خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عِنۡدَہٗۤ اَجۡرٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۲﴾
خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدًاۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عِندَهُۥٓ أَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٞ
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوۡۤا اٰبَآءَکُمۡ وَ اِخۡوَانَکُمۡ اَوۡلِیَآءَ اِنِ اسۡتَحَبُّوا الۡکُفۡرَ عَلَی الۡاِیۡمَانِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَوَلَّہُمۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُوٓاْ ءَابَآءَكُمۡ وَإِخۡوَٰنَكُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ إِنِ ٱسۡتَحَبُّواْ ٱلۡكُفۡرَ عَلَى ٱلۡإِيمَٰنِۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمۡ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ
c. 3:29; 4:140, 145; 9:16; 58:23. (close)
1171. The verse refers to that class of disbelievers who were actively hostile to Islam and strove hard to exterminate it. (close)
b. 3:29; 4:140,145; 9:16; 58:23. (close)
This verse deals with that class of idolaters who were actively hostile to Islam and strove hard to exterminate it. They had declared war on innocent Muslims, and such was their hatred of Islam that they even disregarded the ties of relationship with a view to harming them. It was with such implacable enemies of Islam that Muslims were forbidden to make friends, for such an act on their part would have amounted to treachery to Islam and would certainly have done it incalculable harm. As for other disbelievers who were not at war with Muslims, the Quran exhorts Muslims to be benevolent and kind to them (see 60:9,10). As a matter of fact, Islam attaches greater importance to the spiritual welfare of man than to his material well-being, and it is evident that friendly relations with men who prefer disbelief to faith are bound to exercise a baneful influence on spiritual growth. (close)
قُلۡ اِنۡ کَانَ اٰبَآؤُکُمۡ وَ اَبۡنَآؤُکُمۡ وَ اِخۡوَانُکُمۡ وَ اَزۡوَاجُکُمۡ وَ عَشِیۡرَتُکُمۡ وَ اَمۡوَالُ ۣ اقۡتَرَفۡتُمُوۡہَا وَ تِجَارَۃٌ تَخۡشَوۡنَ کَسَادَہَا وَ مَسٰکِنُ تَرۡضَوۡنَہَاۤ اَحَبَّ اِلَیۡکُمۡ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ جِہَادٍ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِہٖ فَتَرَبَّصُوۡا حَتّٰی یَاۡتِیَ اللّٰہُ بِاَمۡرِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿٪۲۴﴾
قُلۡ إِن كَانَ ءَابَآؤُكُمۡ وَأَبۡنَآؤُكُمۡ وَإِخۡوَٰنُكُمۡ وَأَزۡوَٰجُكُمۡ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمۡ وَأَمۡوَٰلٌ ٱقۡتَرَفۡتُمُوهَا وَتِجَٰرَةٞ تَخۡشَوۡنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَٰكِنُ تَرۡضَوۡنَهَآ أَحَبَّ إِلَيۡكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَجِهَادٖ فِي سَبِيلِهِۦ فَتَرَبَّصُواْ حَتَّىٰ يَأۡتِيَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَمۡرِهِۦۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلۡفَٰسِقِينَ
1172. Ties of relationship and the love of kith and kin and other worldly considerations, of wealth, trade and property should not be allowed to stand in the way when a dearer relationship and a nobler cause and more vital considerations demand their sacrifice. (close)
The idolaters were closely connected with Muslims by ties of blood and relationship. Muslims are plainly told in this verse that these relationships and other worldly considerations of wealth, trade and property should not be allowed to stand in the way when a dearer relationship and a nobler cause and more vital considerations demanded their sacrifice. Love of kith and kin and worldly possessions should not be permitted to hinder the Faithful from serving the cause of Islam. The judgement of God mentioned at the end of the verse came after the death of the Holy Prophet when "the disobedient people," i.e. those who had joined the fold of Islam for worldly considerations, revolted and were punished by God through Abu Bakr, the First Khalifah. (close)
لَقَدۡ نَصَرَکُمُ اللّٰہُ فِیۡ مَوَاطِنَ کَثِیۡرَۃٍ ۙ وَّ یَوۡمَ حُنَیۡنٍ ۙ اِذۡ اَعۡجَبَتۡکُمۡ کَثۡرَتُکُمۡ فَلَمۡ تُغۡنِ عَنۡکُمۡ شَیۡئًا وَّ ضَاقَتۡ عَلَیۡکُمُ الۡاَرۡضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتۡ ثُمَّ وَلَّیۡتُمۡ مُّدۡبِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۲۵﴾
لَقَدۡ نَصَرَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٖ وَيَوۡمَ حُنَيۡنٍ إِذۡ أَعۡجَبَتۡكُمۡ كَثۡرَتُكُمۡ فَلَمۡ تُغۡنِ عَنكُمۡ شَيۡـٔٗا وَضَاقَتۡ عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتۡ ثُمَّ وَلَّيۡتُم مُّدۡبِرِينَ
a. 3:124. (close)
1173. After the Fall of Mecca, Hawazin and Thaqif tribes joined forces and advanced to attack the Muslims. The Holy Prophet met them at Hunain, about 15 miles to the south-west of Mecca. He was accompanied by 12,000 men, among whom were 2,000 new converts who had joined the Muslim army at Mecca. Contrary to the practice of the Holy Prophet these men hastened to attack the enemy, but were quickly repulsed and fled from the battlefield in great confusion, throwing into disorder the advancing Muslim force which was passing through a narrow gorge. In the stampede that followed the Holy Prophet was left on the battlefield with only 100 men around him. Arrows from the archers of the enemy fell thick and fast all round him. It was a moment of extreme danger but the Holy Prophet, urging on his mule towards the enemy, advanced undaunted, shouting at the top of his voice: "I am indeed the Prophet of God. This is no lie. I am the son of ‘Abdul-Muttalib." ‘Abbas, uncle of the Holy Prophet, who possessed a stentorian voice, called out to the fleeing Muslims to stop and return to their Master who wanted them. This clarion call thrilled the Muslims like the trumpet call of the Day of Judgment, and rallying with great effort they rushed back to their beloved Master and attacked the enemy with a vehemence that put terror into the heart of the enemy and made him flee in utter confusion. The scales were turned and the day ended in a signal victory for the Muslims, and no less than 6,000 disbelievers were taken prisoner (Tabari & Hisham). (close)
1186. Important Words:
مواطن (battlefields) is the plural of موطن which is derived from وطن. They say وطن بالمکان i.e. he dwelt or resided or settled in the place. الوطن means, the place of one’s abode or residence; place of permanent residence; home; place where cattle are tied or kept. موطن means, place of residence; a scene of battle or a battlefield (Aqrab).
حنین (Hunain), scene of an important battle between the Holy Prophet and certain pagan tribes of Arabia in 8 AH. The place lies to the south east of Mecca about 18 miles from it.
In this battle a number of the newly subdued disbelievers of Mecca took part on the side of the Muslims.
Muslims are here reminded of the great truth that mere numbers do not count much and that they should not think that the presence of disbelievers would contribute to their strength or prosperity. Their attention is drawn to their temporary reverse at the battlefield of Hunain which was due to the presence of 2,000 Meccans who, though professing to be Muslims, were but newly converted and were not yet well established in faith, 80 of them actually being idolaters. (Zurqani, iii. 6).
After the Fall of Mecca, the powerful tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif, fearing lest Islam should become established in the Hijaz, joined forces and advanced to attack the Muslims. The Holy Prophet met them at Hunain, 18 miles from Mecca. He was accompanied by 12,000 men, among whom were 2,000 new converts mentioned above, who had joined the army at Mecca. Contrary to the practice of the Holy Prophet, these men hastened to attack the enemy, 20,000 strong, but were quickly repulsed and fled from the battlefield in great confusion, throwing into disorder the advancing Muslim force which was passing through a narrow gorge and which was consequently forced to flee. In the stampede that followed the Holy Prophet, who stuck to his place like a rock, was left on the battlefield with only 100 men around him. Arrows from the archers of the enemy fell thick and fast all round him. It was a moment of extreme danger but the Prophet, urging his mule towards the enemy, advanced undaunted, shouting at the top of his voice: انا النبی لاکذب انا ابن عبدالمطلب i.e. "I am indeed the Prophet of God. There is no untruth about it. I am the son of ‘Abdul-Muttalib". ‘Abbas, an uncle of the Prophet, who possessed a stentorian voice, called out to the fleeing Muslims to stop and return to their Master who wanted them. This clarion call roused the Muslims as the trumpet call of the Day of Judgement will rouse the dead from their graves and, rallying with a giant effort they rushed back to their beloved Master and attacked the enemy with such vehemence as put terror in his heart and made him flee in utter confusion. Thus the scales were turned and the day ended in a signal victory for the Muslims, and no less than 6,000 disbelievers were taken prisoner (Tabari and Hisham). (close)
ثُمَّ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ سَکِیۡنَتَہٗ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ اَنۡزَلَ جُنُوۡدًا لَّمۡ تَرَوۡہَا وَ عَذَّبَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ؕ وَ ذٰلِکَ جَزَآءُ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۶﴾
ثُمَّ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُۥ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ وَعَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَأَنزَلَ جُنُودٗا لَّمۡ تَرَوۡهَا وَعَذَّبَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَآءُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
a. 9:40; 48:27. (close)
It was only to the Holy Prophet and true believers that God vouchsafed peace and tranquillity. Thus those weak of faith became distinct from true believers; and God soon sent down His special aid and the disbelievers were routed and suitably punished. (close)
ثُمَّ یَتُوۡبُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۷﴾
ثُمَّ يَتُوبُ ٱللَّهُ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِنَّمَا الۡمُشۡرِکُوۡنَ نَجَسٌ فَلَا یَقۡرَبُوا الۡمَسۡجِدَ الۡحَرَامَ بَعۡدَ عَامِہِمۡ ہٰذَا ۚ وَ اِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ عَیۡلَۃً فَسَوۡفَ یُغۡنِیۡکُمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖۤ اِنۡ شَآءَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۸﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِنَّمَا ٱلۡمُشۡرِكُونَ نَجَسٞ فَلَا يَقۡرَبُواْ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدَ ٱلۡحَرَامَ بَعۡدَ عَامِهِمۡ هَٰذَاۚ وَإِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ عَيۡلَةٗ فَسَوۡفَ يُغۡنِيكُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦٓ إِن شَآءَۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
1174. Mecca was a great commercial centre and the pilgrimage season was an occasion of great commercial activity and a source of great income for the Meccans. The prohibition might have given rise to apprehension that it might adversely affect their income. (close)
1188. Important Words:
نجس (unclean) is derived from نجس which means, it was or became unclean, filthy or impure. نجس therefore, means unclean, filthy or impure; it also signifies, a man having an incurable disease (Lane). نجاسة (uncleanness) is of two kinds; one kind of نجاسة is perceived by the physical senses and the other is perceived by the mind. In the present verse, it is the latter kind of uncleanness that is meant (Mufradat).
سوف (will) is a particle denoting amplification because it changes the aorist from the strait time which is the present to the ample time which is the future and is used with respect to that which has not yet happened; it is a word used to denote promising or threatening. According to some, it is synonymous with س but according to others it has a larger meaning than that letter and is distinct from it by its sometimes having ل prefixed to it. You say ولسوف یعطیک ربک فترضی meaning, And thy Lord will give thee, and thou wilt be well pleased (Lane).
The word نجس(unclean), as shown under Important Words, either means "one who is spiritually unclean", or "one having an incurable disease." Idolaters are, thus, described here as: (1) being spiritually unclean or (2) having become so inured to idolatry that it is almost impossible for them to rid themselves of it. But since Mecca was the birthplace of Islam and a monument of Abraham’s great faith in the One God, it was necessary that the place should be kept spiritually pure; hence the prohibition to idolaters to approach the Sacred Mosque.
The coming of pilgrims to Mecca was a source of great income for Meccans and the prohibition might have given rise to fear in the hearts of some Muslims that their income would thereby be considerably lessened. They are, therefore, told here not to fear poverty, for God would make abundant provision for them out of His bounty. (close)
قَاتِلُوا الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ لَا بِالۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ لَا یُحَرِّمُوۡنَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ وَ لَا یَدِیۡنُوۡنَ دِیۡنَ الۡحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ حَتّٰی یُعۡطُوا الۡجِزۡیَۃَ عَنۡ یَّدٍ وَّ ہُمۡ صٰغِرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۲۹﴾
قَٰتِلُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَلَا بِٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُۥ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ ٱلۡحَقِّ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ حَتَّىٰ يُعۡطُواْ ٱلۡجِزۡيَةَ عَن يَدٖ وَهُمۡ صَٰغِرُونَ
a. 2:191. (close)
1175. The expression ‘An Yadin means: (1) Willingly and in acknowledgment of the superior power of Muslims. (2) In ready money and not in the form of deferred payment. (3) Considering it as a favour from Muslims; the particle ‘an meaning, on account of, and Yad denoting power and favour (Lane). The verse refers to those People of the Book who lived in Arabia. Like the idolaters they too had been actively hostile to Islam and had planned and plotted to exterminate it. Muslims were, therefore, ordered to fight them unless they agreed to live as loyal and peaceful subjects. The Jizyah was a tax which these non-Muslims had to pay as free subjects of the Muslim State in return for the protection they enjoyed under it. It may be noted that as against Jizyah which was imposed on non-Muslims, a much heavier tax—Zakat was levied on the Muslims, and in addition to Zakat they had to perform military service from which non-Muslims were exempt. Thus the latter in a way fared better, for they had to pay a lighter tax and were also free from military duty. The word Saghirun expresses their subordinate political status; otherwise they enjoyed all social rights equally with Muslims. The idolaters of Arabia and Jews and Christians who lived in their neighbourhood were the principal adversaries of Islam. After having dealt with the believers’ relations with the idolaters, the Surah with this verse proceeds to deal with their relations with the People of the Book, especially with their religious beliefs and doctrines. (close)
a. 2:191. (close)
1189. Important Words:
جزیة (tax) is derived from جزی meaning, he or it paid or gave satisfaction. They say, جزیت فلانا حقه i.e. I paid such a one his right or due. جزاہ کذا means, he repaid, requited, or recompensed him for such a thing. جزیة means, the tax that is taken from the free non-Muslim subjects of a Muslim State in lieu of the protection it ensures them (Lane & Aqrab).
ید (hand) also means favour. See 5:65.
صاغرون (acknowledge their subjection) is the plural of صاغرwhich is derived from صغرwhich means, he was or became small or little in body or in years or in estimation or in rank or dignity (Lane). صاغر which is the active participle from صغرsignifies, one who agrees, and is satisfied, to occupy or remain in a subordinate position (Mufradat).
War with idolaters having been dealt with in previous verses, fighting with the People of the Book is introduced with this verse. The verse refers to those People of the Book who lived in Arabia. Like the idolaters of that country, they too had been actively hostile to Islam and had tried to exterminate it. Muslims were, therefore, ordered to fight them unless they agreed to live as their loyal and peaceful subjects. The Jizyah, referred to in the verse, was the tax which such non-Muslims had to pay as free subjects of the Muslim State in return for the protection they enjoyed under it. Islam has ordained that in Arabia, the birthplace of Islam and its headquarters, only the People of the Book, and not idolaters, could live as subjects by paying the Jizyah, while outside Arabia all non-Muslims could live under a Muslim government on payment of this tax. Arabia, being the cradle and centre of Islam and, as it were, the citadel thereof, was to be kept free from idolaters. It should also be noted that as against Jizyah which was imposed on non-Muslims, the tax imposed on Muslims is called Zakah which is a heavier tax than Jizyah, and Muslims, in addition to this tax, had to perform military service which was very hard in those days and from which non-Muslims were exempt. Thus the latter in a way fared better, for they had to pay a lighter tax and were also free from military service.
The expression عن ید (with their own hand) is used here in a figurative sense, signifying (1) that Jizyah should not be forcibly taken from the People of the Book but that they should pay it with their own hand, i.e. they should agree to pay it willingly and should acknowledge the superior power of the Muslims; or (2) that they should pay it out of hand, i.e. in ready money and not in the form of deferred payment; or (3) that they should pay it considering it as a favour from Muslims, the word, ید (hand) also meaning a favour.
The word صاغرون (acknowledge their subjection) is used here to express the subordinate political status of non-Muslims, i.e. they were to occupy the position of subjects in relation to Muslims. As regards the social relations of Muslims with the dhimmis, as non-Muslim subjects of the Muslim State were called, these may be judged from the fact that the Holy Prophet himself used to stand up in reverence when the bier of a non-Muslim happened to pass by him (Dawud, ch. on Jana’iz), and ‘Ali, the Fourth Caliph, bore on his own shoulders the bier of a Christian who happened to die in the time of his Caliphate. (close)
وَ قَالَتِ الۡیَہُوۡدُ عُزَیۡرُ ۣ ابۡنُ اللّٰہِ وَ قَالَتِ النَّصٰرَی الۡمَسِیۡحُ ابۡنُ اللّٰہِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ قَوۡلُہُمۡ بِاَفۡوَاہِہِمۡ ۚ یُضَاہِـُٔوۡنَ قَوۡلَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ؕ قٰتَلَہُمُ اللّٰہُ ۚ۫ اَنّٰی یُؤۡفَکُوۡنَ ﴿۳۰﴾
وَقَالَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ عُزَيۡرٌ ٱبۡنُ ٱللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ ٱلنَّصَٰرَى ٱلۡمَسِيحُ ٱبۡنُ ٱللَّهِۖ ذَٰلِكَ قَوۡلُهُم بِأَفۡوَٰهِهِمۡۖ يُضَٰهِـُٔونَ قَوۡلَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن قَبۡلُۚ قَٰتَلَهُمُ ٱللَّهُۖ أَنَّىٰ يُؤۡفَكُونَ
b. 2:117; 5:18; 10:69. (close)
1176. ‘Uzair or Ezra lived in the fifth century B.C. He was a descendant of Seraiah, the high priest, and, being himself a member of the priestly order, was known as Ezra, the Priest. He was one of the most important personages of his day and exercised a far-reaching influence on the development of Judaism. He was especially honoured among the Prophets of Israel. The Jews of Medina and a Jewish sect in Hadramaut believed him to be the son of God. The Rabbis associate his name with several important institutions. Renan has remarked in the preface to his History of the People of Israel that the definite constitution of Judaism may be dated only from the time of Ezra. In Rabbinical literature he was considered worthy of being the vehicle of the Law, had it not been already given through Moses. He worked in collaboration with Nehemiah and died at the age of 120 in Babylonia (Jew. Enc. & Enc. Bib.). (close)
a. 2:117; 5:18; 10:69. (close)
1190. Important Words:
عزیر (‘Uzair or Ezra) may be taken to have been derived in Arabic from عزر. They say عزرہ i.e. he prevented him or forbade him; he taught him the obligatory statutes or ordinances of God; he aided or assisted him; he strengthened him; he treated him with reverence or honour (Lane). Ezra (a Hebrew name), perhaps abbreviated from Azariah, meaning "Yahwe (God) helps," was a descendant of Seraiah, the high priest, and being himself a member of the priestly order, was known also as Ezra the Priest. He was one of the most important personages of his day and had far-reaching influence on the development of Judaism. He was especially honoured among the Prophets of Israel. In fact, he marks the spring time in the national history of Judaism and is regarded and quoted as the type of person most competent and learned in the Law. The Rabbis associate his name with several important institutions. Renan has remarked in the preface to his History of the People of Israel that the definite constitution of Judaism may be dated only from the time of Ezra. In Rabbinical literature Ezra was considered worthy of being, the vehicle of the Law, had it not been given through Moses. According to tradition he died at the age of 120 in Babylonia. He worked in close collaboration with Nehemiah. Ezra lived in the 5th century B.C. (Jew. Enc. & Enc. Bib.).
یضاھئون (they imitate) is derived from ضاھی which is derived from ضھی. They say ضاھاہ or ضاھاہ i.e. he resembled or conformed with him or it; he imitated him; he was or became gentle, tender or courteous to him. The well-known saying of the Holy Prophet اشد الناس عذابا یوم القیامة الذین یضاھئون خلق اللّٰه means, "The most severely punished of mankind on the Day of Judgement will be those who imitate (by what they make) the creation of God," e.g. sculptors, etc. (Lane).
قاتلھم اللّٰه (Allah’s curse be on them). قاتل is from the root قتل. They say قتله i.e. he killed him; or he rendered him as one killed; or he attempted to kill him; or he cut off all connections with him. قاتله means, he fought or warred against him, قاتله اللّٰه means, may God curse him; or may He drive him from His mercy (Lisan & Aqrab), The expression also means, may God make war against him, which cannot result except in such a one being destroyed (Mufradat). See also 2:62.
After having dealt at some length with the idolatrous beliefs and practices of the pagans of Arabia, the Quran proceeds in this verse to deal with the polytheistic beliefs and practices of Jews and Christians. Those of the Jews who lived in Medina looked upon Ezra as the son of God. Similarly, a sect of Jews living at Hadramaut in the south of Arabia believed him to be the son of God. The remnants of this sect continued to linger till the end of the fourth century A.H. (Qastalani & Dawud, Zahiri). As this doctrine of the Jews, which appears to be sectional, was a later innovation and did not subsist long, present Jewish sources make no mention of it, but that does not affect the real situation. Elsewhere the Quran says that the Israelites were rather free in attributing sons to God (5:19).
This verse also shows that these blasphemous doctrines were not taught to Christians and Jews by their Prophets but were later borrowed by them from pagan sources. Incidentally, this claim of the Quran constitutes a proof of its Divine origin, because here it states a fact which was not known to the world even two centuries ago and has been only recently brought to light by modern research. A study of the origins of the Christian Faith has now established the fact that Jews and Christians borrowed their later doctrines from Babylonian and Roman pagan sources.
The words, Allah’s curse be on them, when spoken by man signify only an imprecation but, when spoken by God, they imply a prophecy of the destruction of the person or persons about whom they are uttered. (close)
اِتَّخَذُوۡۤا اَحۡبَارَہُمۡ وَ رُہۡبَانَہُمۡ اَرۡبَابًا مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ الۡمَسِیۡحَ ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ ۚ وَ مَاۤ اُمِرُوۡۤا اِلَّا لِیَعۡبُدُوۡۤا اِلٰـہًا وَّاحِدًا ۚ لَاۤ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ سُبۡحٰنَہٗ عَمَّا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۳۱﴾
ٱتَّخَذُوٓاْ أَحۡبَارَهُمۡ وَرُهۡبَٰنَهُمۡ أَرۡبَابٗا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡمَسِيحَ ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ وَمَآ أُمِرُوٓاْ إِلَّا لِيَعۡبُدُوٓاْ إِلَٰهٗا وَٰحِدٗاۖ لَّآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۚ سُبۡحَٰنَهُۥ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ
1177. Ahbar are Jewish savants and Ruhban Christian monks. (close)
a. 12:41; 17:24; 98:6. (close)
a. 12:41; 17:24; 98:6. (close)
1191. Important Words:
For احبار (learned men) and رھبان (monks) see 5:45 and 5:83 respectively.
احبار (learned men) belonged to Jews and رھبان (monks) to Christians. Both these people virtually looked upon their religious leaders as so many gods besides the true God. (close)