اِلَّا تَنۡصُرُوۡہُ فَقَدۡ نَصَرَہُ اللّٰہُ اِذۡ اَخۡرَجَہُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ثَانِیَ اثۡنَیۡنِ اِذۡ ہُمَا فِی الۡغَارِ اِذۡ یَقُوۡلُ لِصَاحِبِہٖ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَنَا ۚ فَاَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ سَکِیۡنَتَہٗ عَلَیۡہِ وَ اَیَّدَہٗ بِجُنُوۡدٍ لَّمۡ تَرَوۡہَا وَ جَعَلَ کَلِمَۃَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوا السُّفۡلٰی ؕ وَ کَلِمَۃُ اللّٰہِ ہِیَ الۡعُلۡیَا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَزِیۡزٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۴۰﴾
إِلَّا تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدۡ نَصَرَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِذۡ أَخۡرَجَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ثَانِيَ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ إِذۡ هُمَا فِي ٱلۡغَارِ إِذۡ يَقُولُ لِصَٰحِبِهِۦ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَنَاۖ فَأَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُۥ عَلَيۡهِ وَأَيَّدَهُۥ بِجُنُودٖ لَّمۡ تَرَوۡهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ٱلسُّفۡلَىٰۗ وَكَلِمَةُ ٱللَّهِ هِيَ ٱلۡعُلۡيَاۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
a. 9:26; 48:27. (close)
1185. The pronoun "him" in the clause "His peace on him" may refer to Abu Bakr since the Holy Prophet had all along been perfectly calm and quiet and the pronoun "him" in the clause "succoured him," however, refers to the Holy Prophet. This divergence in the use of pronouns known as Intisharud- Dama’ir is of common use in Arabic. See 48:10. (close)
1186. The reference in this verse is to the emigration of the Holy Prophet from Mecca to Medina when, accompanied by Abu Bakr, he took shelter in a cave called Thaur. The verse sheds some light on the very high spiritual status of Abu Bakr who is referred to as "one of the two" with whom was God and whose fear God Himself allayed. It is on record that, while in the Cave, Abu Bakr began to weep, and when asked by the Holy Prophet why he was weeping he replied, "I do not weep for my life, O Prophet of God, because if I die, it is only the question of a single life. But if you die, it will be the death of Islam and of the entire Muslim community" (Zurqani). (close)
a. 9:26; 48:27. (close)
1199. Important Words:
کلمة (word). See 2:38, 125; 3:46 & 4:172.
The reference in this verse is to the flight of the Holy Prophet from Mecca to Medina when, accompanied by Abu Bakr, he took shelter in a cave called Thaur. See note on 8:31. The Arabic words rendered as "one of the two" literally mean "the second of the two" and refer to the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. The Holy Prophet has been referred to as "the second" because in the Quranic idiom the more important member of the group is referred to as being the last part, i.e. the final figure. For instance see 5:74 where God is referred to as being "the Third of the Trinity" according to the Christian doctrine.
The verse sheds important light on the high spiritual status of Abu Bakr, who accompanied the Holy Prophet in his flight from Mecca and was thus one of "the two" referred to in the verse. It is worthy of note that when at a time of danger, the Israelites anxiously addressed Moses, saying, We are surely overtaken, he replied, nay speak not thus for my Lord is with me. He will direct me aright (26:62, 63). In a similar situation, however, the Holy Prophet, when Abu Bakr expressed anxiety, calmly said: Grieve not, for Allah is with us. This speaks volumes for Abu Bakr’s spiritual greatness, for the pronoun "us"- signifies that God was not only with the Holy Prophet but with Abu Bakr as well. Again, it is on record that, while in the cave, Abu Bakr began to weep, and when asked by the Holy Prophet why he was weeping he replied, "I do not weep for my life, because if I die, it is only the question of a single life. But if you die, O Prophet of God, it will be the death of Islam and of the entire Muslim community" (Zurqani).
The pronoun in the clause, Allah sent down His peace on him, stands for Abu Bakr and not the Holy Prophet, for the Holy Prophet had all along enjoyed peace. The succeeding pronoun in the clause, strengthened him with hosts, refers to the Holy Prophet. This divergence in the use of similar pronouns is permissible in Arabic, being known as, انتشار ضمائر (see 2:75; 48:10).
The words, and (God) humbled the word of those who disbelieved, mean that God frustrated the designs of the disbelievers and they failed to accomplish what they desired. See also 8:31.
The verse also hints that even if none else had accompanied the Holy Prophet in the hazardous expedition to Tabuk, Abu Bakr would certainly have done so, just as he did on the occasion of his flight from Mecca. The verse thus provides a great testimonial to the strength and sincerity of Abu Bakr’s faith. (close)
اِنۡفِرُوۡا خِفَافًا وَّ ثِقَالًا وَّ جَاہِدُوۡا بِاَمۡوَالِکُمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۴۱﴾
ٱنفِرُواْ خِفَافٗا وَثِقَالٗا وَجَٰهِدُواْ بِأَمۡوَٰلِكُمۡ وَأَنفُسِكُمۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ
1187. The words "light or heavy" may mean, young or old; alone or in parties; on foot or on horseback; with sufficient arms and provisions or with insufficient equipment and scanty provisions, etc. (close)
b. 8:75; 9:88, 111; 61:12. (close)
a. 8:75; 9:88, 111; 61:12. (close)
Muslims are here commanded to march forth in the way of God, allowing no worldly consideration or impediment to prevent them from doing so. The words خفافا و ثقالا (light and heavy) have several meanings, i.e. whether you are young or old; alone or in parties; on foot or on horseback; with sufficient arms and provisions or with insufficient arms and provisions or with insufficient equipment and scanty provisions, etc. (close)
لَوۡ کَانَ عَرَضًا قَرِیۡبًا وَّ سَفَرًا قَاصِدًا لَّاتَّبَعُوۡکَ وَ لٰکِنۡۢ بَعُدَتۡ عَلَیۡہِمُ الشُّقَّۃُ ؕ وَ سَیَحۡلِفُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ لَوِ اسۡتَطَعۡنَا لَخَرَجۡنَا مَعَکُمۡ ۚ یُہۡلِکُوۡنَ اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ ۚ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ اِنَّہُمۡ لَکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿٪۴۲﴾
لَوۡ كَانَ عَرَضٗا قَرِيبٗا وَسَفَرٗا قَاصِدٗا لَّٱتَّبَعُوكَ وَلَٰكِنۢ بَعُدَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلشُّقَّةُۚ وَسَيَحۡلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ لَوِ ٱسۡتَطَعۡنَا لَخَرَجۡنَا مَعَكُمۡ يُهۡلِكُونَ أَنفُسَهُمۡ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ إِنَّهُمۡ لَكَٰذِبُونَ
1188. The journey was very hard and arduous. The Muslim army had to travel in an extremely hot weather about 200 miles to the border of Syria to meet a very powerful army. It was also the harvesting season and the trees were laden with ripe fruit. (close)
1201. Important Words:
عرضا (gain) is derived from the verb عرض for which see 7:170. عرض means, any thing that happens to a man; an accident of any kind; a thing that is not permanent; frail goods of the world; worldly goods of whatever kind; property or wealth whether little or much; booty or spoil; an object of desire; a gain; a gift (Lane & Aqrab).
قاصدا (short) is the active participle from قصد. They say قصدہ i.e. he went to him or directed himself to him; or he made him or it his object; he sought or pursued him or it. قصد الطریقmeans, the way was direct or right. They say قصد الامر i.e. he pursued the right or direct course in the affair and did not exceed the due bounds therein; or he acted in a moderate manner. (qasd) قصد which is the noun-infinitive from قصد (qasada) means, the aim or course of a person; an object of desire; one’s intention or meaning; a right way or course; a right thing. قاصد means, near. طریق قاصد means, a direct or right way or an even road. سفر قاصد means, an easy and short journey; a moderately easy and short journey (Lane & Aqrab).
الشقة (hard journey) is derived from شق. They say شقه i.e. he cut or rent or split or broke it. شق علیه means, it (an affair) affected him severely; it was hard and distressing to him. شقة means, a piece of a garment; a far or long journey; a difficult road; a region or quarter in the reaching of which one is taken by difficulty and distress; distance (Lane). (close)
عَفَا اللّٰہُ عَنۡکَ ۚ لِمَ اَذِنۡتَ لَہُمۡ حَتّٰی یَتَبَیَّنَ لَکَ الَّذِیۡنَ صَدَقُوۡا وَ تَعۡلَمَ الۡکٰذِبِیۡنَ ﴿۴۳﴾
عَفَا ٱللَّهُ عَنكَ لِمَ أَذِنتَ لَهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ ٱلَّذِينَ صَدَقُواْ وَتَعۡلَمَ ٱلۡكَٰذِبِينَ
1189. The Arabic expression ‘Afallahu ‘Anka signifies no forgiveness of any sin having been committed by the Holy Prophet, rather it expresses Divine love and solicitude for him. (close)
1202. Important Words:
عفا اللّٰه عنك (Allah remove thy cares). عفا means, he or it effaced, erased or obliterated a trace, etc. They say عفا اللّٰه عنه i.e. may God efface from him his sin, fault, offence, etc. Sometimes the expression عفا الله عنك is used where no sin or fault has preceded and is not even conceivable. For instance, an Arab would say to one whom he holds in high esteem عفا اللّٰه عنكmeaning, may God set thy affairs aright and bring honour and glory to thee (Aqrab). See also 2:110; 2:188 & 2:220.
As shown under Important Words, the word عفو does not necessarily imply the committing of a sin on the part of a person about whom it is used, for it is also used for a person who has committed no sin and even for him who is incapable of committing a sin. In fact, the expression عفا اللّٰه عنك is sometimes used to express love or respect; and here it implies a desire that the Prophet may be relieved of his cares and difficulties.
The expression, Why didst thou permit them to stay behind, is intended to hint that the refusal on the part of the Holy Prophet to give them leave would have served the useful purpose of unmasking the hypocrisy of the hypocrites. Of those who remained behind, only about half came to the Holy Prophet to ask his leave, while the majority stayed behind without asking his permission and without explaining their inability to accompany him. (close)
لَا یَسۡتَاۡذِنُکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ اَنۡ یُّجَاہِدُوۡا بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِالۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾
لَا يَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ أَن يُجَٰهِدُواْ بِأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ
اِنَّمَا یَسۡتَاۡذِنُکَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ ارۡتَابَتۡ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ فَہُمۡ فِیۡ رَیۡبِہِمۡ یَتَرَدَّدُوۡنَ ﴿۴۵﴾
إِنَّمَا يَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُكَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَٱرۡتَابَتۡ قُلُوبُهُمۡ فَهُمۡ فِي رَيۡبِهِمۡ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ
وَ لَوۡ اَرَادُوا الۡخُرُوۡجَ لَاَعَدُّوۡا لَہٗ عُدَّۃً وَّ لٰکِنۡ کَرِہَ اللّٰہُ انۡۢبِعَاثَہُمۡ فَثَبَّطَہُمۡ وَ قِیۡلَ اقۡعُدُوۡا مَعَ الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ ﴿۴۶﴾
۞وَلَوۡ أَرَادُواْ ٱلۡخُرُوجَ لَأَعَدُّواْ لَهُۥ عُدَّةٗ وَلَٰكِن كَرِهَ ٱللَّهُ ٱنۢبِعَاثَهُمۡ فَثَبَّطَهُمۡ وَقِيلَ ٱقۡعُدُواْ مَعَ ٱلۡقَٰعِدِينَ
1203. Important Words:
ثبطھم (He kept them back) is derived from ثبط (thabita), i.e. he was or became stupid or weak in his action; or he became heavy, sluggish or slow. ثبطه عن الامر(thabbata-hu) means, he hindered or withheld him from doing the affair; or he diverted him from it by occupying him otherwise; or he prevented him from doing it by making him cowardly and weak-hearted; or he intervened as an obstacle between him and the affair (Lane).
The verse exposes the hollowness of the excuse offered by the hypocrites. It purports to say that if the hypocrites had been really anxious to march out but had only been prevented from doing so by unforeseen obstacles over which they had no control and which had cropped up at the last moment, they should have made preparations for the expedition long before by providing themselves with arms and provision. But they did nothing of the sort. Thus the fact that they made no preparation and came with their excuses at the eleventh hour shows that from the very beginning they had no intention or desire to go and that the excuses they brought forward were only so many covers to veil their hypocrisy. (close)
لَوۡ خَرَجُوۡا فِیۡکُمۡ مَّا زَادُوۡکُمۡ اِلَّا خَبَالًا وَّ لَا۠اَوۡضَعُوۡا خِلٰلَکُمۡ یَبۡغُوۡنَکُمُ الۡفِتۡنَۃَ ۚ وَ فِیۡکُمۡ سَمّٰعُوۡنَ لَہُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِالظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾
لَوۡ خَرَجُواْ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمۡ إِلَّا خَبَالٗا وَلَأَوۡضَعُواْ خِلَٰلَكُمۡ يَبۡغُونَكُمُ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةَ وَفِيكُمۡ سَمَّـٰعُونَ لَهُمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
a. 3:119. (close)
1204. Important Words:
خبالا (trouble) is the noun-infinitive from خبل (khabila), i.e. he was or became corrupt, unsound or disordered in his reason or intellect. خبله (khabala-hu) of which the infinitive is خبل (khablun) means, it rendered him insane or it corrupted or disordered his reason or intellect. خبال means, corruptness or unsoundness; or a disordered state in an absolute sense, or in reason or intellect; an affection in the heart resembling insanity or egregious stupidity; loss or a state of diminution; a state of perdition or destruction; distress, embarrassment, trouble or difficulty (Lane). See also 3:119.
خلالکم (to and fro in your midst). خلال is derived from خل. They say خل الشیء i.e. he or it perforated or pierced the thing through. خلال which is both singular and plural, means, inter-space or intervening space or a break or breach or gap between two things; looseness or want of compactness. They say دخلت بین خلال القوم i.e. I entered among the inter-spaces of the party. ھو خلالھم means, he is amid them.جسنا خلال دور القوم means, we went to and fro, or went about amid the houses of the people (Lane).
The verse declares that the defection of the hypocrites did no harm to the Muslims. On the contrary, it proved a blessing in disguise. For, if the hypocrites had gone forth with the Muslim army, they would only have caused trouble and mischief and tried to create discord and dissension.
The latter portion of the verse shows that some hypocrites or those weak of faith had actually gone forth with the Muslim army. These were ever ready to lend ear to the leaders among the hypocrites who generally remained behind. So if the latter too had accompanied the army, both would have joined hands to injure the cause of Islam. (close)
لَقَدِ ابۡتَغَوُا الۡفِتۡنَۃَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ قَلَّبُوۡا لَکَ الۡاُمُوۡرَ حَتّٰی جَآءَ الۡحَقُّ وَ ظَہَرَ اَمۡرُ اللّٰہِ وَ ہُمۡ کٰرِہُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾
لَقَدِ ٱبۡتَغَوُاْ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَقَلَّبُواْ لَكَ ٱلۡأُمُورَ حَتَّىٰ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ أَمۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَهُمۡ كَٰرِهُونَ
1205. Important Words:
قلبوالك الامور (devised plots against thee). قلبوا (qallabu) is the intensified form of قلب (qalaba). They say قلبه i.e. he turned it over or upside down; he altered or changed its or his mode or manner of being. قلبته بیدی (qallabtu-hu) means, I turned it over and over with my hand. قلب الفکر فی امر means, he turned over and over or revolved repeatedly in his mind, thoughts or considerations with a view to the attainment of some object in relation to an affair. قلب الامور means, he investigated, scrutinized or examined affairs and turned them over and over in his mind, meditating what he should do. So قلبوالك الامورmeans, they turned over and over in their minds affairs, meditating what they should do to thee; or they meditated or devised in relation to thee wiles, artifices, plots or stratagems; or they revolved ideas or opinions respecting the frustrating of thy affair (Lane).
This verse further explains what has been said in the previous verse, viz. that the hypocrites would have plotted to injure the cause of Islam in the very midst of battle, if they had marched forth with the Muslims because they were always on the lookout to create mischief and had already been plotting to bring the Holy Prophet to grief. (close)
وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّقُوۡلُ ائۡذَنۡ لِّیۡ وَ لَا تَفۡتِنِّیۡ ؕ اَلَا فِی الۡفِتۡنَۃِ سَقَطُوۡا ؕ وَ اِنَّ جَہَنَّمَ لَمُحِیۡطَۃٌۢ بِالۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾
وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ٱئۡذَن لِّي وَلَا تَفۡتِنِّيٓۚ أَلَا فِي ٱلۡفِتۡنَةِ سَقَطُواْۗ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةُۢ بِٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
Some of the hypocrites sought to be excused on the plea that the Syrian women were exceptionally beautiful, and that if they went to that country they were likely to fall into temptation, meaning thereby that they wanted to stay behind only in order to save their morals and their faith. But faith, the verse tersely points out, they had already lost; for it was for God’s sake that they had to undertake the journey, and since they declined to respond to the Call of God, they could not be said to possess any faith. They destroyed the root to save the branch, if indeed they meant to save it. (close)