اَمۡ حَسِبۡتُمۡ اَنۡ تُتۡرَکُوۡا وَ لَمَّا یَعۡلَمِ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ جٰہَدُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ وَ لَمۡ یَتَّخِذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ لَا الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَلِیۡجَۃً ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿٪۱۶﴾
أَمۡ حَسِبۡتُمۡ أَن تُتۡرَكُواْ وَلَمَّا يَعۡلَمِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ جَٰهَدُواْ مِنكُمۡ وَلَمۡ يَتَّخِذُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا رَسُولِهِۦ وَلَا ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةٗۚ وَٱللَّهُ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 3:143, 180; 20:3-4. (close)
b. 3:29; 4:140, 145; 9:23. (close)
1167. The verse hints that the trials of Muslims were not yet over. They had still to face more grievous dangers. (close)
a. 3:143, 180; 29:3-4. (close)
1179. Important Words:
ولیجة (intimate friend) is derived from ولج. They say ولج البیت i.e. he entered the house. اولجه means, he caused it or him to enter; he inserted it. ولیجة means, anything that is introduced or inserted into another thing; an intimate friend or associate; one whom a person takes to rely upon, not being of his family (Lane).
This verse hints that the trials of Muslims were not yet over. They had still to face more grievous dangers and greater trials, and only those who were true and sincere believers would be able to stand them. The verse thus warns believers to be prepared for still severer tests and yet greater sacrifices. Muslims had indeed been already tried at Badr and Uhud and at the Battle of the Ditch, and had stood the test. But as a new era now dawning for them with the expedition to Tabuk on the border of Syria, the verse calls upon them to make yet greater preparations. The trials and tribulations through which Muslims had already passed were indeed little as compared with the ordeals they had yet to face. The later dangers were far more terrible and grievous than anything they had yet experienced.
The words, and do not take anyone for an intimate friend besides Allah and His Messenger and the believers, are also intended as a warning to Muslims to become yet more united and to allow no foreign element to split their ranks in the coming days of trial and sacrifice. (close)
مَا کَانَ لِلۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ اَنۡ یَّعۡمُرُوۡا مَسٰجِدَ اللّٰہِ شٰہِدِیۡنَ عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ بِالۡکُفۡرِ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ حَبِطَتۡ اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ ۚۖ وَ فِی النَّارِ ہُمۡ خٰلِدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷﴾
مَا كَانَ لِلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ أَن يَعۡمُرُواْ مَسَٰجِدَ ٱللَّهِ شَٰهِدِينَ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِم بِٱلۡكُفۡرِۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡ وَفِي ٱلنَّارِ هُمۡ خَٰلِدُونَ
1168. The verse relates to idolatrous pilgrims and serves as an introduction to the announcement contained in 9:28 below. No idolater was, henceforth, to be allowed to approach the Ka‘bah, as announced by ‘Ali to the pilgrims assembled at Mecca on the occasion of the Greater Pilgrimage in the year 9 A.H. The verse gives the reason for that prohibition. The Ka‘bah being the Temple dedicated to the worship of the One God, idolaters had nothing to do with it. They were declared enemies of God’s Unity and stood condemned by their own confession. (close)
This verse relates to idolatrous pilgrims and serves as an introduction to the announcement contained in 9:28 below. No idolater was henceforth to be allowed to approach the Ka‘bah, as announced by ‘Ali to the pilgrims assembled at Mecca on the occasion of the Greater Pilgrimage of the year 9 AH (see note on 9:3 above). The verse under comment gives the reason for that prohibition. The Ka‘bah being a temple dedicated to the worship of the One God, idolaters had nothing to do with it. They were declared enemies of God’s Unity who bore witness to their own idolatrous beliefs and thus stood condemned by their own confession. Moreover, while performing the Pilgrimage, idolaters, instead of declaring God’s Oneness, attributed co-partners to Him, for it is on record that, while reciting the prescribed formula: "Here I am, O my Lord, here I am; Thou hast no co-partner" they used to add the words "except him whom Thou hast Thyself made Thy co-partner." The words, while they bear witness against themselves to disbelief, beside being general in their significance, may also refer to this practice of idolaters. (close)
اِنَّمَا یَعۡمُرُ مَسٰجِدَ اللّٰہِ مَنۡ اٰمَنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ اَقَامَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَی الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ لَمۡ یَخۡشَ اِلَّا اللّٰہَ فَعَسٰۤی اُولٰٓئِکَ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنُوۡا مِنَ الۡمُہۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۸﴾
إِنَّمَا يَعۡمُرُ مَسَٰجِدَ ٱللَّهِ مَنۡ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَأَقَامَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَى ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَلَمۡ يَخۡشَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَۖ فَعَسَىٰٓ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ أَن يَكُونُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهۡتَدِينَ
1169. The words "Mosques of Allah" refer to the Sacred Mosque in v. 19 because the Sacred Mosque or the Ka‘bah being the Central Mosque of Islam stands for all the mosques in the world. (close)
1181. Important Words:
عسی (may be) is meant to express desire or hope of obtaining something good or to express fear lest one should fall into an evil way (Aqrab). The word thus implies either desire or hope of good or fear of evil. They say عسی زید ان یقوم i.e. Zaid is near to standing; or I eagerly desire or I hope that Zaid may be performing the act of standing; or it may be that Zaid is, or will be, standing. عسیmay thus be explained as meaning, it may be that, or simply may be. When uttered by God, the word is expressive of an event of necessary occurrence (Lane). See also the meaning of the word لعل under 2:22. Though desire or hope are not attributable to God, yet the words لعل and عسی are used by God to point to the fact that a certain thing is such that people may base their desire or hope on it (Mufradat).
The prosperity of a Mosque of God, and for that matter of the Ka‘bah itself, lies in the fulfilment of the noble object for which it is built. This object is the glorification and the remembrance of the name of God in it; and certainly this object is much the better realized by prohibiting those from visiting it who, instead of glorifying God, attribute co-partners to Him, and by encouraging and exhorting true believers to frequent it.
The words, these it is who may be among those who reach the goal, signify that, since believers are destined to prosper, even the material prosperity of the Ka‘bah will not suffer from the exclusion of infidels; for, believers will go on pilgrimage to it in ever-increasing numbers. (close)
اَجَعَلۡتُمۡ سِقَایَۃَ الۡحَآجِّ وَ عِمَارَۃَ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَرَامِ کَمَنۡ اٰمَنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ جٰہَدَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ لَا یَسۡتَوٗنَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۘ۱۹﴾
۞أَجَعَلۡتُمۡ سِقَايَةَ ٱلۡحَآجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ كَمَنۡ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَجَٰهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۚ لَا يَسۡتَوُۥنَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
1170. The outward and physical service of the Ka‘bah, though in itself a meritorious act, is as nothing compared with the spiritual service thereof, which only a true Muslim can perform. The verse implies that Islam attaches greater importance to the spirit underlying its ordinances than to their outward form. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that the life of a believer possesses much greater sanctity than the Ka‘bah (Majah). (close)
The outward and physical service of the Ka‘bah, though in itself a meritorious act, is as nothing compared with the spiritual service thereof, which only a true Muslim can perform. If the preservation of the true faith were to involve the temporary destruction of the building of the Ka‘bah, the Quran would unhesitatingly endorse such destruction, because it is the preservation of the faith and not the preservation of a house, however sacred it may be, which is the aim and object of Islam. The verse thus also implies an effective answer to the baseless view that Islam attaches greater importance to the outward form of its ordinances than to the spirit underlying them. It may also be noted here that, according to the teachings of Islam, even the life of a true believer has greater sanctity than the House of God. Says the Holy Prophet: "A believer possesses greater sanctity than the Ka‘bah" (Majah). (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ ہَاجَرُوۡا وَ جٰہَدُوۡا فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ۙ اَعۡظَمُ دَرَجَۃً عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفَآئِزُوۡنَ ﴿۲۰﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَهَاجَرُواْ وَجَٰهَدُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ بِأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡ أَعۡظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِندَ ٱللَّهِۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَآئِزُونَ
a. 4:96; 57:11. (close)
In the previous verse it was pointed out that disbelievers could not be equal to believers, even if the former outwardly served the Ka‘bah and aided pilgrims. In this verse it is added that believers are not all alike, some of them possessing a higher spiritual rank than others. (close)
یُبَشِّرُہُمۡ رَبُّہُمۡ بِرَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنۡہُ وَ رِضۡوَانٍ وَّ جَنّٰتٍ لَّہُمۡ فِیۡہَا نَعِیۡمٌ مُّقِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۲۱﴾
يُبَشِّرُهُمۡ رَبُّهُم بِرَحۡمَةٖ مِّنۡهُ وَرِضۡوَٰنٖ وَجَنَّـٰتٖ لَّهُمۡ فِيهَا نَعِيمٞ مُّقِيمٌ
b. 3:16; 5:13; 9:72; 10:10; 57:21. (close)
a. 3:16; 5:13; 9:72; 10:10; 57:21. (close)
خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عِنۡدَہٗۤ اَجۡرٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۲﴾
خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدًاۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عِندَهُۥٓ أَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٞ
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوۡۤا اٰبَآءَکُمۡ وَ اِخۡوَانَکُمۡ اَوۡلِیَآءَ اِنِ اسۡتَحَبُّوا الۡکُفۡرَ عَلَی الۡاِیۡمَانِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَوَلَّہُمۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُوٓاْ ءَابَآءَكُمۡ وَإِخۡوَٰنَكُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ إِنِ ٱسۡتَحَبُّواْ ٱلۡكُفۡرَ عَلَى ٱلۡإِيمَٰنِۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمۡ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ
c. 3:29; 4:140, 145; 9:16; 58:23. (close)
1171. The verse refers to that class of disbelievers who were actively hostile to Islam and strove hard to exterminate it. (close)
b. 3:29; 4:140,145; 9:16; 58:23. (close)
This verse deals with that class of idolaters who were actively hostile to Islam and strove hard to exterminate it. They had declared war on innocent Muslims, and such was their hatred of Islam that they even disregarded the ties of relationship with a view to harming them. It was with such implacable enemies of Islam that Muslims were forbidden to make friends, for such an act on their part would have amounted to treachery to Islam and would certainly have done it incalculable harm. As for other disbelievers who were not at war with Muslims, the Quran exhorts Muslims to be benevolent and kind to them (see 60:9,10). As a matter of fact, Islam attaches greater importance to the spiritual welfare of man than to his material well-being, and it is evident that friendly relations with men who prefer disbelief to faith are bound to exercise a baneful influence on spiritual growth. (close)
قُلۡ اِنۡ کَانَ اٰبَآؤُکُمۡ وَ اَبۡنَآؤُکُمۡ وَ اِخۡوَانُکُمۡ وَ اَزۡوَاجُکُمۡ وَ عَشِیۡرَتُکُمۡ وَ اَمۡوَالُ ۣ اقۡتَرَفۡتُمُوۡہَا وَ تِجَارَۃٌ تَخۡشَوۡنَ کَسَادَہَا وَ مَسٰکِنُ تَرۡضَوۡنَہَاۤ اَحَبَّ اِلَیۡکُمۡ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ جِہَادٍ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِہٖ فَتَرَبَّصُوۡا حَتّٰی یَاۡتِیَ اللّٰہُ بِاَمۡرِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿٪۲۴﴾
قُلۡ إِن كَانَ ءَابَآؤُكُمۡ وَأَبۡنَآؤُكُمۡ وَإِخۡوَٰنُكُمۡ وَأَزۡوَٰجُكُمۡ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمۡ وَأَمۡوَٰلٌ ٱقۡتَرَفۡتُمُوهَا وَتِجَٰرَةٞ تَخۡشَوۡنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَٰكِنُ تَرۡضَوۡنَهَآ أَحَبَّ إِلَيۡكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَجِهَادٖ فِي سَبِيلِهِۦ فَتَرَبَّصُواْ حَتَّىٰ يَأۡتِيَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَمۡرِهِۦۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلۡفَٰسِقِينَ
1172. Ties of relationship and the love of kith and kin and other worldly considerations, of wealth, trade and property should not be allowed to stand in the way when a dearer relationship and a nobler cause and more vital considerations demand their sacrifice. (close)
The idolaters were closely connected with Muslims by ties of blood and relationship. Muslims are plainly told in this verse that these relationships and other worldly considerations of wealth, trade and property should not be allowed to stand in the way when a dearer relationship and a nobler cause and more vital considerations demanded their sacrifice. Love of kith and kin and worldly possessions should not be permitted to hinder the Faithful from serving the cause of Islam. The judgement of God mentioned at the end of the verse came after the death of the Holy Prophet when "the disobedient people," i.e. those who had joined the fold of Islam for worldly considerations, revolted and were punished by God through Abu Bakr, the First Khalifah. (close)
لَقَدۡ نَصَرَکُمُ اللّٰہُ فِیۡ مَوَاطِنَ کَثِیۡرَۃٍ ۙ وَّ یَوۡمَ حُنَیۡنٍ ۙ اِذۡ اَعۡجَبَتۡکُمۡ کَثۡرَتُکُمۡ فَلَمۡ تُغۡنِ عَنۡکُمۡ شَیۡئًا وَّ ضَاقَتۡ عَلَیۡکُمُ الۡاَرۡضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتۡ ثُمَّ وَلَّیۡتُمۡ مُّدۡبِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۲۵﴾
لَقَدۡ نَصَرَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٖ وَيَوۡمَ حُنَيۡنٍ إِذۡ أَعۡجَبَتۡكُمۡ كَثۡرَتُكُمۡ فَلَمۡ تُغۡنِ عَنكُمۡ شَيۡـٔٗا وَضَاقَتۡ عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتۡ ثُمَّ وَلَّيۡتُم مُّدۡبِرِينَ
a. 3:124. (close)
1173. After the Fall of Mecca, Hawazin and Thaqif tribes joined forces and advanced to attack the Muslims. The Holy Prophet met them at Hunain, about 15 miles to the south-west of Mecca. He was accompanied by 12,000 men, among whom were 2,000 new converts who had joined the Muslim army at Mecca. Contrary to the practice of the Holy Prophet these men hastened to attack the enemy, but were quickly repulsed and fled from the battlefield in great confusion, throwing into disorder the advancing Muslim force which was passing through a narrow gorge. In the stampede that followed the Holy Prophet was left on the battlefield with only 100 men around him. Arrows from the archers of the enemy fell thick and fast all round him. It was a moment of extreme danger but the Holy Prophet, urging on his mule towards the enemy, advanced undaunted, shouting at the top of his voice: "I am indeed the Prophet of God. This is no lie. I am the son of ‘Abdul-Muttalib." ‘Abbas, uncle of the Holy Prophet, who possessed a stentorian voice, called out to the fleeing Muslims to stop and return to their Master who wanted them. This clarion call thrilled the Muslims like the trumpet call of the Day of Judgment, and rallying with great effort they rushed back to their beloved Master and attacked the enemy with a vehemence that put terror into the heart of the enemy and made him flee in utter confusion. The scales were turned and the day ended in a signal victory for the Muslims, and no less than 6,000 disbelievers were taken prisoner (Tabari & Hisham). (close)
1186. Important Words:
مواطن (battlefields) is the plural of موطن which is derived from وطن. They say وطن بالمکان i.e. he dwelt or resided or settled in the place. الوطن means, the place of one’s abode or residence; place of permanent residence; home; place where cattle are tied or kept. موطن means, place of residence; a scene of battle or a battlefield (Aqrab).
حنین (Hunain), scene of an important battle between the Holy Prophet and certain pagan tribes of Arabia in 8 AH. The place lies to the south east of Mecca about 18 miles from it.
In this battle a number of the newly subdued disbelievers of Mecca took part on the side of the Muslims.
Muslims are here reminded of the great truth that mere numbers do not count much and that they should not think that the presence of disbelievers would contribute to their strength or prosperity. Their attention is drawn to their temporary reverse at the battlefield of Hunain which was due to the presence of 2,000 Meccans who, though professing to be Muslims, were but newly converted and were not yet well established in faith, 80 of them actually being idolaters. (Zurqani, iii. 6).
After the Fall of Mecca, the powerful tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif, fearing lest Islam should become established in the Hijaz, joined forces and advanced to attack the Muslims. The Holy Prophet met them at Hunain, 18 miles from Mecca. He was accompanied by 12,000 men, among whom were 2,000 new converts mentioned above, who had joined the army at Mecca. Contrary to the practice of the Holy Prophet, these men hastened to attack the enemy, 20,000 strong, but were quickly repulsed and fled from the battlefield in great confusion, throwing into disorder the advancing Muslim force which was passing through a narrow gorge and which was consequently forced to flee. In the stampede that followed the Holy Prophet, who stuck to his place like a rock, was left on the battlefield with only 100 men around him. Arrows from the archers of the enemy fell thick and fast all round him. It was a moment of extreme danger but the Prophet, urging his mule towards the enemy, advanced undaunted, shouting at the top of his voice: انا النبی لاکذب انا ابن عبدالمطلب i.e. "I am indeed the Prophet of God. There is no untruth about it. I am the son of ‘Abdul-Muttalib". ‘Abbas, an uncle of the Prophet, who possessed a stentorian voice, called out to the fleeing Muslims to stop and return to their Master who wanted them. This clarion call roused the Muslims as the trumpet call of the Day of Judgement will rouse the dead from their graves and, rallying with a giant effort they rushed back to their beloved Master and attacked the enemy with such vehemence as put terror in his heart and made him flee in utter confusion. Thus the scales were turned and the day ended in a signal victory for the Muslims, and no less than 6,000 disbelievers were taken prisoner (Tabari and Hisham). (close)