لَا یَرۡقُبُوۡنَ فِیۡ مُؤۡمِنٍ اِلًّا وَّ لَا ذِمَّۃً ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُعۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
لَا يَرۡقُبُونَ فِي مُؤۡمِنٍ إِلّٗا وَلَا ذِمَّةٗۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُعۡتَدُونَ
a. 9:8. (close)
1162. This and the preceding two verses give the reasons why Muslims were commanded to wage war against such idolaters (9:5). The reasons are: (1) They were treacherous and perfidious; they professed to be friendly to Muslims, but as soon as they found an opportunity to injure them, they broke their plighted word and this in spite of the fact that Muslims had trusted them. (2) They even disregarded the ties of relationship and slew their own kinsmen merely because the latter had embraced Islam (9:8). (3) Their object in making war was to prevent men from embracing Islam (9:9). (4) They were the first to attack Muslims (9:13). (close)
b. 9:8. (close)
1173. Important Words:
مومن (one who trusts) is the active participle from آمن which is derived from امن which means, he was or became safe or secure or free from fear. امنه علی کذا means, he trusted him in respect of such a thing. آمنه means, he rendered him safe or secure or free from fear; he trusted or confided in him. آمن بهmeans, he believed in him. مؤمن therefore, means, a believer; a faithful person; a person who trusts or confides in others; one who affords security and protection. المومن is also one of the attributes of God, meaning, He Who grants security and protection to His creatures (Lane).
This verse emphasizes the heinousness of the crime of disbelievers by adding the word مومن (one who trusts). These disbelievers would not be true even to those who trusted them. Thus, the present and the preceding two verses mention the reasons why Muslims were commanded to wage war against these idolaters in 9:5. These reasons are: (1) they were treacherous and perfidious; they professed to be friendly to Muslims, but as soon as they found an opportunity to injure them, they broke their plighted word and this in spite of the fact that Muslims trusted them (9:8 and the present verse); (2) they even disregarded the ties of relationship and killed their own kinsmen merely because the latter had embraced Islam (9:8); (3) their object in making war was to prevent men from embracing Islam (9:9); and (4) they were transgressors, i.e. the first to attack Muslims (the present verse). (close)
فَاِنۡ تَابُوۡا وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَوُا الزَّکٰوۃَ فَاِخۡوَانُکُمۡ فِی الدِّیۡنِ ؕ وَ نُفَصِّلُ الۡاٰیٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾
فَإِن تَابُواْ وَأَقَامُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَوُاْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ فَإِخۡوَٰنُكُمۡ فِي ٱلدِّينِۗ وَنُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ لِقَوۡمٖ يَعۡلَمُونَ
b. 7:154; 9:5. (close)
a. 7:154; 9:5. (close)
The words, they are your brethren in faith, mean that not only should all hostilities cease against such disbelievers as repent, but they are to be looked upon as brethren and treated as such. See also note on 9:5, above. (close)
وَ اِنۡ نَّکَثُوۡۤا اَیۡمَانَہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِ عَہۡدِہِمۡ وَ طَعَنُوۡا فِیۡ دِیۡنِکُمۡ فَقَاتِلُوۡۤا اَئِمَّۃَ الۡکُفۡرِ ۙ اِنَّہُمۡ لَاۤ اَیۡمَانَ لَہُمۡ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَنۡتَہُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲﴾
وَإِن نَّكَثُوٓاْ أَيۡمَٰنَهُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ عَهۡدِهِمۡ وَطَعَنُواْ فِي دِينِكُمۡ فَقَٰتِلُوٓاْ أَئِمَّةَ ٱلۡكُفۡرِ إِنَّهُمۡ لَآ أَيۡمَٰنَ لَهُمۡ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَنتَهُونَ
1163. The words "attack your religion" do not refer to mere verbal taunts and reproaches but to actual attacks meant to injure the vital interests of Islam; the word Ta‘ana literally meaning "to pierce with a spear." (close)
c. 2:191; 4:92. (close)
1164. The words, these leaders of disbelief are here applied not to a few leading individuals but to the whole people to whom this commandment to fight referred. They are called "leaders" because they were among the first to clash with Muslims and their example encouraged others; and because also their hostility towards Islam was so inveterate and implacable that they served, as it were, as evil models in this respect. (close)
b. 2:191; 4:92. (close)
This verse leaves no doubt as to the fact that Muslims were bidden to fight disbelievers only if they broke their covenant and attacked Islam with a view to injuring it. It also makes it clear that the object in fighting disbelievers was to make them "desist" from transgression.
The words, طعنوا فی دینکم (attack your religion), do not refer to mere verbal taunts and reproaches but to actual attacks meant to injure the vital interests of Islam; the word literally meaning "to pierce with a spear."
The epithet, these leaders of disbelief, is here applied not to a few leading individuals but to the whole people to whom this commandment to fight referred. They are called ائمة (leaders) because, firstly, they were among the first and the foremost to clash with Muslims and their example encouraged others; and, secondly, their hostility towards Islam was so inveterate and implacable that they served, as it were, as evil models in this respect. (close)
اَلَا تُقَاتِلُوۡنَ قَوۡمًا نَّکَثُوۡۤا اَیۡمَانَہُمۡ وَ ہَمُّوۡا بِاِخۡرَاجِ الرَّسُوۡلِ وَ ہُمۡ بَدَءُوۡکُمۡ اَوَّلَ مَرَّۃٍ ؕ اَتَخۡشَوۡنَہُمۡ ۚ فَاللّٰہُ اَحَقُّ اَنۡ تَخۡشَوۡہُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾
أَلَا تُقَٰتِلُونَ قَوۡمٗا نَّكَثُوٓاْ أَيۡمَٰنَهُمۡ وَهَمُّواْ بِإِخۡرَاجِ ٱلرَّسُولِ وَهُم بَدَءُوكُمۡ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍۚ أَتَخۡشَوۡنَهُمۡۚ فَٱللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخۡشَوۡهُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
1165. The tribes in or about Medina who, when the Holy Prophet went on an expedition to Tabuk, plotted to bring about his downfall by inciting the various tribes of Arabia to stand up against him. (close)
1166. These words also do not refer to the pagan Meccans but to those infidels, whether open or secret, who lived in and around Medina. They provided ample proof of the fact that, far from being the transgressor, Islam was transgressed against rather than being the aggressor. (close)
The words, who plotted to turn out the Messenger, do not refer to the Meccans, but to those who, when the Holy Prophet went on an expedition to the Syrian border, plotted to bring about his downfall by making the different tribes of Arabia stand up as one man against him on his return (see notes on 9:3,4, above). The Meccans did not merely plot to turn out the Holy Prophet, but actually turned him out (see 47:14). Moreover, by the time these verses were revealed, the Meccans had embraced Islam and all hostilities between Muslims and Meccans had ceased.
The words, they were the first to commence hostilities against you, also refer not to the Meccans but to those infidels, whether open or secret, who lived in and about Medina. The words provide conclusive proof of the fact that, far from being the transgressor, Islam was transgressed against. It was the infidels who first began hostilities against it. They acted most treacherously and resorted to all sorts of foul means to annihilate it. It was only such men that Muslims had been commanded to fight. Christian critics of Islam will do well to compare the wars of Islam with the wars of their great Lawgiver, Moses, against a people who had never taken up arms against him and had done nothing to offend him. Yet these people were ruthlessly butchered and even their women and children were not spared (Deut. 20:16, 17). As compared with this, the Holy
Prophet took up arms only against those who first started hostilities, and even then he directed that their women and children and their religious devotees, as well as their churches, should be spared (Muslim, Tahawi & Dawud). Those, who regard the wars of Moses as holy, have certainly no reason to criticize the wars of the Holy Prophet of Islam. (close)
قَاتِلُوۡہُمۡ یُعَذِّبۡہُمُ اللّٰہُ بِاَیۡدِیۡکُمۡ وَ یُخۡزِہِمۡ وَ یَنۡصُرۡکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ یَشۡفِ صُدُوۡرَ قَوۡمٍ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۴﴾
قَٰتِلُوهُمۡ يُعَذِّبۡهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِأَيۡدِيكُمۡ وَيُخۡزِهِمۡ وَيَنصُرۡكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَيَشۡفِ صُدُورَ قَوۡمٖ مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
1177. Important Words:
یشف (relieve) is derived from شفا. They say شفاہ من مرضه i.e. he cured him (of disease) and restored him to convalescence. شفیتهmeans, I relieved him from doubt. شفاہ عن المسألةmeans, he relieved him from doubt respecting the question. یشفیك ان قالmeans, he will please thee if he speaks, i.e. his speech will please thee (Lane).
The verse shows that the enemies of Islam had made themselves deserving of Divine punishment by their treacherous and wrongful conduct; and fighting was only a form of Divine punishment that had been prescribed for them, and it was inflicted on them after they had themselves started hostilities. It was most certainly not resorted to in order to compel them to embrace Islam. (close)
وَ یُذۡہِبۡ غَیۡظَ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ ؕ وَ یَتُوۡبُ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۵﴾
وَيُذۡهِبۡ غَيۡظَ قُلُوبِهِمۡۗ وَيَتُوبُ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
The pronoun "their" in the words, the wrath of their hearts, refers to disbelievers, and the sentence means that God may thereby do away with the wrath that had been kindled in the hearts of disbelievers against Muslims. This could be done in two ways: (1) by crushing their power completely and forever; or (2) by making them accept Islam. Both of these means are intended here, for there were some who were destroyed and their power crushed and there were others who saw the light and voluntarily embraced Islam. The following words, And Allah turns with mercy to whomsoever He pleases, obviously refer to the latter class. (close)
اَمۡ حَسِبۡتُمۡ اَنۡ تُتۡرَکُوۡا وَ لَمَّا یَعۡلَمِ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ جٰہَدُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ وَ لَمۡ یَتَّخِذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ لَا الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَلِیۡجَۃً ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿٪۱۶﴾
أَمۡ حَسِبۡتُمۡ أَن تُتۡرَكُواْ وَلَمَّا يَعۡلَمِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ جَٰهَدُواْ مِنكُمۡ وَلَمۡ يَتَّخِذُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا رَسُولِهِۦ وَلَا ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةٗۚ وَٱللَّهُ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 3:143, 180; 20:3-4. (close)
b. 3:29; 4:140, 145; 9:23. (close)
1167. The verse hints that the trials of Muslims were not yet over. They had still to face more grievous dangers. (close)
a. 3:143, 180; 29:3-4. (close)
1179. Important Words:
ولیجة (intimate friend) is derived from ولج. They say ولج البیت i.e. he entered the house. اولجه means, he caused it or him to enter; he inserted it. ولیجة means, anything that is introduced or inserted into another thing; an intimate friend or associate; one whom a person takes to rely upon, not being of his family (Lane).
This verse hints that the trials of Muslims were not yet over. They had still to face more grievous dangers and greater trials, and only those who were true and sincere believers would be able to stand them. The verse thus warns believers to be prepared for still severer tests and yet greater sacrifices. Muslims had indeed been already tried at Badr and Uhud and at the Battle of the Ditch, and had stood the test. But as a new era now dawning for them with the expedition to Tabuk on the border of Syria, the verse calls upon them to make yet greater preparations. The trials and tribulations through which Muslims had already passed were indeed little as compared with the ordeals they had yet to face. The later dangers were far more terrible and grievous than anything they had yet experienced.
The words, and do not take anyone for an intimate friend besides Allah and His Messenger and the believers, are also intended as a warning to Muslims to become yet more united and to allow no foreign element to split their ranks in the coming days of trial and sacrifice. (close)
مَا کَانَ لِلۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ اَنۡ یَّعۡمُرُوۡا مَسٰجِدَ اللّٰہِ شٰہِدِیۡنَ عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ بِالۡکُفۡرِ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ حَبِطَتۡ اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ ۚۖ وَ فِی النَّارِ ہُمۡ خٰلِدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷﴾
مَا كَانَ لِلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ أَن يَعۡمُرُواْ مَسَٰجِدَ ٱللَّهِ شَٰهِدِينَ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِم بِٱلۡكُفۡرِۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡ وَفِي ٱلنَّارِ هُمۡ خَٰلِدُونَ
1168. The verse relates to idolatrous pilgrims and serves as an introduction to the announcement contained in 9:28 below. No idolater was, henceforth, to be allowed to approach the Ka‘bah, as announced by ‘Ali to the pilgrims assembled at Mecca on the occasion of the Greater Pilgrimage in the year 9 A.H. The verse gives the reason for that prohibition. The Ka‘bah being the Temple dedicated to the worship of the One God, idolaters had nothing to do with it. They were declared enemies of God’s Unity and stood condemned by their own confession. (close)
This verse relates to idolatrous pilgrims and serves as an introduction to the announcement contained in 9:28 below. No idolater was henceforth to be allowed to approach the Ka‘bah, as announced by ‘Ali to the pilgrims assembled at Mecca on the occasion of the Greater Pilgrimage of the year 9 AH (see note on 9:3 above). The verse under comment gives the reason for that prohibition. The Ka‘bah being a temple dedicated to the worship of the One God, idolaters had nothing to do with it. They were declared enemies of God’s Unity who bore witness to their own idolatrous beliefs and thus stood condemned by their own confession. Moreover, while performing the Pilgrimage, idolaters, instead of declaring God’s Oneness, attributed co-partners to Him, for it is on record that, while reciting the prescribed formula: "Here I am, O my Lord, here I am; Thou hast no co-partner" they used to add the words "except him whom Thou hast Thyself made Thy co-partner." The words, while they bear witness against themselves to disbelief, beside being general in their significance, may also refer to this practice of idolaters. (close)
اِنَّمَا یَعۡمُرُ مَسٰجِدَ اللّٰہِ مَنۡ اٰمَنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ اَقَامَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَی الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ لَمۡ یَخۡشَ اِلَّا اللّٰہَ فَعَسٰۤی اُولٰٓئِکَ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنُوۡا مِنَ الۡمُہۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۸﴾
إِنَّمَا يَعۡمُرُ مَسَٰجِدَ ٱللَّهِ مَنۡ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَأَقَامَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَى ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَلَمۡ يَخۡشَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَۖ فَعَسَىٰٓ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ أَن يَكُونُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهۡتَدِينَ
1169. The words "Mosques of Allah" refer to the Sacred Mosque in v. 19 because the Sacred Mosque or the Ka‘bah being the Central Mosque of Islam stands for all the mosques in the world. (close)
1181. Important Words:
عسی (may be) is meant to express desire or hope of obtaining something good or to express fear lest one should fall into an evil way (Aqrab). The word thus implies either desire or hope of good or fear of evil. They say عسی زید ان یقوم i.e. Zaid is near to standing; or I eagerly desire or I hope that Zaid may be performing the act of standing; or it may be that Zaid is, or will be, standing. عسیmay thus be explained as meaning, it may be that, or simply may be. When uttered by God, the word is expressive of an event of necessary occurrence (Lane). See also the meaning of the word لعل under 2:22. Though desire or hope are not attributable to God, yet the words لعل and عسی are used by God to point to the fact that a certain thing is such that people may base their desire or hope on it (Mufradat).
The prosperity of a Mosque of God, and for that matter of the Ka‘bah itself, lies in the fulfilment of the noble object for which it is built. This object is the glorification and the remembrance of the name of God in it; and certainly this object is much the better realized by prohibiting those from visiting it who, instead of glorifying God, attribute co-partners to Him, and by encouraging and exhorting true believers to frequent it.
The words, these it is who may be among those who reach the goal, signify that, since believers are destined to prosper, even the material prosperity of the Ka‘bah will not suffer from the exclusion of infidels; for, believers will go on pilgrimage to it in ever-increasing numbers. (close)
اَجَعَلۡتُمۡ سِقَایَۃَ الۡحَآجِّ وَ عِمَارَۃَ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَرَامِ کَمَنۡ اٰمَنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ جٰہَدَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ لَا یَسۡتَوٗنَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۘ۱۹﴾
۞أَجَعَلۡتُمۡ سِقَايَةَ ٱلۡحَآجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ كَمَنۡ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَجَٰهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۚ لَا يَسۡتَوُۥنَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
1170. The outward and physical service of the Ka‘bah, though in itself a meritorious act, is as nothing compared with the spiritual service thereof, which only a true Muslim can perform. The verse implies that Islam attaches greater importance to the spirit underlying its ordinances than to their outward form. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that the life of a believer possesses much greater sanctity than the Ka‘bah (Majah). (close)
The outward and physical service of the Ka‘bah, though in itself a meritorious act, is as nothing compared with the spiritual service thereof, which only a true Muslim can perform. If the preservation of the true faith were to involve the temporary destruction of the building of the Ka‘bah, the Quran would unhesitatingly endorse such destruction, because it is the preservation of the faith and not the preservation of a house, however sacred it may be, which is the aim and object of Islam. The verse thus also implies an effective answer to the baseless view that Islam attaches greater importance to the outward form of its ordinances than to the spirit underlying them. It may also be noted here that, according to the teachings of Islam, even the life of a true believer has greater sanctity than the House of God. Says the Holy Prophet: "A believer possesses greater sanctity than the Ka‘bah" (Majah). (close)