یَّوۡمَ یُحۡمٰی عَلَیۡہَا فِیۡ نَارِ جَہَنَّمَ فَتُکۡوٰی بِہَا جِبَاہُہُمۡ وَ جُنُوۡبُہُمۡ وَ ظُہُوۡرُہُمۡ ؕ ہٰذَا مَا کَنَزۡتُمۡ لِاَنۡفُسِکُمۡ فَذُوۡقُوۡا مَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَکۡنِزُوۡنَ ﴿۳۵﴾
يَوۡمَ يُحۡمَىٰ عَلَيۡهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَتُكۡوَىٰ بِهَا جِبَاهُهُمۡ وَجُنُوبُهُمۡ وَظُهُورُهُمۡۖ هَٰذَا مَا كَنَزۡتُمۡ لِأَنفُسِكُمۡ فَذُوقُواْ مَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡنِزُونَ
1180. The expression seems to be figurative. When a rich man, out of miserliness or pride, refuses to help a needy person, his forehead becomes contracted into a frown. Then he turns aside and finally disdainfully shows his back to the man seeking his help. Quite appropriately, it is mentioned that the foreheads, the sides and the backs will be branded. (close)
1195. Important Words:
تکوی (branded) is formed from کوی. They say کواہ i.e. he cauterized him or it; he burnt his or its skin with a piece of iron or the like (Lane). کویت الدابة means, I cauterized or branded the beast with a piece of hot iron (Mufradat). کوت العقرب فلانا means, the scorpion stung such a one. الکی which is the noun-infinitive from کوی means, the act of cauterizing or branding with a piece of hot iron (whether for the purpose of putting a mark or for curing a disease). The Arabs say آخر الدواء الکی i.e. the last remedy (in certain diseases) is cauterizing (Aqrab).
The reward and punishment of the life to come will not be of a physical nature, but will be the spiritual representation of the actions of man in the present life. This is clear from the verse under comment, which states that only three parts of the body—the forehead, the side and the back—will be branded.
The expression is clearly figurative. When a rich man, out of miserliness or pride, refuses to help a beggar, the first sign that appears on his person is that his forehead contracts into a frown. Then he turns on his side, and finally he disdainfully shows his back to the man seeking his help. Fittingly, therefore, the forehead, the side and the back have been spoken of here as being branded, i.e. in the afterlife these parts will appear to be branded with a hot iron, as if bearing testimony against themselves.
The verse also signifies that even in the present life the hoarded treasures of Jews and Christians will become a source of grievous punishment for them. In this case, the threatened punishment might be taken to refer to devastating wars such as the present one, in which hot metal in various forms is destroying the western peoples. They receive it on their foreheads, sides and backs, i.e. whether facing the enemy or making a flank movement or turning their backs; and, curiously enough, Jews are as much hit by these wars as are Christians. (close)
اِنَّ عِدَّۃَ الشُّہُوۡرِ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ اثۡنَا عَشَرَ شَہۡرًا فِیۡ کِتٰبِ اللّٰہِ یَوۡمَ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ مِنۡہَاۤ اَرۡبَعَۃٌ حُرُمٌ ؕ ذٰلِکَ الدِّیۡنُ الۡقَیِّمُ ۬ۙ فَلَا تَظۡلِمُوۡا فِیۡہِنَّ اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ وَ قَاتِلُوا الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ کَآفَّۃً کَمَا یُقَاتِلُوۡنَکُمۡ کَآفَّۃً ؕ وَ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۳۶﴾
إِنَّ عِدَّةَ ٱلشُّهُورِ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ٱثۡنَا عَشَرَ شَهۡرٗا فِي كِتَٰبِ ٱللَّهِ يَوۡمَ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ مِنۡهَآ أَرۡبَعَةٌ حُرُمٞۚ ذَٰلِكَ ٱلدِّينُ ٱلۡقَيِّمُۚ فَلَا تَظۡلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمۡۚ وَقَٰتِلُواْ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ كَآفَّةٗ كَمَا يُقَٰتِلُونَكُمۡ كَآفَّةٗۚ وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ
1181. Both the lunar and the solar years comprise 12 months. (close)
1182. The four Sacred Months are Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab. (close)
1196. Important Words:
کتاب (ordinance) is derived from کتب i.e. (1) he wrote; (2) he prescribed or ordained. کتاب means, a book or a writing; Divine prescript or ordinance or decree (Lane). See also 2:54 & 2:130.
The words فی کتاب اللّٰه (by Allah’s ordinance) mean that God so ordained on the day when He created the heavens and the earth that the number of months should be twelve, i.e. the law of nature determines that number, which holds true both in the solar and the lunar system.
The four sacred months are Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab. These months have been held sacred by the Arabs, who are mostly descended from Abraham, from time immemorial and Islam confirmed their sacredness. It is considered unlawful to wage war or, for that matter, to continue a state of war in these four months unless, as the Quran points out, the enemy is the first to violate their sanctity. See also note on 2:218. (close)
اِنَّمَا النَّسِیۡٓءُ زِیَادَۃٌ فِی الۡکُفۡرِ یُضَلُّ بِہِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا یُحِلُّوۡنَہٗ عَامًا وَّ یُحَرِّمُوۡنَہٗ عَامًا لِّیُوَاطِـُٔوۡا عِدَّۃَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ فَیُحِلُّوۡا مَا حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ ؕ زُیِّنَ لَہُمۡ سُوۡٓءُ اَعۡمَالِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿٪۳۷﴾
إِنَّمَا ٱلنَّسِيٓءُ زِيَادَةٞ فِي ٱلۡكُفۡرِۖ يُضَلُّ بِهِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُحِلُّونَهُۥ عَامٗا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُۥ عَامٗا لِّيُوَاطِـُٔواْ عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ فَيُحِلُّواْ مَا حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُۚ زُيِّنَ لَهُمۡ سُوٓءُ أَعۡمَٰلِهِمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
1183. The reference in this verse is to a long-standing Arab custom. The three successive Sacred Months—Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram sometimes seemed to them too long a time to refrain from their predatory expeditions. In order, therefore, to free themselves from the restrictions of the Sacred Months, they sometimes would treat a Sacred Month like an ordinary month and an ordinary month like a Sacred One. (close)
a. 6:44; 13:34; 16:64; 27:25; 29:49; 35:9. (close)
1197. Important Words:
النسیء (the postponement) is the noun-substantive from نسأ meaning, he postponed or delayed a thing. They say انسأ اللّٰه اجلهi.e. God postponed the end of his life, viz. He prolonged his life. An Arab would say بایعه بنسیئة i.e. he sold it on credit, i.e. the payment was to be made at a future period. نسی therefore means, postponement; or the postponement of a month, i.e. the transfer of the sanctity of one month to a later month, a custom of the Arabs in their days of ignorance; the month which the Arabs so postponed; the postponement of the time of Pilgrimage, another custom of the Arabs; a postponement of the time of payment of a debt or of the price of a thing sold (Lane & Aqrab).
لیواطئوا (that they may agree in) is derived from واطا which is again derived from وطئی meaning, he trod upon it; he trampledupon it. They say, واطاہ علی الامر i.e. he agreed with him respecting the matter. تواطا القوم علی الامر means the people agreed with each other respecting the affair (Lane & Aqrab).
The reference in this verse, as shown under Important Words, is to a long-standing Arab custom. The three successive sacred months of Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah, and Muharram sometimes seemed to them too long a time to refrain from their predatory expeditions. In order, therefore, to free themselves from the restrictions of the sacred months, they sometimes treated a sacred month as an ordinary month and an ordinary month as sacred. This practice is denounced here because it involved fraud and interfered with the security of life guaranteed in these months. The procedure adopted for postponing the observance of a sacred month was generally something like this. When in the month of Dhul-Hijjah, the pilgrims returned from Mina, after having performed the ceremonies of Hajj, an influential man would arise from among the assembly and, according to Arab custom, would say, "I am he whose decree is not to be rejected." Thereupon, the assembly would request him to transfer the sanctity of the next month of Muharram to the following month (Safar). Thus, the sanctity of a month which God had made inviolable was violated with impunity. This artifice, however, was not resorted to every year, but only when it suited their interests or convenience, The Quran has condemned it as an impious innovation, and as evidence of the untrustworthiness of the pagan Arabs, implying that as they could not keep the ordinances of God, they could not be expected to remain true to their engagements with Muslims. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مَا لَکُمۡ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَکُمُ انۡفِرُوۡا فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ اثَّاقَلۡتُمۡ اِلَی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اَرَضِیۡتُمۡ بِالۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا مِنَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلٌ ﴿۳۸﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَا لَكُمۡ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ ٱنفِرُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ٱثَّاقَلۡتُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ أَرَضِيتُم بِٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا مِنَ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِۚ فَمَا مَتَٰعُ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا فِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ
1184. The reference is to the expedition to Tabuk, a town situated about halfway between Medina and Damascus. News was brought to the Holy Prophet that the Greeks of the Eastern Roman Empire, popularly known as the Romans, had amassed on the Syrian frontier. At the head of an army about 30,000 strong the Holy Prophet left Medina in the 9th year of the Hijrah. On account of great hardships the Muslim army had to suffer in the long and difficult journey, it came to be known as Jaishul-‘Usrah, i.e. the distressed army. (close)
b. 13:27. (close)
c. See 3:15. (close)
a. 13:27. (close)
b. 3:15. (close)
Just as true Muslims should always be prepared to desist from war, whenever they are required to do so, (see preceding verse), they should also be ever ready to march forth in the cause of Allah whenever called upon. It is to this great truth that the present verse draws our attention. Indeed, with this verse the Quran begins to throw light on such residents of Medina as were weak of faith, including the hypocrites, and exposes the attitude they adopted to evade the obligations that devolved on them as members of the Muslim community. The hypocrites are particularly addressed, the reference being to the expedition to Tabuk, a town situated about halfway between Medina and Damascus. News was brought to the Holy Prophet that the Greeks of the Eastern Roman Empire were assembling their forces on the Syrian frontier. As the Greeks, popularly known as Romans, possessed a regular and well-disciplined army, the Holy Prophet thought it necessary to make thorough preparations to meet them. Contrary to his usual practice, he even announced his objective making no secret of his destination, so that those, who took part in it, should do so in full consciousness of the length and hardships of the journey. It was a time of great trial. The long and arduous journey through the desert was undertaken in the midst of the hot weather. The season promised drought and scarcity for those who took part in the expedition and the ripeness of the harvest for those who stayed behind. Pious Muslims, however, in their devotion to the cause of Islam, promptly responded to the Prophet’s call. Of those who stayed behind without permission only three were true believers,
the rest being all hypocrites. Thus at the head of an army about 30,000 strong the Holy Prophet left Medina in the 9th year of Hijrah. On account of the great hardships the Muslim army had to suffer in the long journey, it came to be called جیش العسرة i.e. the distressed army. (close)
اِلَّا تَنۡفِرُوۡا یُعَذِّبۡکُمۡ عَذَابًا اَلِیۡمًا ۬ۙ وَّ یَسۡتَبۡدِلۡ قَوۡمًا غَیۡرَکُمۡ وَ لَا تَضُرُّوۡہُ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۳۹﴾
إِلَّا تَنفِرُواْ يُعَذِّبۡكُمۡ عَذَابًا أَلِيمٗا وَيَسۡتَبۡدِلۡ قَوۡمًا غَيۡرَكُمۡ وَلَا تَضُرُّوهُ شَيۡـٔٗاۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٌ
اِلَّا تَنۡصُرُوۡہُ فَقَدۡ نَصَرَہُ اللّٰہُ اِذۡ اَخۡرَجَہُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ثَانِیَ اثۡنَیۡنِ اِذۡ ہُمَا فِی الۡغَارِ اِذۡ یَقُوۡلُ لِصَاحِبِہٖ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَنَا ۚ فَاَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ سَکِیۡنَتَہٗ عَلَیۡہِ وَ اَیَّدَہٗ بِجُنُوۡدٍ لَّمۡ تَرَوۡہَا وَ جَعَلَ کَلِمَۃَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوا السُّفۡلٰی ؕ وَ کَلِمَۃُ اللّٰہِ ہِیَ الۡعُلۡیَا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَزِیۡزٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۴۰﴾
إِلَّا تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدۡ نَصَرَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِذۡ أَخۡرَجَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ثَانِيَ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ إِذۡ هُمَا فِي ٱلۡغَارِ إِذۡ يَقُولُ لِصَٰحِبِهِۦ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَنَاۖ فَأَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُۥ عَلَيۡهِ وَأَيَّدَهُۥ بِجُنُودٖ لَّمۡ تَرَوۡهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ٱلسُّفۡلَىٰۗ وَكَلِمَةُ ٱللَّهِ هِيَ ٱلۡعُلۡيَاۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
a. 9:26; 48:27. (close)
1185. The pronoun "him" in the clause "His peace on him" may refer to Abu Bakr since the Holy Prophet had all along been perfectly calm and quiet and the pronoun "him" in the clause "succoured him," however, refers to the Holy Prophet. This divergence in the use of pronouns known as Intisharud- Dama’ir is of common use in Arabic. See 48:10. (close)
1186. The reference in this verse is to the emigration of the Holy Prophet from Mecca to Medina when, accompanied by Abu Bakr, he took shelter in a cave called Thaur. The verse sheds some light on the very high spiritual status of Abu Bakr who is referred to as "one of the two" with whom was God and whose fear God Himself allayed. It is on record that, while in the Cave, Abu Bakr began to weep, and when asked by the Holy Prophet why he was weeping he replied, "I do not weep for my life, O Prophet of God, because if I die, it is only the question of a single life. But if you die, it will be the death of Islam and of the entire Muslim community" (Zurqani). (close)
a. 9:26; 48:27. (close)
1199. Important Words:
کلمة (word). See 2:38, 125; 3:46 & 4:172.
The reference in this verse is to the flight of the Holy Prophet from Mecca to Medina when, accompanied by Abu Bakr, he took shelter in a cave called Thaur. See note on 8:31. The Arabic words rendered as "one of the two" literally mean "the second of the two" and refer to the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. The Holy Prophet has been referred to as "the second" because in the Quranic idiom the more important member of the group is referred to as being the last part, i.e. the final figure. For instance see 5:74 where God is referred to as being "the Third of the Trinity" according to the Christian doctrine.
The verse sheds important light on the high spiritual status of Abu Bakr, who accompanied the Holy Prophet in his flight from Mecca and was thus one of "the two" referred to in the verse. It is worthy of note that when at a time of danger, the Israelites anxiously addressed Moses, saying, We are surely overtaken, he replied, nay speak not thus for my Lord is with me. He will direct me aright (26:62, 63). In a similar situation, however, the Holy Prophet, when Abu Bakr expressed anxiety, calmly said: Grieve not, for Allah is with us. This speaks volumes for Abu Bakr’s spiritual greatness, for the pronoun "us"- signifies that God was not only with the Holy Prophet but with Abu Bakr as well. Again, it is on record that, while in the cave, Abu Bakr began to weep, and when asked by the Holy Prophet why he was weeping he replied, "I do not weep for my life, because if I die, it is only the question of a single life. But if you die, O Prophet of God, it will be the death of Islam and of the entire Muslim community" (Zurqani).
The pronoun in the clause, Allah sent down His peace on him, stands for Abu Bakr and not the Holy Prophet, for the Holy Prophet had all along enjoyed peace. The succeeding pronoun in the clause, strengthened him with hosts, refers to the Holy Prophet. This divergence in the use of similar pronouns is permissible in Arabic, being known as, انتشار ضمائر (see 2:75; 48:10).
The words, and (God) humbled the word of those who disbelieved, mean that God frustrated the designs of the disbelievers and they failed to accomplish what they desired. See also 8:31.
The verse also hints that even if none else had accompanied the Holy Prophet in the hazardous expedition to Tabuk, Abu Bakr would certainly have done so, just as he did on the occasion of his flight from Mecca. The verse thus provides a great testimonial to the strength and sincerity of Abu Bakr’s faith. (close)
اِنۡفِرُوۡا خِفَافًا وَّ ثِقَالًا وَّ جَاہِدُوۡا بِاَمۡوَالِکُمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۴۱﴾
ٱنفِرُواْ خِفَافٗا وَثِقَالٗا وَجَٰهِدُواْ بِأَمۡوَٰلِكُمۡ وَأَنفُسِكُمۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ
1187. The words "light or heavy" may mean, young or old; alone or in parties; on foot or on horseback; with sufficient arms and provisions or with insufficient equipment and scanty provisions, etc. (close)
b. 8:75; 9:88, 111; 61:12. (close)
a. 8:75; 9:88, 111; 61:12. (close)
Muslims are here commanded to march forth in the way of God, allowing no worldly consideration or impediment to prevent them from doing so. The words خفافا و ثقالا (light and heavy) have several meanings, i.e. whether you are young or old; alone or in parties; on foot or on horseback; with sufficient arms and provisions or with insufficient arms and provisions or with insufficient equipment and scanty provisions, etc. (close)
لَوۡ کَانَ عَرَضًا قَرِیۡبًا وَّ سَفَرًا قَاصِدًا لَّاتَّبَعُوۡکَ وَ لٰکِنۡۢ بَعُدَتۡ عَلَیۡہِمُ الشُّقَّۃُ ؕ وَ سَیَحۡلِفُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ لَوِ اسۡتَطَعۡنَا لَخَرَجۡنَا مَعَکُمۡ ۚ یُہۡلِکُوۡنَ اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ ۚ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ اِنَّہُمۡ لَکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿٪۴۲﴾
لَوۡ كَانَ عَرَضٗا قَرِيبٗا وَسَفَرٗا قَاصِدٗا لَّٱتَّبَعُوكَ وَلَٰكِنۢ بَعُدَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلشُّقَّةُۚ وَسَيَحۡلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ لَوِ ٱسۡتَطَعۡنَا لَخَرَجۡنَا مَعَكُمۡ يُهۡلِكُونَ أَنفُسَهُمۡ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ إِنَّهُمۡ لَكَٰذِبُونَ
1188. The journey was very hard and arduous. The Muslim army had to travel in an extremely hot weather about 200 miles to the border of Syria to meet a very powerful army. It was also the harvesting season and the trees were laden with ripe fruit. (close)
1201. Important Words:
عرضا (gain) is derived from the verb عرض for which see 7:170. عرض means, any thing that happens to a man; an accident of any kind; a thing that is not permanent; frail goods of the world; worldly goods of whatever kind; property or wealth whether little or much; booty or spoil; an object of desire; a gain; a gift (Lane & Aqrab).
قاصدا (short) is the active participle from قصد. They say قصدہ i.e. he went to him or directed himself to him; or he made him or it his object; he sought or pursued him or it. قصد الطریقmeans, the way was direct or right. They say قصد الامر i.e. he pursued the right or direct course in the affair and did not exceed the due bounds therein; or he acted in a moderate manner. (qasd) قصد which is the noun-infinitive from قصد (qasada) means, the aim or course of a person; an object of desire; one’s intention or meaning; a right way or course; a right thing. قاصد means, near. طریق قاصد means, a direct or right way or an even road. سفر قاصد means, an easy and short journey; a moderately easy and short journey (Lane & Aqrab).
الشقة (hard journey) is derived from شق. They say شقه i.e. he cut or rent or split or broke it. شق علیه means, it (an affair) affected him severely; it was hard and distressing to him. شقة means, a piece of a garment; a far or long journey; a difficult road; a region or quarter in the reaching of which one is taken by difficulty and distress; distance (Lane). (close)
عَفَا اللّٰہُ عَنۡکَ ۚ لِمَ اَذِنۡتَ لَہُمۡ حَتّٰی یَتَبَیَّنَ لَکَ الَّذِیۡنَ صَدَقُوۡا وَ تَعۡلَمَ الۡکٰذِبِیۡنَ ﴿۴۳﴾
عَفَا ٱللَّهُ عَنكَ لِمَ أَذِنتَ لَهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ ٱلَّذِينَ صَدَقُواْ وَتَعۡلَمَ ٱلۡكَٰذِبِينَ
1189. The Arabic expression ‘Afallahu ‘Anka signifies no forgiveness of any sin having been committed by the Holy Prophet, rather it expresses Divine love and solicitude for him. (close)
1202. Important Words:
عفا اللّٰه عنك (Allah remove thy cares). عفا means, he or it effaced, erased or obliterated a trace, etc. They say عفا اللّٰه عنه i.e. may God efface from him his sin, fault, offence, etc. Sometimes the expression عفا الله عنك is used where no sin or fault has preceded and is not even conceivable. For instance, an Arab would say to one whom he holds in high esteem عفا اللّٰه عنكmeaning, may God set thy affairs aright and bring honour and glory to thee (Aqrab). See also 2:110; 2:188 & 2:220.
As shown under Important Words, the word عفو does not necessarily imply the committing of a sin on the part of a person about whom it is used, for it is also used for a person who has committed no sin and even for him who is incapable of committing a sin. In fact, the expression عفا اللّٰه عنك is sometimes used to express love or respect; and here it implies a desire that the Prophet may be relieved of his cares and difficulties.
The expression, Why didst thou permit them to stay behind, is intended to hint that the refusal on the part of the Holy Prophet to give them leave would have served the useful purpose of unmasking the hypocrisy of the hypocrites. Of those who remained behind, only about half came to the Holy Prophet to ask his leave, while the majority stayed behind without asking his permission and without explaining their inability to accompany him. (close)
لَا یَسۡتَاۡذِنُکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ اَنۡ یُّجَاہِدُوۡا بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِالۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾
لَا يَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ أَن يُجَٰهِدُواْ بِأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ