Introduction of At-Taubah
Introduction in Chapter 8
یہ سورت مدینہ میں سورۃ الانفال کے معاً بعدنازل ہوئی۔ اس کی ایک سو انتیس آیات ہیں۔ جن جنگوں کا اور ان کے نتیجہ میں ابتلاؤں اور پھر انعامات کا ذکر سورۃ الانفال کے آخر پر ملتا ہے ان کے نتیجہ میں پیدا ہونے والے امور کا اِس سورت کے شروع میں ہی ذکر فرمادیا گیا کہ دشمن ضرور مغلوب ہوگا اور رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم اور آپؐ کے صحابہؓ سے معاہدات کرنے پر مجبور ہو جائے گا۔ پس انصاف کا تقاضا یہ ہے کہ جب تک وہ اپنے معاہدات پر قائم رہیں مسلمانوں کی طرف سے ہرگز عہدشکنی نہیں ہونی چاہئے۔ عہدشکنی کے بدعواقب کا تذکرہ جو سورۃ الفاتحہ سے شروع ہوکر پچھلی تمام سورتوں میں مختلف رنگ میں ملتا ہے اس کا ذکر اس سورت میں بھی موجود ہے۔ مگر جس طرح دشمن اپنے عہد توڑتا ہے اور سزائیں پاتا ہے، مومنوں کو بھی تنبیہ ہے کہ انہیں بھی ہر حال میں عہد کی پابندی کرنی ہوگی۔ اس سورت میں کثرت کے ساتھ مسلسل یہ ذکر مل رہا ہے کہ مومنوں کی کوئی فتح بھی ہتھیاروں کی برتری یا عددی غلبہ کے نتیجہ میں نہیں ہوتی اور نہ ہوسکتی ہے اور اسی تعلق میں جنگ حنین کا ذکر فرمایا گیا ہے جبکہ مسلمانوں کو کفار پر بہت بڑا عددی غلبہ نصیب ہوا تھا اور بعض مسلمان اِس زُعم میں تھے کہ اب کفّار کیسے فتحیاب ہو سکتے ہیں جبکہ ہم تھوڑے بھی تھے تو اُن کی عظیم جمعیتوں پر فتحیاب ہوتے رہے ہیں۔ ان کو یہ سمجھایا گیا ہے کہ جب تم تھوڑے تھے تو رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کی دعا کے نتیجہ میں ہی فتحیاب ہوتے رہے ہو، اس لئے اب تمہاری کثرت کا گمان توڑا جا رہا ہے لیکن نہایت ہی خطرناک شکست کے بعد دوبارہ تم اسی رسولؐ کی دعاؤں اور صبر و ہمت کے نتیجہ میں پھر غالب کئے جاؤگے۔ اس کے بعد کثرت سے اموال عطا ہونے کا ذکر ہے جس کے نتیجہ میں حاسد منافقین آنحضور صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم پر یہ اعتراض کرنے سے بھی باز نہ آئے کہ نعوذ باللہ آپ مالوں کی تقسیم میں خیانت کرتے ہیں۔ حالانکہ جو اموال بھی آنحضور صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم تقسیم فرماتے تھے وہ اپنے عزیزوں میں نہیں بلکہ مہاجرین، مساکین، غرباء اور اسی طرح مشکلات میں پھنسے ہوئے، قرضوں کی چٹی میں پھنسے ہوئے مفلوک الحال لوگوں کی بھلائی کے لئے استعمال فرماتے تھے۔ پس تنبیہ فرمائی گئی ہے کہ اگر تم اس امین رسول پر بھی بددیانتی کا الزام لگاؤگے تو ہلاک کردیئے جاؤ گے۔ دراصل ایسے الزام لگانے والے خود ہی بددیانت اور خائن ہوتے ہیں۔ اس سورت کے آخر پر یہ آیت آتی ہے کہ یہ وہ رسول ہے جو خالصۃً تمہاری بھلائی کے لئے دکھ اٹھاتا ہے۔ تم اللہ تعالیٰ کی راہ میں جو بھی تکلیف اٹھاتے ہو وہ اس پر بہت شاق گزرتی ہے اور کفّار پر سختی اس کے قلب کی سختی سے کوئی بھی تعلق نہیں رکھتی۔ اس کا قلب تو اتنی رأفت اور رحمت کرنے والا ہے کہ وہ رؤوف اور رحیم خدا کا ایک زندہ تمثل ہے۔
بَرَآءَۃٌ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖۤ اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ عٰہَدۡتُّمۡ مِّنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ؕ﴿۱﴾
بَرَآءَةٞ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦٓ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ عَٰهَدتُّم مِّنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
1150. Bara’ah signifies a declaration of vindication; exemption, absolution from a fault or responsibility; exemption or absolution from a demand, etc. (Taj). (close)
1151. ‘Ahada is here used not in the sense of entering into a treaty or a compact but making a commitment or a solemn promise by which one binds oneself (Lisan). The verse makes a solemn declaration that Islam and the Holy Prophet have been completely vindicated by the Fall of Mecca. While the Prophet was being driven from Mecca as a friendless fugitive with a price on his head, it was then declared in unmistakable terms that he would come back to it in triumph and glory (28:86). That prophecy was fulfilled with the Fall of Mecca and the establishment of the rule of Islam throughout Arabia. Thus the Holy Prophet stood fully vindicated and absolved from the demand of the Meccans that in fulfilment of his repeated declaration Mecca should have fallen into his hands. See also Introduction to Surah Anfal. (close)
1164. Important Words:
براءة (a declaration of absolution) is the noun-infinitive from بری which means, he was or became clear or free from a thing; or he was or became immune, secure or safe. بری من المرض means, he became free from the disease or malady. بری الجرحmeans, the wound healed or was healing. بری من الامر means, he was free from the thing or quit thereof; or he was guiltless of it and was not responsible for it. They say بری من الدین i.e. he became clear or quit of debt; or he became exempt from the demand. بری الیك من حقك means, he was or became clear or quit to thee of thy claim or due or right; or he was or became exempt from thy demand. براءة being the noun-infinitive from بری gives all the meanings derived from the verbal uses of the word given above, It particularly means, a declaration of granting or conferring or announcing immunity or exemption or absolution from a fault or responsibility; freedom from blame; exemption or absolution from a demand, etc. (Taj & Aqrab). See also 3:50.
عاھدتم (you made promises). عاھد is derived from عھد for which see 2:41. The word عاھد is here used not in the sense of entering into a treaty or a compact but making a promise, or making a solemn promise by which one binds oneself. They say عاھدت الله ان لا افعل کذا i.e. I have made a promise to God that I will not do such a thing (Lisan).
This Surah does not begin with the usual formula of بسم الله (In the name of God), for the reason of which see Introductory Note to chapter Anfal.
The first verse of this Surah refers to all the idolaters of Arabia including the dhimmis, i.e. those disbelievers who lived under the protection of Muslims as well as those non-Muslim Arab tribes with whom Muslims had treaty relations.
The verse declares the complete freedom of God and the Holy Prophet from all demand or blame, meaning thereby that all promises made by God and His Messenger had been fulfilled and their truthfulness fully established and, therefore, the idolaters, to whatever class they belonged, could bring no charge against God and His Prophet. Prophecies about the defeat and discomfiture of infidels and the ultimate success and triumph of Islam had been repeatedly made, and, now that all these prophecies had been fulfilled, the infidels of Arabia could no longer say that the declarations of the Prophet about the final triumph of Islam were mere empty promises. By the fulfilment of these promises, the verse says, God and His Messenger had proved their absolute freedom from the charge of making false promises. (close)
فَسِیۡحُوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ اَرۡبَعَۃَ اَشۡہُرٍ وَّ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّکُمۡ غَیۡرُ مُعۡجِزِی اللّٰہِ ۙ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مُخۡزِی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲﴾
فَسِيحُواْ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَرۡبَعَةَ أَشۡهُرٖ وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّكُمۡ غَيۡرُ مُعۡجِزِي ٱللَّهِ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مُخۡزِي ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
a. 6:135; 11:21. (close)
1152. With the Fall of Mecca and the defeat of Hawazin in the Battle of Hunain, the rule and authority of Islam had been established throughout the Hijaz. Certain tribes had made treaties with the Muslims and had laid down arms. These treaties were to be fully observed. But there were other tribes who had not made formal submission, had not laid down their arms and also had not made any treaty with the Muslims, ensuring the maintenance of peace and the observance of law and order. They had commenced hostilities against the Muslims, and though they had in effect been vanquished, they had not yet acknowledged defeat nor had agreed to live in peace with the Muslims. These tribes were given a four-month period of respite during which operations against them would remain suspended. They could go about freely in the land and satisfy themselves that further resistance was useless. They could then make their submission and make treaties. It is to these tribes that this verse refers. (close)
This verse particularly refers to the fulfilment of the prophecy contained in 54:2. Disbelievers are told to travel throughout the length and breadth of Arabia for four months, (the period ordinarily required in the Prophet’s time for such travel), and see whether there has remained any vestige of infidel rule and dominion in any part of the country. The infidels of Arabia opposed and persecuted the Prophet and his followers and spared no pains to crush and extirpate Islam. But Almighty God promised help to His Messenger with the result that the cause of Islam triumphed and all opposition was swept away. (close)
وَ اَذَانٌ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖۤ اِلَی النَّاسِ یَوۡمَ الۡحَجِّ الۡاَکۡبَرِ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ بَرِیۡٓءٌ مِّنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ۬ۙ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ؕ فَاِنۡ تُبۡتُمۡ فَہُوَ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تَوَلَّیۡتُمۡ فَاعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّکُمۡ غَیۡرُ مُعۡجِزِی اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ بَشِّرِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا بِعَذَابٍ اَلِیۡمٍ ۙ﴿۳﴾
وَأَذَٰنٞ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦٓ إِلَى ٱلنَّاسِ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡحَجِّ ٱلۡأَكۡبَرِ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ بَرِيٓءٞ مِّنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ وَرَسُولُهُۥۚ فَإِن تُبۡتُمۡ فَهُوَ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡۖ وَإِن تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ فَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّكُمۡ غَيۡرُ مُعۡجِزِي ٱللَّهِۗ وَبَشِّرِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
1153. Adhan means, notification, proclamation or call (Lane). (close)
1153A. Greater Pilgrimage was so called because it was the first pilgrimage performed under the control of the Muslims. (close)
1154. Whereas in the preceding verse Bara’ah signifies a declaration of vindication that the promises about the complete triumph of Islam had been fulfilled, in the present verse the word signifies "being clear of a person or a thing," i.e. having nothing to do with him or it (Lane). The declaration, contained in this verse and the one that follows is different from that embodied in vv. 9:1, 2; for whereas vv. 9:1, 2 relate to vindication that the promises made to the idolaters by the Holy Prophet had been fulfilled, the present verse pertains to the severance of all connections with them. This severance of relations should not be taken to mean that the verse declares that Muslims were free from all treaty obligations; for, as the following verse makes it quite clear, treaties are to be respected in all cases and must not be violated.
On his return from Tabuk in the ninth year of the Hijrah, the Holy Prophet sent ‘Ali to Mecca, who, on the occasion of the Greater Pilgrimage, made, as his representative, a proclamation containing the announcement: (1) "No idolater shall approach the House of God after this year. (2) Treaties and engagements made by the Holy Prophet with idolatrous tribes who had not made their submission shall stand and shall be faithfully respected till the end of their terms. But henceforth no idolater could stay in the Hijaz except those with whom he had entered into a treaty or who had sought protection from him. The order was amply justified, not only by the persistently treacherous conduct of the idolatrous tribes and by repudiation on their part of solemn agreements, resorted to on a large scale when the Holy Prophet was absent from Medina on the Tabuk expedition (8:57), but also by other political and cultural considerations which demanded its promulgation. The Hijaz had now become the religious as well as the political centre of Islam, and its interests demanded that it should be purged of all foreign and harmful elements likely to endanger its integrity and prove dangerous to the nascent Muslim Community. (close)
a. See 9:2. (close)
b. 4:139. (close)
b. 9:2. (close)
c. 4:139. (close)
1166. Important Words:
اذان (proclamation) is derived from اذن which means, he gave ear or listened; he permitted or allowed; he knew or he became informed, etc. آذن means, he informed, or notified or announced. اذان means, notification, announcement or call.
بری (clear) see 9:1 above. But whereas in that verse the word signifies absolution from obligations and from fulfilment of promises made by Islam, in the present verse it simply signifies being clear of a person or a thing, i.e. having nothing to do with him or it (Lane).
The declaration, contained in this verse and the one that follows, is different from that embodied in 9:1 & 2 above, for whereas vv. 9:1 & 2 relate to absolution from the fulfilment of promises made to idolaters, the present verse pertains to the severance of connections with them. This severance, however, should not be taken to mean that the verse declares Islam to be free from all treaty obligations; for, as the following verse makes it clear, treaties are to be respected in all cases and must not be violated.
It is related that on his return from Tabuk in the ninth year of the Hijrah, the Holy Prophet sent Abu Bakr to Mecca to announce, on the occasion of the Greater Pilgrimage, that henceforward no one would be allowed to perform the circuit of the Ka‘bah naked or unclothed. Immediately afterwards the first portion of this Surah was revealed. Upon this the Holy Prophet sent ‘Ali to Mecca, and he, as his cousin and representative, after reciting the opening verses of this Surah, made a proclamation containing the following two announcements before the pilgrims who had gathered at Mecca from all parts of Arabia:
1. No idolater shall approach the House of God after this year.
2. Treaties and engagements, made by the Holy Prophet with idolatrous tribes, shall stand and be faithfully respected till the end of their term. The idolaters of Arabia and the hypocrites of Medina had, by their plots and conspiracies against Muslims and by their persistent treacherous conduct, lost all claim to the clemency of the Holy Prophet. When he was absent on the expedition to Tabuk, they spread the false rumour that the whole Muslim army had been captured and the Prophet was dead. Moreover, Abu ‘Amir, a mischievous Arab leader, had gone to Syria to bring a Christian army to attack Muslims and in Arabia itself secret preparations had begun for a general rising. But for the timely return of the Holy Prophet, these plots would have resulted in great disturbance and heavy loss of life. When, on his return, the Holy Prophet learnt of the great mischief, set on foot in his absence and the plots hatched to deal a death-blow to Islam, he, with a view to preventing a recrudescence of such mischief ordered that henceforth no idolater could stay in the Hijaz with the exception of those with whom he had entered into a treaty, and these, too, were allowed to stay only till the expiry of the term of their treaty. The order was justified not only by the persistently treacherous conduct of the idolaters, but also by other political and cultural considerations which demanded its promulgation. The Hijaz had now become the religious as well as the political centre of Islam, and its interests demanded that it should be purged of all foreign and harmful elements likely to endanger its integrity and prove dangerous to the nascent Muslim community which had been brought into being to carry the message of the new Faith to the four corners of the earth. (close)
اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ عٰہَدۡتُّمۡ مِّنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ثُمَّ لَمۡ یَنۡقُصُوۡکُمۡ شَیۡئًا وَّ لَمۡ یُظَاہِرُوۡا عَلَیۡکُمۡ اَحَدًا فَاَتِمُّوۡۤا اِلَیۡہِمۡ عَہۡدَہُمۡ اِلٰی مُدَّتِہِمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُحِبُّ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۴﴾
إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ عَٰهَدتُّم مِّنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ ثُمَّ لَمۡ يَنقُصُوكُمۡ شَيۡـٔٗا وَلَمۡ يُظَٰهِرُواْ عَلَيۡكُمۡ أَحَدٗا فَأَتِمُّوٓاْ إِلَيۡهِمۡ عَهۡدَهُمۡ إِلَىٰ مُدَّتِهِمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ
c. 9:7. (close)
1155. These tribes were Banu Khuza‘ah, Banu Mudlij, Banu Bakr, Banu Damrah and some of the Banu Sulaim tribes. The verse incidentally throws interesting light on the sanctity that Islam attaches to treaties and agreements. (close)
a. 9:7. (close)
The verse makes an exception of such idolatrous tribes as had entered into a treaty with Muslims. These tribes were Banu Khuza‘ah, BanuMudlij, Banu Bakr, Banu Dumra and some of the Banu Sulaim tribes. The verse incidentally throws interesting light on the sanctity that Islam attaches to treaties and agreements. It requires its followers to respect their inviolability at all costs, and declares that faithfulness to the plighted word is an act of piety which earns the love of God. (close)
فَاِذَا انۡسَلَخَ الۡاَشۡہُرُ الۡحُرُمُ فَاقۡتُلُوا الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ حَیۡثُ وَجَدۡتُّمُوۡہُمۡ وَ خُذُوۡہُمۡ وَ احۡصُرُوۡہُمۡ وَ اقۡعُدُوۡا لَہُمۡ کُلَّ مَرۡصَدٍ ۚ فَاِنۡ تَابُوۡا وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَوُا الزَّکٰوۃَ فَخَلُّوۡا سَبِیۡلَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۵﴾
فَإِذَا ٱنسَلَخَ ٱلۡأَشۡهُرُ ٱلۡحُرُمُ فَٱقۡتُلُواْ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ حَيۡثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمۡ وَخُذُوهُمۡ وَٱحۡصُرُوهُمۡ وَٱقۡعُدُواْ لَهُمۡ كُلَّ مَرۡصَدٖۚ فَإِن تَابُواْ وَأَقَامُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَوُاْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ فَخَلُّواْ سَبِيلَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
1155A. "The forbidden months" are the four months of Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul- Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab, the first three being the months of the Greater Pilgrimage, while in the last the Arabs generally performed the Lesser Pilgrimage or ‘Umrah (2:195 & 2:218). The term Ashhurul-Hurum does not signify "sacred months" but "forbidden months" and refers to the four months mentioned in 9:2 above. In these months the above-mentioned idolaters were granted protection to travel through the land and see for themselves whether Islam had not triumphed and whether the word of God had not been fulfilled. At the end of this period, during which all hostilities were to remain suspended, war was to be resumed against such avowed enemies of Islam as had themselves started hostilities and had repeatedly broken their plighted word. The reason for this ultimatum is given in vv. 9:8-13. As for those idolaters who had not been guilty of faithlessness and treachery, they were to be protected (9:4, 7). (close)
1156. Those idolaters who had fought with the Muslims and had not yet asked for a fresh treaty with them. (close)
a. 7:157; 9:11. (close)
1157. Even those enemies of Islam at whose hands Muslims had suffered very grievous losses were to be forgiven if they repented and accepted Islam of their own free will. In fact, there was a large number of men among the idolaters who, in their heart of hearts, had been convinced of the truth of Islam, but who, either through pride or for fear of persecution or other considerations, had refrained from making open confession of faith. This verse assured such people that if anyone of them declared his faith in Islam even during the war, his confession would not be taken as hypocritical or as having been made to save his skin. (close)
b. 7:157; 9:11. (close)
The term الاشھر الحرم is generally applied to the four sacred months of Shawwal, Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Rajab, the first three being the months of the Greater Pilgrimage, while in the last the Arabs generally performed the Lesser Pilgrimage or ‘Umrah (see notes on 2:195 and 2:218). In this verse, however, the words الاشھر الحرم signify not the "sacred months", but "forbidden months" and refer to the four months mentioned in 9:2 above. These were meant to grant a respite to idolaters to travel through the land in safety and see whether Islam had not triumphed and whether the Word of God had not proved true. At the end of this period, during which all hostilities were to be suspended, war was to be resumed against the idolatrous Arabs with the exception, of course, of such as had entered into a treaty with Muslims, and the treacherous and faithless idolaters already at war with Muslims were to be captured and killed wherever found. It should, however, be remembered that the command to wage war after the expiry of the four forbidden months did not apply to all idolaters without discrimination, but was directed only against such avowed enemies of Islam as had themselves started hostilities against Islam and had broken their plighted word and plotted to expel the Holy Prophet from the city. The reason for this ultimatum is given in the following few verses, viz. 9:8-13. As for those idolaters who had been guilty of faithlessness and treachery, they were to be protected (see 9:4, 7). It is highly regrettable, however, that, divorcing this commandment from its context, some critics have made this verse the basis for an attack against Islam, alleging that it inculcates the destruction of all non-Muslims. The Quran and history belie this baseless allegation.
The words, and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush, mean that a strict watch should be kept over the movements of the enemy that he may not be able to create mischief and carry on malicious propaganda against Muslims. The very words of the verse point to the existence of a great danger. These times were indeed very hard for Muslims. On the one hand, the Eastern Roman Empire was preparing to attack them and, on the other, the internal enemies of Islam were hatching plots to bring about its downfall.
The words, But if they repent..., show that even those enemies of Islam at whose hands Muslims had suffered such grievous losses were to be forgiven, if they repented and accepted Islam of their own free will. That no compulsion was to be used is clear from the very next verse, as also from the fundamental injunction laid down in 2:257. The truth is that there was a large number of men among the idolaters who, in their heart of hearts, believed in the truth of Islam, but who, either through pride or for fear of others or for other reasons, refrained from making an open confession of faith. This verse was intended to convey to such people that if anyone of them declared his faith in Islam even during the war, his confession would not be taken as hypocritical or as made to save his skin. A conclusive proof of the fact, that there were many among idolaters who were at heart inclined to Islam but were afraid to declare their faith openly owing to fear of persecution, is that whenever war ceased, there was a rush for conversion to Islam. The two years of peace that followed the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah brought over a very large number of disbelievers to Islam. They could not have joined Islam in such large numbers if they had not been believers in their hearts, having been held back only by fear of persecution. There are even cases on record of men accepting Islam in the thick of battle. Muslims did not at first spare such men, thinking that they had done so merely to save their lives. The Holy Prophet, however, took such Muslims severely to the task, asking them if they had torn open the hearts of those people and had satisfied themselves that they were really devoid of sincerity. It is for this reason that the Quran directs Muslims not to harm such men from among the idolaters as profess their faith in Islam and observe the commandments of God, for only God knows whether they are true Muslims or not.
"Merciful" at the end of the verse shows that the conduct of idolaters had been such as to make them deserving of the severest of punishment, and that to extend forgiveness to them even on their abandonment of idolatry was really an act of mercy. (close)
وَ اِنۡ اَحَدٌ مِّنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ اسۡتَجَارَکَ فَاَجِرۡہُ حَتّٰی یَسۡمَعَ کَلٰمَ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ اَبۡلِغۡہُ مَاۡمَنَہٗ ؕ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ قَوۡمٌ لَّا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ٪﴿۶﴾
وَإِنۡ أَحَدٞ مِّنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ ٱسۡتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرۡهُ حَتَّىٰ يَسۡمَعَ كَلَٰمَ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ أَبۡلِغۡهُ مَأۡمَنَهُۥۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٞ لَّا يَعۡلَمُونَ
1158. The verse clearly establishes the fact that war with idolaters was not undertaken in order to force them to embrace Islam, because, according to it, even when a state of war existed, idolaters were to be permitted to come to the Muslims’ camp or Headquarters if they desired to investigate the truth. Then, after the truth had been preached to them and they had been acquainted with the teachings of Islam, they were to be safely conducted to their place of security, if they did not feel inclined to embrace the new Faith. In the face of such clear teachings, it is the height of injustice to accuse Islam of intolerance or of using or conniving at force; for its propagation. (close)
This verse clearly establishes the fact that war with idolaters was not undertaken to force them to embrace Islam, because, according to it, even when a state of war existed idolaters were to be permitted to come to the Muslim camp or the Muslim headquarters if they desired to investigate the truth. Then, after the truth had been preached to them and they had been acquainted with the teachings of Islam, they were to be safely conveyed to their place of security, if they did not feel inclined to embrace the new Faith. In the face of such clear teachings, it is the height of injustice to accuse Islam of intolerance or of allowing compulsion for the propagation of its teaching. (close)
کَیۡفَ یَکُوۡنُ لِلۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ عَہۡدٌ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ عِنۡدَ رَسُوۡلِہٖۤ اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ عٰہَدۡتُّمۡ عِنۡدَ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَرَامِ ۚ فَمَا اسۡتَقَامُوۡا لَکُمۡ فَاسۡتَقِیۡمُوۡا لَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُحِبُّ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۷﴾
كَيۡفَ يَكُونُ لِلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ عَهۡدٌ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَعِندَ رَسُولِهِۦٓ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ عَٰهَدتُّمۡ عِندَ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِۖ فَمَا ٱسۡتَقَٰمُواْ لَكُمۡ فَٱسۡتَقِيمُواْ لَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ
a. 9:4. (close)
1159. The verse shows that war was permissible only against such non- Muslims as had repeatedly violated most solemn covenants and had attacked Muslims treacherously. As for the rest, Muslims had been bidden to observe their engagements with them strictly and faithfully. Like 9:4, this verse describes the observance of covenants and treaties as an act of piety and righteousness which is pleasing to God. The Qur’an repeatedly and most emphatically exhorts Muslims to be faithful to their treaties. (close)
The words, So, as long as they stand true to you, stand true to them, show that war was permissible only against such non-Muslims as were faithless to their covenants and attacked Muslims treacherously. As for the rest, Muslims have been bidden to observe their engagements strictly and faithfully with them. It will be noted that like 9:4, this verse describes the observance of covenants and treaties as an act of piety and righteousness which is pleasing in the sight of God. No wonder that the Quran repeatedly exhorts Muslims to be faithful to their treaties. (close)
کَیۡفَ وَ اِنۡ یَّظۡہَرُوۡا عَلَیۡکُمۡ لَا یَرۡقُبُوۡا فِیۡکُمۡ اِلًّا وَّ لَا ذِمَّۃً ؕ یُرۡضُوۡنَکُمۡ بِاَفۡوَاہِہِمۡ وَ تَاۡبٰی قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ ۚ وَ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ فٰسِقُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۸﴾
كَيۡفَ وَإِن يَظۡهَرُواْ عَلَيۡكُمۡ لَا يَرۡقُبُواْ فِيكُمۡ إِلّٗا وَلَا ذِمَّةٗۚ يُرۡضُونَكُم بِأَفۡوَٰهِهِمۡ وَتَأۡبَىٰ قُلُوبُهُمۡ وَأَكۡثَرُهُمۡ فَٰسِقُونَ
b. 9:10. (close)
1160. Ill means, relationship or nearness with respect to kindred; good origin; a compact or covenant; a promise or an assurance of safety or security (Lane & Mufradat). (close)
1161. Dhimmah means, a compact; covenant; treaty; engagement, obligation or responsibility; a right or due for the neglect of which one is to be blamed (Lane). The expression Ahludh-Dhimmah is used for those non-Muslim people with whom the Muslim State has made a compact and who pay poll tax to the State, in return for which the State is responsible for their security and freedom (Lane). The verse makes it further clear that the command to wage war applies only to such disbelievers as had not only been the first to open hostilities against Islam but were also perfidious and treacherous, paying no respect either to ties of relationship or to compacts and covenants. (close)
1171. Important Words:
ال (tie of relationship). اله means, he pierced him with a bright javelin. They say ال الفرس i.e. the horse went quickly, making itself prominent.
ال اللون means, the colour became clear and bright. ال means, relationship, or nearness with respect to kindred; good origin; a compact or covenant; a promise or an assurance of safety or security; a neighbour; a visible state of relationship (Lane, Aqrab & Mufradat).
ذمة (covenant) is the noun-infinitive from ذم . They say ذمة i.e. he blamed or found fault with him. اذم means, he did or said that for which he should be blamed or found fault with. اذمه also means, he protected him or granted him refuge or protection. اذم له means, he took or obtained a promise or an assurance of security or a covenant in his favour. ذمة means, a compact, covenant, treaty, engagement, obligation or responsibility; a right or due for the neglect of which one is to be blamed. The expression اھل الذمة is used for those non-Muslim people with whom the Muslim State has made a compact and who pay poll-tax to the State in return for which the State is responsible for their security and freedom (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse makes it further clear that the commandment to wage war is meant only about such disbelievers as had not only been the first to open hostilities against Islam but were, at the same time, perfidious and treacherous, paying no respect either to ties of relationship or to compacts and covenants. (close)
اِشۡتَرَوۡا بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ ثَمَنًا قَلِیۡلًا فَصَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِہٖ ؕ اِنَّہُمۡ سَآءَ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾
ٱشۡتَرَوۡاْ بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ ثَمَنٗا قَلِيلٗا فَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّهُمۡ سَآءَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
c. 2:175; 3:78, 188; 16:96. (close)
a. 2:175; 3:78,188; 16:96. (close)
See note on 2:42. (close)
لَا یَرۡقُبُوۡنَ فِیۡ مُؤۡمِنٍ اِلًّا وَّ لَا ذِمَّۃً ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُعۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
لَا يَرۡقُبُونَ فِي مُؤۡمِنٍ إِلّٗا وَلَا ذِمَّةٗۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُعۡتَدُونَ
a. 9:8. (close)
1162. This and the preceding two verses give the reasons why Muslims were commanded to wage war against such idolaters (9:5). The reasons are: (1) They were treacherous and perfidious; they professed to be friendly to Muslims, but as soon as they found an opportunity to injure them, they broke their plighted word and this in spite of the fact that Muslims had trusted them. (2) They even disregarded the ties of relationship and slew their own kinsmen merely because the latter had embraced Islam (9:8). (3) Their object in making war was to prevent men from embracing Islam (9:9). (4) They were the first to attack Muslims (9:13). (close)
b. 9:8. (close)
1173. Important Words:
مومن (one who trusts) is the active participle from آمن which is derived from امن which means, he was or became safe or secure or free from fear. امنه علی کذا means, he trusted him in respect of such a thing. آمنه means, he rendered him safe or secure or free from fear; he trusted or confided in him. آمن بهmeans, he believed in him. مؤمن therefore, means, a believer; a faithful person; a person who trusts or confides in others; one who affords security and protection. المومن is also one of the attributes of God, meaning, He Who grants security and protection to His creatures (Lane).
This verse emphasizes the heinousness of the crime of disbelievers by adding the word مومن (one who trusts). These disbelievers would not be true even to those who trusted them. Thus, the present and the preceding two verses mention the reasons why Muslims were commanded to wage war against these idolaters in 9:5. These reasons are: (1) they were treacherous and perfidious; they professed to be friendly to Muslims, but as soon as they found an opportunity to injure them, they broke their plighted word and this in spite of the fact that Muslims trusted them (9:8 and the present verse); (2) they even disregarded the ties of relationship and killed their own kinsmen merely because the latter had embraced Islam (9:8); (3) their object in making war was to prevent men from embracing Islam (9:9); and (4) they were transgressors, i.e. the first to attack Muslims (the present verse). (close)