمُسَہٗ وَ لِلرَّسُوۡلِ وَ لِذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡیَتٰمٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ ابۡنِ السَّبِیۡلِ ۙ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ اٰمَنۡتُمۡ بِاللّٰہِ وَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلٰی عَبۡدِنَا یَوۡمَ الۡفُرۡقَانِ یَوۡمَ الۡتَقَی الۡجَمۡعٰنِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۴۲﴾
۞وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّمَا غَنِمۡتُم مِّن شَيۡءٖ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُۥ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱبۡنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ إِن كُنتُمۡ ءَامَنتُم بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَىٰ عَبۡدِنَا يَوۡمَ ٱلۡفُرۡقَانِ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡتَقَى ٱلۡجَمۡعَانِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٌ
b. 8:70. (close)
1122. The verse relates to the division of the spoils (see also 8:2), one-fifth of which is to be placed at the disposal of the Imam or the Khalifah, as the case may be, to be divided as he deems fit among the five parties mentioned. The Holy Prophet’s share was spent for the benefit of the poor Muslims, he himself having lived a life of austere simplicity. According to Imam Malik, the division need not necessarily be made into equal portions, but is to be left to the discretion of the Imam, who is to divide it as circumstances and need of the hour demand. Such was also the practice of the Holy Prophet and his four Rightly-Guided Successors. The remaining four-fifths were divided among the soldiers who were paid no salaries and generally had even to incur the expenses of wars themselves. This was an exigency measure adopted to meet the conditions then obtaining, as there was then no regular army and no State treasury. "The kindred" included all the descendants of Hashim and ‘Abdul- Muttalib who could not benefit from the Zakat. (close)
1123. The Day of Badr. (close)
a. 3:14, 167. (close)
c. 3:14,167. (close)
This verse (see also 8:2) relates to the division of the spoils of war. One fifth of such property was to be set apart, and the remainder was to be divided among the soldiers (who received no pay). In pre-Islamic Arabia, the practice was that first of all the commander chose from the booty anything he liked. This was known as صفیة (safiyyah), i.e. the thing chosen. Of the remainder he took خمس (one-fifth) in addition to صفیة (the chosen thing). Islam abolished the practice of صفیة(safiyyah) and the fifth part also was not to go entirely to the commander, but was to be shared by others. In the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, the practice was that of the خمس i.e. the fifth part, the Prophet took only a portion, and divided the remainder among his kinsmen, the orphans, the poor and the wayfarers. By 'kinsmen' were meant the descendants of Hashim and ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the two near ancestors of the Holy Prophet. After the death of the Holy Prophet, the fifth part went to the Khalifah or Imam who was to divide it among himself, the kinsmen of the Holy Prophet, the orphans, the poor and the wayfarers. According to Imam Malik, the division need not necessarily be made into equal portions, but is to be left to the discretion of the Imam, who is to divide it as circumstances and the need of the hour demand. Such was also the practice of the Holy Prophet and his four rightly-guided Successors.
The words, if you believe in Allah, are meant for the Imam, or the commanders, and serve as a reminder to them that they are not to appropriate the whole خمس (fifth portion) for themselves but should also give to other classes of men their due, as directed in the verse.
The words, if you believe in Allah and in what We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Distinction, serve twofold purpose. Firstly, they are meant to show that the qualification implied in the words, if you believe, does not relate to the Holy Prophet. Secondly, they serve to remind Muslims that since God helped them against disbelievers at Badr, when all material factors were against them, they should trust in His help and accept all His commandments regarding the distribution of spoils, etc., willingly and cheerfully.
The Battle of Badr is called یوم الفرقان (Day of Distinction) because on that day God brought into being extraordinary circumstances to grant victory to His Prophet, and to make it clear which party was fighting in the cause of God and which in the cause of Satan. Thus, the words یوم الفرقان (Day of Distinction) are here intended to hint that when a Muslim commander or an Imam gains a victory over his enemies, he should bear in mind that it is due to God’s assistance, and, therefore, he should not hesitate to divide the booty in accordance with His command. (close)