عَفَا اللّٰہُ عَنۡکَ ۚ لِمَ اَذِنۡتَ لَہُمۡ حَتّٰی یَتَبَیَّنَ لَکَ الَّذِیۡنَ صَدَقُوۡا وَ تَعۡلَمَ الۡکٰذِبِیۡنَ ﴿۴۳﴾
عَفَا ٱللَّهُ عَنكَ لِمَ أَذِنتَ لَهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ ٱلَّذِينَ صَدَقُواْ وَتَعۡلَمَ ٱلۡكَٰذِبِينَ
1189. The Arabic expression ‘Afallahu ‘Anka signifies no forgiveness of any sin having been committed by the Holy Prophet, rather it expresses Divine love and solicitude for him. (close)
1202. Important Words:
عفا اللّٰه عنك (Allah remove thy cares). عفا means, he or it effaced, erased or obliterated a trace, etc. They say عفا اللّٰه عنه i.e. may God efface from him his sin, fault, offence, etc. Sometimes the expression عفا الله عنك is used where no sin or fault has preceded and is not even conceivable. For instance, an Arab would say to one whom he holds in high esteem عفا اللّٰه عنكmeaning, may God set thy affairs aright and bring honour and glory to thee (Aqrab). See also 2:110; 2:188 & 2:220.
As shown under Important Words, the word عفو does not necessarily imply the committing of a sin on the part of a person about whom it is used, for it is also used for a person who has committed no sin and even for him who is incapable of committing a sin. In fact, the expression عفا اللّٰه عنك is sometimes used to express love or respect; and here it implies a desire that the Prophet may be relieved of his cares and difficulties.
The expression, Why didst thou permit them to stay behind, is intended to hint that the refusal on the part of the Holy Prophet to give them leave would have served the useful purpose of unmasking the hypocrisy of the hypocrites. Of those who remained behind, only about half came to the Holy Prophet to ask his leave, while the majority stayed behind without asking his permission and without explaining their inability to accompany him. (close)
لَا یَسۡتَاۡذِنُکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ اَنۡ یُّجَاہِدُوۡا بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِالۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾
لَا يَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ أَن يُجَٰهِدُواْ بِأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ
اِنَّمَا یَسۡتَاۡذِنُکَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ ارۡتَابَتۡ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ فَہُمۡ فِیۡ رَیۡبِہِمۡ یَتَرَدَّدُوۡنَ ﴿۴۵﴾
إِنَّمَا يَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُكَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَٱرۡتَابَتۡ قُلُوبُهُمۡ فَهُمۡ فِي رَيۡبِهِمۡ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ
وَ لَوۡ اَرَادُوا الۡخُرُوۡجَ لَاَعَدُّوۡا لَہٗ عُدَّۃً وَّ لٰکِنۡ کَرِہَ اللّٰہُ انۡۢبِعَاثَہُمۡ فَثَبَّطَہُمۡ وَ قِیۡلَ اقۡعُدُوۡا مَعَ الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ ﴿۴۶﴾
۞وَلَوۡ أَرَادُواْ ٱلۡخُرُوجَ لَأَعَدُّواْ لَهُۥ عُدَّةٗ وَلَٰكِن كَرِهَ ٱللَّهُ ٱنۢبِعَاثَهُمۡ فَثَبَّطَهُمۡ وَقِيلَ ٱقۡعُدُواْ مَعَ ٱلۡقَٰعِدِينَ
1203. Important Words:
ثبطھم (He kept them back) is derived from ثبط (thabita), i.e. he was or became stupid or weak in his action; or he became heavy, sluggish or slow. ثبطه عن الامر(thabbata-hu) means, he hindered or withheld him from doing the affair; or he diverted him from it by occupying him otherwise; or he prevented him from doing it by making him cowardly and weak-hearted; or he intervened as an obstacle between him and the affair (Lane).
The verse exposes the hollowness of the excuse offered by the hypocrites. It purports to say that if the hypocrites had been really anxious to march out but had only been prevented from doing so by unforeseen obstacles over which they had no control and which had cropped up at the last moment, they should have made preparations for the expedition long before by providing themselves with arms and provision. But they did nothing of the sort. Thus the fact that they made no preparation and came with their excuses at the eleventh hour shows that from the very beginning they had no intention or desire to go and that the excuses they brought forward were only so many covers to veil their hypocrisy. (close)
لَوۡ خَرَجُوۡا فِیۡکُمۡ مَّا زَادُوۡکُمۡ اِلَّا خَبَالًا وَّ لَا۠اَوۡضَعُوۡا خِلٰلَکُمۡ یَبۡغُوۡنَکُمُ الۡفِتۡنَۃَ ۚ وَ فِیۡکُمۡ سَمّٰعُوۡنَ لَہُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِالظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۴۷﴾
لَوۡ خَرَجُواْ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمۡ إِلَّا خَبَالٗا وَلَأَوۡضَعُواْ خِلَٰلَكُمۡ يَبۡغُونَكُمُ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةَ وَفِيكُمۡ سَمَّـٰعُونَ لَهُمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
a. 3:119. (close)
1204. Important Words:
خبالا (trouble) is the noun-infinitive from خبل (khabila), i.e. he was or became corrupt, unsound or disordered in his reason or intellect. خبله (khabala-hu) of which the infinitive is خبل (khablun) means, it rendered him insane or it corrupted or disordered his reason or intellect. خبال means, corruptness or unsoundness; or a disordered state in an absolute sense, or in reason or intellect; an affection in the heart resembling insanity or egregious stupidity; loss or a state of diminution; a state of perdition or destruction; distress, embarrassment, trouble or difficulty (Lane). See also 3:119.
خلالکم (to and fro in your midst). خلال is derived from خل. They say خل الشیء i.e. he or it perforated or pierced the thing through. خلال which is both singular and plural, means, inter-space or intervening space or a break or breach or gap between two things; looseness or want of compactness. They say دخلت بین خلال القوم i.e. I entered among the inter-spaces of the party. ھو خلالھم means, he is amid them.جسنا خلال دور القوم means, we went to and fro, or went about amid the houses of the people (Lane).
The verse declares that the defection of the hypocrites did no harm to the Muslims. On the contrary, it proved a blessing in disguise. For, if the hypocrites had gone forth with the Muslim army, they would only have caused trouble and mischief and tried to create discord and dissension.
The latter portion of the verse shows that some hypocrites or those weak of faith had actually gone forth with the Muslim army. These were ever ready to lend ear to the leaders among the hypocrites who generally remained behind. So if the latter too had accompanied the army, both would have joined hands to injure the cause of Islam. (close)
لَقَدِ ابۡتَغَوُا الۡفِتۡنَۃَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ قَلَّبُوۡا لَکَ الۡاُمُوۡرَ حَتّٰی جَآءَ الۡحَقُّ وَ ظَہَرَ اَمۡرُ اللّٰہِ وَ ہُمۡ کٰرِہُوۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾
لَقَدِ ٱبۡتَغَوُاْ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَقَلَّبُواْ لَكَ ٱلۡأُمُورَ حَتَّىٰ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ أَمۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَهُمۡ كَٰرِهُونَ
1205. Important Words:
قلبوالك الامور (devised plots against thee). قلبوا (qallabu) is the intensified form of قلب (qalaba). They say قلبه i.e. he turned it over or upside down; he altered or changed its or his mode or manner of being. قلبته بیدی (qallabtu-hu) means, I turned it over and over with my hand. قلب الفکر فی امر means, he turned over and over or revolved repeatedly in his mind, thoughts or considerations with a view to the attainment of some object in relation to an affair. قلب الامور means, he investigated, scrutinized or examined affairs and turned them over and over in his mind, meditating what he should do. So قلبوالك الامورmeans, they turned over and over in their minds affairs, meditating what they should do to thee; or they meditated or devised in relation to thee wiles, artifices, plots or stratagems; or they revolved ideas or opinions respecting the frustrating of thy affair (Lane).
This verse further explains what has been said in the previous verse, viz. that the hypocrites would have plotted to injure the cause of Islam in the very midst of battle, if they had marched forth with the Muslims because they were always on the lookout to create mischief and had already been plotting to bring the Holy Prophet to grief. (close)
وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّقُوۡلُ ائۡذَنۡ لِّیۡ وَ لَا تَفۡتِنِّیۡ ؕ اَلَا فِی الۡفِتۡنَۃِ سَقَطُوۡا ؕ وَ اِنَّ جَہَنَّمَ لَمُحِیۡطَۃٌۢ بِالۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾
وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ٱئۡذَن لِّي وَلَا تَفۡتِنِّيٓۚ أَلَا فِي ٱلۡفِتۡنَةِ سَقَطُواْۗ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةُۢ بِٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
Some of the hypocrites sought to be excused on the plea that the Syrian women were exceptionally beautiful, and that if they went to that country they were likely to fall into temptation, meaning thereby that they wanted to stay behind only in order to save their morals and their faith. But faith, the verse tersely points out, they had already lost; for it was for God’s sake that they had to undertake the journey, and since they declined to respond to the Call of God, they could not be said to possess any faith. They destroyed the root to save the branch, if indeed they meant to save it. (close)
اِنۡ تُصِبۡکَ حَسَنَۃٌ تَسُؤۡہُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تُصِبۡکَ مُصِیۡبَۃٌ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا قَدۡ اَخَذۡنَاۤ اَمۡرَنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ یَتَوَلَّوۡا وَّ ہُمۡ فَرِحُوۡنَ ﴿۵۰﴾
إِن تُصِبۡكَ حَسَنَةٞ تَسُؤۡهُمۡۖ وَإِن تُصِبۡكَ مُصِيبَةٞ يَقُولُواْ قَدۡ أَخَذۡنَآ أَمۡرَنَا مِن قَبۡلُ وَيَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُمۡ فَرِحُونَ
1206A. Important Words:
امرنا (our precaution). The word امر gives a number of meanings, e.g. command or decree; thing, affair or matter; condition, case or state, etc. (Lane). Here it signifies precaution (Kashshaf). (close)
قُلۡ لَّنۡ یُّصِیۡبَنَاۤ اِلَّا مَا کَتَبَ اللّٰہُ لَنَا ۚ ہُوَ مَوۡلٰٮنَا ۚ وَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ فَلۡیَتَوَکَّلِ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۵۱﴾
قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَآ إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوۡلَىٰنَاۚ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَكَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ
The expression, save that which Allah has ordained for us, means that victory as ordained by God will always be attained, however great the intervening difficulties. The words that follow, viz. He is our Protector, support this interpretation and also 58:22 which says, Allah has decreed: Of a certainty I will prevail, and My Messengers. (close)
قُلۡ ہَلۡ تَرَبَّصُوۡنَ بِنَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اِحۡدَی الۡحُسۡنَیَیۡنِ ؕ وَ نَحۡنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِکُمۡ اَنۡ یُّصِیۡبَکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِعَذَابٍ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِہٖۤ اَوۡ بِاَیۡدِیۡنَا ۫ۖ فَتَرَبَّصُوۡۤا اِنَّا مَعَکُمۡ مُّتَرَبِّصُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾
قُلۡ هَلۡ تَرَبَّصُونَ بِنَآ إِلَّآ إِحۡدَى ٱلۡحُسۡنَيَيۡنِۖ وَنَحۡنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمۡ أَن يُصِيبَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِعَذَابٖ مِّنۡ عِندِهِۦٓ أَوۡ بِأَيۡدِينَاۖ فَتَرَبَّصُوٓاْ إِنَّا مَعَكُم مُّتَرَبِّصُونَ
1190. A true Muslim either dies fighting or wins victory. There is no other alternative left to him. (close)
The "two good things" referred to in this verse are martyrdom and victory. Only one of these two things can fall to the lot of believers in a war. Either they win and triumph or they die on the battlefield and become martyrs. Hence, the evil desires which the disbelievers and hypocrites entertained concerning the Muslims could never be fulfilled. The verse thus purports to say that true believers can never suffer a defeat; they either die fighting and thus win martyrdom or they return victorious from the field of battle. (close)