قُلۡ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اِنۡ یَّنۡتَہُوۡا یُغۡفَرۡ لَہُمۡ مَّا قَدۡ سَلَفَ ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّعُوۡدُوۡا فَقَدۡ مَضَتۡ سُنَّتُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۳۹﴾
قُل لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِن يَنتَهُواْ يُغۡفَرۡ لَهُم مَّا قَدۡ سَلَفَ وَإِن يَعُودُواْ فَقَدۡ مَضَتۡ سُنَّتُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ
After the Battle of Badr, in which the opponents of Islam suffered a crushing defeat, they are once more invited to desist from fighting, and it is promised to them that if they cease hostilities against Islam, their past offences will be forgiven them. But they are at the same time warned that if they return to war, they will meet the same fate which the former opponents of truth met. See also 8:20 above. (close)
وَ قَاتِلُوۡہُمۡ حَتّٰی لَا تَکُوۡنَ فِتۡنَۃٌ وَّ یَکُوۡنَ الدِّیۡنُ کُلُّہٗ لِلّٰہِ ۚ فَاِنِ انۡتَہَوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ بِمَا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ بَصِیۡرٌ ﴿۴۰﴾
وَقَٰتِلُوهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتۡنَةٞ وَيَكُونَ ٱلدِّينُ كُلُّهُۥ لِلَّهِۚ فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوۡاْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٞ
c. 2:194. (close)
1120. Muslims were enjoined to fight till religious persecution had ceased and men were free to practise the religion of their choice. Islam undoubtedly is the greatest upholder of freedom of conscience (2:194). (close)
a. 2:194. (close)
The verse shows that fighting was to be continued only so long as there was persecution and men were not free to profess the religion they liked. If the opponents of Islam desisted from
fighting, Muslims were also to desist. Islam fought only to defend itself and to establish freedom of conscience. See also 2:194.
The words, Allah is Watchful, imply that Muslims should not feel afraid that the disbelievers may desist only ostensibly and temporarily, and that they may attack the Muslims again when a favourable opportunity offered itself. God was Watchful of all that they do, and He would surely help Muslims, if the disbelievers acted faithlessly towards them. (close)
وَ اِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مَوۡلٰٮکُمۡ ؕ نِعۡمَ الۡمَوۡلٰی وَ نِعۡمَ النَّصِیۡرُ ﴿۴۱﴾
وَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَوۡلَىٰكُمۡۚ نِعۡمَ ٱلۡمَوۡلَىٰ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلنَّصِيرُ
a. 3:151; 22:79; 47:12. (close)
1121. The words mean, "If they refuse to accept the offer of peace made to them and start hostilities again." (close)
The words, if they turn their backs, mean, "if they turn their backs and refuse to accept the offer that was being made to them," i.e. if they return to hostilities. Thus God here promises to help Muslims if the enemy should again resort to war. Such promises (which always proved true) could only be given by the All-Powerful God, and they served as unmistakable evidence of the fact that the Quran was the Word of God and not the fabrication of man. (close)
وَ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّمَا غَنِمۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ فَاَنَّ لِلّٰہِ خُمُسَہٗ وَ لِلرَّسُوۡلِ وَ لِذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡیَتٰمٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ ابۡنِ السَّبِیۡلِ ۙ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ اٰمَنۡتُمۡ بِاللّٰہِ وَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلٰی عَبۡدِنَا یَوۡمَ الۡفُرۡقَانِ یَوۡمَ الۡتَقَی الۡجَمۡعٰنِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۴۲﴾
۞وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّمَا غَنِمۡتُم مِّن شَيۡءٖ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُۥ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱبۡنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ إِن كُنتُمۡ ءَامَنتُم بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَىٰ عَبۡدِنَا يَوۡمَ ٱلۡفُرۡقَانِ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡتَقَى ٱلۡجَمۡعَانِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٌ
b. 8:70. (close)
1122. The verse relates to the division of the spoils (see also 8:2), one-fifth of which is to be placed at the disposal of the Imam or the Khalifah, as the case may be, to be divided as he deems fit among the five parties mentioned. The Holy Prophet’s share was spent for the benefit of the poor Muslims, he himself having lived a life of austere simplicity. According to Imam Malik, the division need not necessarily be made into equal portions, but is to be left to the discretion of the Imam, who is to divide it as circumstances and need of the hour demand. Such was also the practice of the Holy Prophet and his four Rightly-Guided Successors. The remaining four-fifths were divided among the soldiers who were paid no salaries and generally had even to incur the expenses of wars themselves. This was an exigency measure adopted to meet the conditions then obtaining, as there was then no regular army and no State treasury. "The kindred" included all the descendants of Hashim and ‘Abdul- Muttalib who could not benefit from the Zakat. (close)
1123. The Day of Badr. (close)
a. 3:14, 167. (close)
c. 3:14,167. (close)
This verse (see also 8:2) relates to the division of the spoils of war. One fifth of such property was to be set apart, and the remainder was to be divided among the soldiers (who received no pay). In pre-Islamic Arabia, the practice was that first of all the commander chose from the booty anything he liked. This was known as صفیة (safiyyah), i.e. the thing chosen. Of the remainder he took خمس (one-fifth) in addition to صفیة (the chosen thing). Islam abolished the practice of صفیة(safiyyah) and the fifth part also was not to go entirely to the commander, but was to be shared by others. In the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, the practice was that of the خمس i.e. the fifth part, the Prophet took only a portion, and divided the remainder among his kinsmen, the orphans, the poor and the wayfarers. By 'kinsmen' were meant the descendants of Hashim and ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the two near ancestors of the Holy Prophet. After the death of the Holy Prophet, the fifth part went to the Khalifah or Imam who was to divide it among himself, the kinsmen of the Holy Prophet, the orphans, the poor and the wayfarers. According to Imam Malik, the division need not necessarily be made into equal portions, but is to be left to the discretion of the Imam, who is to divide it as circumstances and the need of the hour demand. Such was also the practice of the Holy Prophet and his four rightly-guided Successors.
The words, if you believe in Allah, are meant for the Imam, or the commanders, and serve as a reminder to them that they are not to appropriate the whole خمس (fifth portion) for themselves but should also give to other classes of men their due, as directed in the verse.
The words, if you believe in Allah and in what We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Distinction, serve twofold purpose. Firstly, they are meant to show that the qualification implied in the words, if you believe, does not relate to the Holy Prophet. Secondly, they serve to remind Muslims that since God helped them against disbelievers at Badr, when all material factors were against them, they should trust in His help and accept all His commandments regarding the distribution of spoils, etc., willingly and cheerfully.
The Battle of Badr is called یوم الفرقان (Day of Distinction) because on that day God brought into being extraordinary circumstances to grant victory to His Prophet, and to make it clear which party was fighting in the cause of God and which in the cause of Satan. Thus, the words یوم الفرقان (Day of Distinction) are here intended to hint that when a Muslim commander or an Imam gains a victory over his enemies, he should bear in mind that it is due to God’s assistance, and, therefore, he should not hesitate to divide the booty in accordance with His command. (close)
اِذۡ اَنۡتُمۡ بِالۡعُدۡوَۃِ الدُّنۡیَا وَ ہُمۡ بِالۡعُدۡوَۃِ الۡقُصۡوٰی وَ الرَّکۡبُ اَسۡفَلَ مِنۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ لَوۡ تَوَاعَدۡتُّمۡ لَاخۡتَلَفۡتُمۡ فِی الۡمِیۡعٰدِ ۙ وَ لٰکِنۡ لِّیَقۡضِیَ اللّٰہُ اَمۡرًا کَانَ مَفۡعُوۡلًا ۬ۙ لِّیَہۡلِکَ مَنۡ ہَلَکَ عَنۡۢ بَیِّنَۃٍ وَّ یَحۡیٰی مَنۡ حَیَّ عَنۡۢ بَیِّنَۃٍ ؕ وَ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَسَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۴۳﴾
إِذۡ أَنتُم بِٱلۡعُدۡوَةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَهُم بِٱلۡعُدۡوَةِ ٱلۡقُصۡوَىٰ وَٱلرَّكۡبُ أَسۡفَلَ مِنكُمۡۚ وَلَوۡ تَوَاعَدتُّمۡ لَٱخۡتَلَفۡتُمۡ فِي ٱلۡمِيعَٰدِ وَلَٰكِن لِّيَقۡضِيَ ٱللَّهُ أَمۡرٗا كَانَ مَفۡعُولٗا لِّيَهۡلِكَ مَنۡ هَلَكَ عَنۢ بَيِّنَةٖ وَيَحۡيَىٰ مَنۡ حَيَّ عَنۢ بَيِّنَةٖۗ وَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
1124. The verse gives a graphic picture of the position of the three parties at Badr. The Muslims were on the side nearer to Medina, the Meccan army was in a place farther away from the town and the Meccan caravan which was coming from Syria was towards the sea-coast. The verse says that if it had been left to the Muslims to appoint the time of the encounter, they would certainly have differed with regard to it and would have preferred to postpone the date of the first clash, for at that time they did not feel strong enough to meet their much more powerful and far better equipped enemy in the field of battle. But God’s object being to show a powerful Sign, He brought about the encounter. (close)
1125. God had decreed that the Meccans should suffer defeat. (close)
In this verse and those that follow, the Quran describes how God arranged and planned to bring about an encounter at Badr between believers and disbelievers, so that He might thereby crush the power of the enemy and show a sign in support of Islam.
The verse begins with a graphic picture of the situation of the different parties at Badr and then proceeds to say that, if it had been left to the Muslims to appoint the time of the encounter, they would certainly have differed with regard to it and would have preferred to postpone the date of the first clash, for at that time they did not feel strong enough to meet their much more powerful and far better-equipped enemy in a field of battle. As, however, God’s object was to show a powerful sign, so He brought about the encounter at a time when the Muslims were still very weak and the enemy very strong. This was done so that the party, which had been proved to be in error and to be spiritually dead by means of clear reasons and arguments, might perish and the party, which had been proved to be spiritually alive and established on the firm basis of truth, might survive and live.
The Quran has mentioned, more than once, the Divine attribute of "All-Hearing" in connection with the Battle of Badr in order to allude to the fact that prayers had played a great part in bringing about the victory and that they can play a similar part again. (close)
اِذۡ یُرِیۡکَہُمُ اللّٰہُ فِیۡ مَنَامِکَ قَلِیۡلًا ؕ وَ لَوۡ اَرٰٮکَہُمۡ کَثِیۡرًا لَّفَشِلۡتُمۡ وَ لَتَنَازَعۡتُمۡ فِی الۡاَمۡرِ وَ لٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ سَلَّمَ ؕ اِنَّہٗ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُوۡرِ ﴿۴۴﴾
إِذۡ يُرِيكَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِي مَنَامِكَ قَلِيلٗاۖ وَلَوۡ أَرَىٰكَهُمۡ كَثِيرٗا لَّفَشِلۡتُمۡ وَلَتَنَٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَمۡرِ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَلَّمَۚ إِنَّهُۥ عَلِيمُۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ
b. 3:14. (close)
1126. On his way to Badr the Holy Prophet in a vision saw the Meccan army to be less in number than they actually were (Jarir, x.9). This meant that in spite of their superior numbers and equipment they would be defeated. (close)
a. 3:14. (close)
1132. Important Words:
منام (dream) is derived from نام i.e. he slept. منام means, sleep; place where one sleeps; dream (Aqrab).
While on his way to Badr, the Holy Prophet was shown the Meccan army in a dream to be less in number than they actually were (Tabari, x. 9). In the language of dreams, this meant that the Meccan force, in spite of their superior numbers and equip-ment, would be overcome by the Muslims. On the other hand, if the enemy had been shown in a dream to be in large numbers, the interpretation of the dream would have been that the party to which the dreamer belonged would lose heart and would be overpowered by the enemy. (close)
وَ اِذۡ یُرِیۡکُمُوۡہُمۡ اِذِ الۡتَقَیۡتُمۡ فِیۡۤ اَعۡیُنِکُمۡ قَلِیۡلًا وَّ یُقَلِّلُکُمۡ فِیۡۤ اَعۡیُنِہِمۡ لِیَقۡضِیَ اللّٰہُ اَمۡرًا کَانَ مَفۡعُوۡلًا ؕ وَ اِلَی اللّٰہِ تُرۡجَعُ الۡاُمُوۡرُ ﴿٪۴۵﴾
وَإِذۡ يُرِيكُمُوهُمۡ إِذِ ٱلۡتَقَيۡتُمۡ فِيٓ أَعۡيُنِكُمۡ قَلِيلٗا وَيُقَلِّلُكُمۡ فِيٓ أَعۡيُنِهِمۡ لِيَقۡضِيَ ٱللَّهُ أَمۡرٗا كَانَ مَفۡعُولٗاۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرۡجَعُ ٱلۡأُمُورُ
1127. Whereas the preceding verse referred to the appearance of the enemy in a vision to the Holy Prophet, the present verse refers to its actual disposition on the battlefield. The enemy had kept one-third of their number hidden behind the mounds so that, when both parties came face to face, the Muslims saw only two-thirds of their actual number. This naturally gave heart to them. The enemy on their part did so, as they thought, lest the Muslims being overawed might flee from battlefield and refuse to give battle. Both these impressions helped to encourage either party to come to grips with their opponents with the result that "the thing decreed" was brought about, i.e. the Meccans suffered an ignominious and crushing defeat. (close)
b. 2:211; 3:110; 35:5. (close)
Whereas the preceding verse referred to the appearance of the enemy in a dream, the present verse refers to its actual appearance on the battlefield. What happened was that the enemy had kept one-third of their number behind mounds so that, when both parties came face to face, Muslims saw only two-thirds of their army. The Meccan army, about 1,000 strong, was more than three times the number of the Muslims who were only 313, but it so happened that the latter saw them to be only twice their own number. This naturally made the Faithful more hopeful. As hinted above, the enemy had concealed one-third of their number from the Muslims so that (as they thought) the latter might not be overawed and flee from the battlefield. This ruse was meant by them as an enticement to the Muslims so that the latter might be encouraged to give them battle and consequently be annihilated. Indeed, the Muslims were so weak at that time that the Meccans were anxious to get them within their grip, so that they might wipe them out of existence and thus extirpate Islam. The weakness of the Muslims became all the more apparent when the Meccans actually saw them, for they saw them smaller than their actual number, and both these impressions helped to encourage either party to come to grips with the opposing party, with the result that the "thing decreed" was miraculously brought about. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا لَقِیۡتُمۡ فِئَۃً فَاثۡبُتُوۡا وَ اذۡکُرُوا اللّٰہَ کَثِیۡرًا لَّعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۴۶﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمۡ فِئَةٗ فَٱثۡبُتُواْ وَٱذۡكُرُواْ ٱللَّهَ كَثِيرٗا لَّعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ
c. 8:16; 47:5. (close)
d. 33:42; 62:11. (close)
a. 8:16; 47:5. (close)
b. 33:42; 62:11. (close)
Muslims are here told that they should not think that war with disbelievers had ended with the Battle of Badr. The enemy was to return to the attack repeatedly and with larger and still larger forces. So Muslims are exhorted to remain firm and not to waver before the repeated onslaughts of the enemy.
The words, remember Allah much, imply that as the enemy will call his allies to his aid, so the Faithful, too, should call God to their help by constantly praying to Him.
The secret of success is stated here to lie in two things: (1) that Muslims should never feel secure from the attacks of the enemy and should always be prepared for them, and (2) that they should be always invoking God’s help. (close)
وَ اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ وَ لَا تَنَازَعُوۡا فَتَفۡشَلُوۡا وَ تَذۡہَبَ رِیۡحُکُمۡ وَ اصۡبِرُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَ الصّٰبِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۴۷﴾
وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَلَا تَنَٰزَعُواْ فَتَفۡشَلُواْ وَتَذۡهَبَ رِيحُكُمۡۖ وَٱصۡبِرُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ
a. 3:33; 4:60; 8:21; 24:55. (close)
1128. Rih among other things means, predominance, strength, victory (Lane). (close)
c. 3:33; 4:60; 8:21; 24:55. (close)
1135. Important Words:
ریح (power) is derived from راح i.e. it (a day) was violently windy; or it was or became cool and pleasant by means of the wind. راح الشجر means, the tree felt the wind. راح also means, he was or became brisk, lively, active or quick (as though he felt the wind and was refreshed by it). ریح means wind, i.e. the air that is between heaven and earth; the breath of the air, or, in like manner, of anything (said to be so called because it generally brings rest or ease); puff or gust of wind; also predominance or prevalence; power or force; aid against an enemy; victory or conquest; a turn of good fortune. One would say ذھبت ریحھم i.e. their turn of good fortune had departed تذھب ریحکم means, your predominance and power would depart (Lane).
The verse mentions three ways by following which Muslims could remain firm and become successful. Firstly, they are bidden to obey the commandments of God and His Messenger. Secondly, they are enjoined not to dispute with one another, but to remain united. Thirdly, they are commanded to remain patient and steadfast. (close)
وَ لَا تَکُوۡنُوۡا کَالَّذِیۡنَ خَرَجُوۡا مِنۡ دِیَارِہِمۡ بَطَرًا وَّ رِئَآءَ النَّاسِ وَ یَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بِمَا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ مُحِیۡطٌ ﴿۴۸﴾
وَلَا تَكُونُواْ كَٱلَّذِينَ خَرَجُواْ مِن دِيَٰرِهِم بَطَرٗا وَرِئَآءَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۚ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ مُحِيطٞ
1136. Important Words:
بطرا (boastfully). بطر الرجل means, the man exulted or exulted excessively; or he behaved insolently and ungratefully; or he behaved with pride and boastfulness; or he became stupefied and confounded with his wealth (and power), bearing it in an evil manner and turning it to a wrong purpose; or he regarded a thing with hatred and dislike, without its deserving to be so regarded; or he walked with a proud and conceited gait (Lane).
Boastfulness and the desire to be seen of and praised by others have always been a source of weakness in man, and the verse condemns them in the strongest terms. Again, in the field of religion, true service lies in opposing the enemy not only with fervour and zeal but with a view to helping and advancing the cause of truth. Those who are truly brave do nothing from motives of selfishness or self-display; their only motive is to seek the pleasure of God. The verse gives a description of the Meccan army under Abu Jahl which came forth from Mecca in proud exultation, and the Muslims are warned against following their example. (close)