کَمَاۤ اَخۡرَجَکَ رَبُّکَ مِنۡۢ بَیۡتِکَ بِالۡحَقِّ ۪ وَ اِنَّ فَرِیۡقًا مِّنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ لَکٰرِہُوۡنَ ۙ﴿۶﴾
كَمَآ أَخۡرَجَكَ رَبُّكَ مِنۢ بَيۡتِكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقٗا مِّنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ لَكَٰرِهُونَ
1093. The particle kama ordinarily meaning "just as" or "like unto" is also sometimes used in the sense of "as" or "since" or "because" (Muhit). If, the particle is taken in its ordinary sense of "just as," then the verse could be rendered as: "God grants victories and spoils to His servants and bestows on them honourable provision just as He did when He brought thee forth from thy house, etc." (close)
1094. Bil Haqqi means, for a righteous purpose. The verse relates to the Battle of Badr. (close)
1095. When Muslims marched out from Medina, as they did not know that they would have to fight a well-equipped Meccan army, they did not come fully prepared for fighting. So when on the way they learnt that they would have to fight the Meccan army they anxiously asked the Holy Prophet why he had not informed them of the real state of affairs so that they should have come fully prepared to meet the enemy. Thus their anxiety was not for their own sake but for the safety of the Holy Prophet. In their unpreparedness they were averse to exposing him to danger. This is clear from the verse "brought thee forth" and not "brought you forth," which signifies that God, in pursuance of Whose command the Holy Prophet had not informed the believers of the encounter with the Meccan army, would not leave him unprotected. The Muslims were not afraid of fighting. They were averse to it because they did not like to shed human blood and because also the person of the Holy Prophet had become exposed to danger. (close)
1096. Important Words:
The particle کما (as) ordinarily meaning "just as" or "like unto" is also sometimes used in the sense of "as" or "since" or "because." The Arabs say کما تطیع اللّٰہ ید خلك الجنة i.e. as you obey Allah, so He will make you enter Heaven (Muhit).
There has been much difference of opinion about the significance of the word کما (as) occurring in the beginning of this verse and briefly treated under Important Words above. Preferably the word has been used here in the sense of "as" or "since" in which case the words نصرك علی اعدائك (therefore He helped thee against thy enemies) would be taken to be understood at the end of the verse, as shown in the text. If, however, the word is taken in its ordinary sense of "just as," then the verse would be interpreted as providing an illustration of how God grants victories to His servants and bestows spoils and honourable provision on them (see the promises contained in 8:2, 5 above). In this case the verse could be rendered as: "God grants victories and spoils to His servants and bestows on them honourable provision just as He did when He brought thee forth from thy house, etc."
The expression بالحق (rightfully) refers to the fact that it was by Divine command, and under Divine revelation, that the Holy Prophet went forth from Medina to meet the enemy.
The verse thus signifies that, as the Holy Prophet had come forth by God’s own command, and under His special revelation, therefore God could not forsake him; so He helped him against the enemy.
The verse relates to the Battle of Badr. When Muslims came forth from Medina, they did not know that they would have to fight a Meccan army. So they did not come fully prepared for battle. Hence, when, on the way, the Holy Prophet revealed to them the fact that they would have to fight the Meccan army, they asked him why he had not told them so at Medina, so that they might have come prepared to meet the enemy. Their anxiety was not for themselves but for the Holy Prophet, whom they loved more than their lives. Hence, in their condition of unpreparedness, they were unwilling to expose him to danger. That the Muslims were anxious for the sake of the Holy Prophet and not for themselves and that it was his going forth that they did not like is clear from the verse itself which uses the words "brought thee forth" and not "brought you forth." The verse thus implies that when the Companions of the Holy Prophet were so anxious about their beloved Master—God, Whose Messenger he was—could not leave him unprotected; His love for him was certainly greater than that of his Companions. (close)
یُجَادِلُوۡنَکَ فِی الۡحَقِّ بَعۡدَ مَا تَبَیَّنَ کَاَنَّمَا یُسَاقُوۡنَ اِلَی الۡمَوۡتِ وَ ہُمۡ یَنۡظُرُوۡنَ ؕ﴿۷﴾
يُجَٰدِلُونَكَ فِي ٱلۡحَقِّ بَعۡدَ مَا تَبَيَّنَ كَأَنَّمَا يُسَاقُونَ إِلَى ٱلۡمَوۡتِ وَهُمۡ يَنظُرُونَ
1096. The verse does not refer to Muslims as wrongly understood by some Commentators, but to disbelievers. There is absolutely no evidence in history to show that the Holy Prophet’s Companions ever disputed with him with regard to fighting the enemy. On the contrary, it is related that when before the Battle of Badr he consulted them, they all expressed their complete readiness and even eagerness to accompany him and fight the enemy wherever he might take them (Hisham). Even the disbelievers who came out to fight the Muslims admitted that the latter looked like so many "seekers after death" on the field of battle (Tabari). The verse only signifies that as the enemies of Islam abhorred the truth as one abhors death, so, as a result of this, they were going to be punished with death. (close)
This verse refers not to the Companions of the Holy Prophet, as wrongly understood by some commentators, but to his enemies. There is absolutely no evidence in history to show that the Holy Prophet’s Companions disputed with him with regard to fighting the enemy. On the contrary, it is expressly related that when before the Battle of Badr he consulted them, they all expressed their readiness and even eagerness to accompany him and fight the enemy wherever he might take them (Hisham, ii. 13). Even the disbelievers who came out to fight the Muslims admitted that the latter looked like so many "seekers after death" on the field of battle (Tabari). What the verse, therefore, means is simply this that as the enemies of Islam abhorred the truth as one abhors death, so, as a result of this, they were going to be punished with death itself. (close)
وَ اِذۡ یَعِدُکُمُ اللّٰہُ اِحۡدَی الطَّآئِفَتَیۡنِ اَنَّہَا لَکُمۡ وَ تَوَدُّوۡنَ اَنَّ غَیۡرَ ذَاتِ الشَّوۡکَۃِ تَکُوۡنُ لَکُمۡ وَ یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یُّحِقَّ الۡحَقَّ بِکَلِمٰتِہٖ وَ یَقۡطَعَ دَابِرَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ۙ﴿۸﴾
وَإِذۡ يَعِدُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ إِحۡدَى ٱلطَّآئِفَتَيۡنِ أَنَّهَا لَكُمۡ وَتَوَدُّونَ أَنَّ غَيۡرَ ذَاتِ ٱلشَّوۡكَةِ تَكُونُ لَكُمۡ وَيُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُحِقَّ ٱلۡحَقَّ بِكَلِمَٰتِهِۦ وَيَقۡطَعَ دَابِرَ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
a. 8:43. (close)
1097. The "two parties" refer to (1) the well-equipped Meccan army that had come fully prepared to fight the Muslims, and (2) the Meccan caravan which was returning from the north and proceeding to Mecca and was lightly armed. (close)
1098. The Muslims naturally wanted to meet the caravan which was lightly armed but God’s design was to bring about an encounter with the fully equipped Meccan army. His object in doing so was to establish the Truth by His words and to cut off the root of the disbelievers. See also 3:14 and 8:42-45. (close)
1098. Important Words:
الشوکة (sting) is derived from شاك. They say شاکنی الشوك i.e. the thorn hurt or wounded me or it pierced my body. الشوکة is both the noun-infinitive from شاك and the singular of الشوك (thorns, spines, etc.). الشوکة means, thorn; sting; point of a spear, etc.; any weapon or weapons; sharpness of weapons; strength or might or vehemence thereof in war and fighting (Lane & Aqrab).
The "two parties" mentioned in the verse refer to (1) the Meccan army that had come forth to fight the Muslims, and (2) the Meccan caravan that was returning from the north and proceeding home. The former, besides being much larger in number, was heavily armed and very well-equipped; while the caravan was only lightly armed. Both belonged to Mecca and were equally hostile to Islam.
The verse signifies that as Allah had already made a promise to the Holy Prophet that He would give victory to Muslims over one of the two Meccan parties, viz. the caravan or the army, so against all hope He granted them victory in fulfilment of His promise. This shows that while yet at Medina, the Holy Prophet had been informed by God of the possible attack by the Meccan army, for without this Allah could not refer to "one of the two parties," but that the Holy Prophet kept the matter secret. The words, thy Lord Who rightfully brought thee forth from thy house, while a party of the believers were averse (8:6 above), also show that at Medina the Holy Prophet had undoubtedly received Divine revelation informing him of the coming attack by the enemy and that it was God Who had ordered the Holy Prophet to come forth. The above-quoted words also hint that the Holy Prophet kept this information secret, revealing it to only a few of his chosen comrades.
The words غیر ذات الشوکة (without sting) imply that the Muslims wanted to meet the party that was without sting, (i.e. the caravan) which they could easily overcome but that God desired to bring about an encounter with the army which could not be easily conquered, and His object in doing so was to establish the truth by His words and to cut off the root of the disbelievers, so that the prophecies with regard to the destruction of the enemy might be fulfilled that day, and their fulfilment against all hope might become the means of establishing the truth of Islam. For a more detailed account of the Battle of Badr see notes on 3:14 & 8:42-45. (close)
لِیُحِقَّ الۡحَقَّ وَ یُبۡطِلَ الۡبَاطِلَ وَ لَوۡ کَرِہَ الۡمُجۡرِمُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۹﴾
لِيُحِقَّ ٱلۡحَقَّ وَيُبۡطِلَ ٱلۡبَٰطِلَ وَلَوۡ كَرِهَ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ
b. 10:83. (close)
a. 10:83. (close)
The words, establish the truth, used in the preceding verse have been repeated here for the sake of emphasis and for vividly contrasting the idea contained in these words with that of those that follow, i.e. bring to naught that which is false. (close)
اِذۡ تَسۡتَغِیۡثُوۡنَ رَبَّکُمۡ فَاسۡتَجَابَ لَکُمۡ اَنِّیۡ مُمِدُّکُمۡ بِاَلۡفٍ مِّنَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ مُرۡدِفِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
إِذۡ تَسۡتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمۡ فَٱسۡتَجَابَ لَكُمۡ أَنِّي مُمِدُّكُم بِأَلۡفٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ مُرۡدِفِينَ
1099. See 934. (close)
1099A. Following one another. (close)
b. 3:124. (close)
1100. Important Words:
تستغیثون (you implored the assistance) is derived from غاث. They say غاثه, or اغاثه i.e. he helped, assisted or succoured him; He (God) removed from him trouble or affliction. غوث or غواث means, a cry for aid or succour. غیاث means, aid or succour; deliverance from difficulty or distress. استغاثه means, he sought or desired aid or succour of him; or he called for his aid or succour or assistance (Lane & Aqrab).
مردفین (following one another) is derived from اردف which is derived from ردف. They say اردفه i.e. he rode behind him on the same beast; or it followed or came after him or it. اردف signifies the same as ردف. They say اردفه امر i.e. an event happened to him afterwards; or an event came upon him suddenly and unexpectedly so as to overwhelm him. اردف الشیء بشیء means, he made the thing follow another thing. ردیف means, one who rides behind another on the same beast; a star which is rising when its opposite star is setting or vice versa. ردف means, sequence or consequence of a thing or event; followers or assistants or auxiliaries; night and day following each other; the star that follows another star. So مردفین means, following one another (Lane & Aqrab).
For the advent of angels, see 3:125-127 and 6:159. Also see 2:31. (close)
وَ مَا جَعَلَہُ اللّٰہُ اِلَّا بُشۡرٰی وَ لِتَطۡمَئِنَّ بِہٖ قُلُوۡبُکُمۡ ۚ وَ مَا النَّصۡرُ اِلَّا مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَزِیۡزٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿٪۱۱﴾
وَمَا جَعَلَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا بُشۡرَىٰ وَلِتَطۡمَئِنَّ بِهِۦ قُلُوبُكُمۡۚ وَمَا ٱلنَّصۡرُ إِلَّا مِنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
d. 3:127. (close)
1100. See 474. (close)
a. 3:127. (close)
See note on 3:127. As an intermediary means is sometimes likely to be confused with the real source of help which is God Almighty, the Quran takes particular care to remind Muslims that the real source of all help and all power is God alone. (close)
اِذۡ یُغَشِّیۡکُمُ النُّعَاسَ اَمَنَۃً مِّنۡہُ وَ یُنَزِّلُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً لِّیُطَہِّرَکُمۡ بِہٖ وَ یُذۡہِبَ عَنۡکُمۡ رِجۡزَ الشَّیۡطٰنِ وَ لِیَرۡبِطَ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِکُمۡ وَ یُثَبِّتَ بِہِ الۡاَقۡدَامَ ﴿ؕ۱۲﴾
إِذۡ يُغَشِّيكُمُ ٱلنُّعَاسَ أَمَنَةٗ مِّنۡهُ وَيُنَزِّلُ عَلَيۡكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءٗ لِّيُطَهِّرَكُم بِهِۦ وَيُذۡهِبَ عَنكُمۡ رِجۡزَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ وَلِيَرۡبِطَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُمۡ وَيُثَبِّتَ بِهِ ٱلۡأَقۡدَامَ
a. 3:155. (close)
1101. The reference in the verse is to the Battle of Badr. (close)
1102. The word Shaitan may also signify pangs of thirst and is called Shaitanul-Falat, i.e. devil of the desert. See 2535. The enemy had taken possession of water and the Muslims naturally feared that lack of it might prove a source of great hardship for them. The word may also signify the friends and associates of Satan. (close)
1103. The Muslims had encamped at a sandy place and the Meccan army on hard ground. Timely rain made the former place firm and the latter slippery. (close)
b. 3:155. (close)
1102. Important Words:
رجز (filth) is derived from رجز. They say رجز الناقة i.e. the she-camel had the disease of convulsive motion in the legs or thighs. رجزت الریح means, the wind was continuous or lasting. رجز means, commotion or agitation or convulsion; consecutiveness of motion; punishment that agitates by its vehemence and occasions vehement consecutive commotions; conduct that leads to punishment; sin; uncleanness or filth; polytheism or worship of idols; the Devil and his suggestions; plague or pestilence (Lane).
Before a battle, especially an important one, begins, there is generally great uneasiness and disquietude among the contestants; their hearts throb with anxiety, and sleep vanishes. So the verse mentions the coming of sleep on the battlefield of Badr as a sign of God’s favour. God caused sleep to come upon Muslims with the result that their anxiety was removed, that they were inspired with a feeling of confidence and security and that it had a soothing effect on their minds. This mental state proved highly helpful and materially contributed to their success.
The second favour mentioned in the verse pertains to the falling of rain. God caused rain to fall, which, as the verse points out, served four useful purposes: Firstly, it purified the Muslims because, seeing this token of God’s help, their faith in God was strengthened, with the result that their hearts, being filled with faith, were purified. Secondly, it dispelled from them the filth of Satan, i.e. thirst. In the Quran, thirst has been figuratively described as a pang due to Satan or the Devil; for instance, it is related that when Job was stricken with the pangs of thirst, he prayed to God, saying: Satan has smitten me with affliction and torment (38:42), whereupon God accepted his prayer, saying: Strike thy riding beast with thy foot. Here is cool water to wash with and a drink (38:43). So the removal of “the filth of Satan” signifies removal of thirst or the pangs of extreme thirst. The word "Satan" may also signify "those who are of Satan," i.e. the friends or associates of Satan. Taken in this sense, the clause would mean: "God dispelled from you the attack of the wicked people," the hint being that the rain proved a means of dispelling the attack of the Quraish, inasmuch as it rendered the hard ground occupied by the Meccan army slippery, thus preventing the enemy from making a successful attack on the Muslims. Thirdly, the rain strengthened the hearts of the Faithful. This was due to their faith being reinforced by witnessing signs of God’s special assistance. Fourthly, the rain helped to make the steps of the Muslims firm for, as mentioned in books of history, the ground occupied by the Muslims was sandy, so the rain made it hard, and the Muslims were able to tread it with firm steps. All these factors contributed to the success of the Muslims.
The reader should note the beautiful order in the words of this verse. It begins with the purification of the heart (the first purpose served by the rain) and ends with the establishing of the steps and making them firm (the fourth purpose served by the rain), i.e. the favour of God descended on the heart and then, as it were, travelled down to the feet. (close)
اِذۡ یُوۡحِیۡ رَبُّکَ اِلَی الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اَنِّیۡ مَعَکُمۡ فَثَبِّتُوا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا ؕ سَاُلۡقِیۡ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوا الرُّعۡبَ فَاضۡرِبُوۡا فَوۡقَ الۡاَعۡنَاقِ وَ اضۡرِبُوۡا مِنۡہُمۡ کُلَّ بَنَانٍ ﴿ؕ۱۳﴾
إِذۡ يُوحِي رَبُّكَ إِلَى ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ أَنِّي مَعَكُمۡ فَثَبِّتُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْۚ سَأُلۡقِي فِي قُلُوبِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ٱلرُّعۡبَ فَٱضۡرِبُواْ فَوۡقَ ٱلۡأَعۡنَاقِ وَٱضۡرِبُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ كُلَّ بَنَانٖ
1104. The upper part of the neck which is just below the head and is considered to be most vulnerable for dealing an effective blow with the sword. (close)
1103. Important Words:
فوق (upper part) is derived from فاق. They say فاقھم i.e. he was or became above them. So فوق means, the location or place that is above or over a person or a thing. They say فوقه رأسه i.e. his upper part is his head (Lane).
This verse shows that the angels are, as it were, intermediaries between God and men. It is through them that God’sassistance comes to men.
The verse also hints that there are some angels whose function is to strengthen the hearts of good men and make them firm, while there are others who are deputed to cast terror into the hearts of wicked men. So God bade the former class of angels to strengthen the hearts of the believers and told them that He would cast terror into the hearts of the disbelievers through the other class of angels.
God instructed the believers to strike the disbelievers at "the upper parts of their necks" because the upper part of the neck, i.e. that which is just below the head, is considered to be the best point for dealing an effective blow with the sword. This order related to such of the enemy as deserved to be killed and without killing whom the Muslims could not defend themselves. The striking on the “finger-tips” was meant to incapacitate the enemy and make them unfit for fighting. This order thus related to those of the enemy who, so far as possible, were to be spared with the infliction of minimum injury. Both these orders were faithfully carried out, for although the Muslims were very weak at Badr, they were able to kill seventy of the disbelievers, mostly leaders, and take as many prisoners, while the enemy could kill only fourteen of them. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ شَآقُّوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یُّشَاقِقِ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ﴿۱۴﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ شَآقُّواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥۚ وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ
b. 8:46; 47:5. (close)
a. 4:116; 47:33; 59:5. (close)
ذٰلِکُمۡ فَذُوۡقُوۡہُ وَ اَنَّ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابَ النَّارِ ﴿۱۵﴾
ذَٰلِكُمۡ فَذُوقُوهُ وَأَنَّ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ
a. 22:23; 34:43. (close)
In this verse God refers to two punishments for disbelievers, one in this life, and the other in the life to come. When the threat with regard to the punishment of this life had come to pass, it was quite reasonable to expect that the threat with regard to the punishment in the next life would also come to pass. Similarly, God had made two promises to believers: firstly, the promise of victory and success in this life; secondly, the promise of bliss in the life to come. When the former had been fulfilled in a most amazing manner, the latter would also be similarly fulfilled. (close)